At present, various branches of mathematics have developed very mature, but they still lack an internal structural correlation. They are like “islands” in the universe. If we can find the universal conversion relationship of the three basic mathematical structures of geometry, arithmetic and logic, it will greatly expand the field of mathematics. The ultimate goal of mathematics in the past is to pursue its preciseness, while the ultimate goal of mathematics in the future is to pursue its unity. Fractional differential equation is a generalization of integer order calculus. It discusses the theory of any non integer order differential and integral equation. The rise of artificial intelligence technology just provides the most powerful laboratory for the unity of mathematics. To explore the mystery of the brain and achieve the ultimate goal of artificial intelligence technology, the key is to make a major breakthrough in basic mathematical research and find a basic theoretical system describing the mutual mapping and transformation of different mathematical paradigms. The unity of mathematics will undoubtedly become the forefront of the development of mathematics in the future, which will be the core of the research on the new generation of intelligent computer and artificial intelligence technology.