The concept of usability is now widely used in the field of design, and a large body of research has identified usability as critical to the success of interactive systems or products [1]. According to the ISO 9241-11:2018 international standard, the purpose of products and services is to enable users to achieve their goals effectively, efficiently and satisfactorily. Usability is a key component of user-centred design (UCD), and the main task of improving usability is to understand and meet the needs of users. The literature summarises the tools used to improve product usability, including mythological research, user involvement in design, focus groups, research, surveys, heuristic evaluations and usability testing [2].

The Reality-Virtuality Continuum theory considers the transition from the real world to the virtual world (VR) to be continuous [3], with all intermediate states in the process being defined as mixed reality (MR) [4]. The category of an immersive technology depends on the ratio between the real information it conveys to the user from a physical object and the virtual information generated by the computer. Data given by industry analyst IDC in the 2022 V1 edition of the IDC Worldwide Augmented and Virtual Reality Spending Guide show that the total global AR/VR investment was close to US $14.67 billion in 2021 and is expected to increase to US $74.73 billion in 2026, with a 5-year CAGR that will reach 38.5%. As immersive technologies such as virtual reality and augmented reality have matured and become useful in many areas [5–9], researchers have suggested that immersive technologies can improve the ability of users to identify usability problems with products [10]. However, any design approach comes with a cost for use, and a commonly accepted and adopted approach may not necessarily have the highest design benefit, but in some scenarios it is the approach that balances the design benefit with the cost of use and has the best overall value, determining the need for such an approach to be used in practice in the long term.

In the early stages of designing usability improvements for existing products, direct semi-structured interviews with users to uncover usability issues have been widely used in several studies [11], demonstrating the excellent overall value of this method in this scenario. There is no precedent for an immersive design approach that has been shown to have better overall value than the interview method in terms of uncovering usability issues, and there is little focus in the existing literature on the value of the approach, particularly in terms of quantitative analysis of the value of use.

This study takes a usability improvement design for an industrial crane remote control commonly used in industrial production, focuses on the early stages of the design process, builds a design tool based on virtual reality technology, and quantitatively analyses whether the addition of the design tool can bring higher design benefits with a generally acceptable cost of use in the process of obtaining usability issues through the user interview method described above. The value of the design tool is better than that of the user interview method. The results of this study will guide the promotion of immersive technologies in product design and the search for new focus points.

The potential value of usability issues identified by users is usually evaluated in terms of the number and importance of the issues identified. The raw data collected was collated into a list of usability issues, and the importance of each usability issue was scored by product design experts using a 5-point

For interactive products, styling represents the usability of the product in terms of shape, and the role of usability issues obtained by designers for improving the shape of the product is important for usability improvement design work with a focus on styling.

The evaluation indicators used in this study are numerous and interact with each other. Hierarchical analysis and fuzzy integrated evaluation methods can transform this complex problem into a hierarchical evaluation system according to affiliation [12], quantifying the fuzzy factors involved and therefore giving intuitive results with full consideration of such internal correlations. These methods have been shown to be effective for product evaluation [13, 14].

The combined value of a design method includes its design benefits and usage costs; in this study the respondents were the product designers who had to bear these usage costs. As the selected control method is an interview method with apparently very low usage costs, it is necessary to demonstrate that this method has higher design benefits while incurring acceptable usage costs in the same scenario, as evidenced by the positive willingness of designers to use it, which determines the potential value of the method to replace existing interview methods.

The designer’s specific understanding of the usage costs of the virtual reality method relied on thorough discussions with the researcher, culminating in a list of various usage costs, each of which was evaluated on a 7-point

This experiment was a controlled trial consisting of a control group and an experimental group, with the control group going directly to the interview session to ask usability questions and design suggestions, while the experimental group first used the virtual reality tool we constructed and then conducted the same interviews as the control group. The evaluation of the usability questions and improved design solutions in the above experimental method can reflect the level of design benefit of this virtual reality design method, and then combined with the evaluation of the designer’s willingness to use it, determine whether the overall value of the method is higher than that of the interview method.

A total of 32 expert users of an industrial crane remote control were recruited offline as subjects, including 28 men and 4 women. They all had at least 1 year of work experience. They were divided equally into two groups of 16 each, based on their length of service, gender and the company they worked for. None of them had any experience of working in product design and had never received any training related to product design.

Head-mounted virtual reality devices, such as the

The virtual reality-based design tool consists of an

On top of this basic scenario, the design tool also features freehand interaction [15, 16] and 3D sketching [17–19].

The

3D sketching is achieved using the

The design tool is aimed at users with little experience of using virtual reality equipment and participating in product design, so it should be easy to learn and use. In many studies, 3D sketching has been identified as an accessible and flexible method of creation, suitable for the early stages of product design where efficiency and creativity are required [23]. The gesture recognition technology provides intuitive interaction, while the real-time image of the hands also gives the user an important reference when sketching and analysing design problems. In terms of interaction with the design tool, there is no reliance on multi-level menus and all models and panels are placed directly in the virtual space, which minimises the number of steps the user has to take. The availability of scaled-up models makes it easier to show product details and reduces the user’s difficulty in handling them.

Prior to the start of the trial, each subject was informed about the trial, completed the necessary training and signed an information sheet. Once the trial had started each subject in the group was given free access to the virtual reality tool to reflect on usability issues with the selected existing industrial crane remote control product. This process was open-ended and allowed for breaks, but the researcher did not communicate any design-related issues with the subjects and only provided the necessary assistance in using the tool. A semi-structured interview was then conducted with each subject in the test and control groups to record the usability issues collected.

The interview data was collated by eight additional online invited industrial control equipment experts who had extensive experience in using a wide range of industrial control equipment including the remote control selected for this study and had >6 years of experience in industrial production related work. Each expert collated the data individually to form a preliminary coding scheme, and after repeated discussions in the online group meetings all experts reached a consensus and completed the coding of all the data.

Four postgraduate product design students were recruited to form a design team, and after understanding all of the collated usability issues, the two groups were guided through the design of two improved solutions, with a 2-week interval between designs to minimise disruption to each other. The renderings were required to be of similar modelling and rendering quality and the design specification should be in uniform format.

After collating the interview data, a total of 28 usability problems were identified by subjects in the control group, 32 usability problems were identified by subjects in the test group and 22 usability problems were identified jointly by subjects in both groups. The independent sample

Eight industrial control equipment experts scored the importance of each usability issue on a 5-point Likert scale (1 unimportant, 2 relatively unimportant, 3 generally important, 4 relatively important, 5 important) and took the mean value. An independent samples t-test showed that the importance of the usability issues identified by all subjects in the test group was not significantly different from that of the control group (

From the evaluation of the potential value of usability problems, it is clear that the subjects in the test group were slightly more able to identify usability problems than those in the control group, the main difference being that the subjects in the test group were able to identify a greater number of usability problems.

The design team designed improved solutions based on two sets of usability issues, guiding solution 1 for the usability issues identified in the pilot group and solution 2 for the usability issues identified in the control group. In all, 40 product design practitioners with at least 1 year’s experience and varying degrees of involvement in the design of industrial equipment were recruited via the Internet. In this study, they conducted a remote solution evaluation using solution renderings and design specifications.

For equipment products, a comprehensive evaluation method based on evaluation characteristics is usually used to reflect on the elements of product design quality in the process of evaluation to build a judgement tree, which constructs the product design elements into three levels: the target level, the criterion level and the indicator level. The criterion level is the prerequisite principle for generalising the target level, and the indicator level is several relevant refinement elements of the criterion. Referring to the standard DB621/T148-1993 ‘Evaluation method for modelling of mechanical and electrical products’, the product is evaluated in five aspects: form, colour, material, human-machine, and overall relationship, shown in Figure 2.

Set the target level as A. Within the guideline level, morphological properties B1 include structural stability C1, proportional relationship C2, confirmation style C3 and morphological normality C4 of the product; colour properties B2 include colour coordination C5, colour comfort C6, colour matching C7 and colour stability C8 of the whole machine; material properties B3 include material matching C9, process complexity C10, material quality C11, material cost C12; human-machine properties B4 include assembly rationality C13, operational convenience C14, operational standardisation C15, human-machine interaction C16; overall relationship properties B5 include functional coordination C17 volume coordination C18, overall sense of assembly C19 and overall style C20.

Definition of scales: In the hierarchical analysis method, the numbers 1–9 and their reciprocals are cited as the judgement matrix scales, as shown in Table 1.

Judgement matrix templates

Scale | Definition |
---|---|

Compare the two indicators, equal importance | |

Compare the two indicators, the former is slightly more important than the latter | |

Compare the two indicators, the former is more important than the latter | |

Compare the two indicators, the former is more strongly important than the latter | |

Compare the two indicators, the former is extremely more important than the latter | |

Intermediate value of the above adjacent judgement | |

If the ratio of the importance of indicators |

Construct the judgement matrix: According to the above scale, eight industrial control equipment experts scored the elements of each level after discussion and compared them two by two to form the judgement matrix, and the results of the judgement matrix of the criterion level indicators relative to the target level are as follows (Table 2):

Judgement matrix of criteria level indicators relative to target level

A | B1 | B2 | B3 | B4 | B5 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 3 | 1 | 1/5 | 1/2 | |

1/3 | 1 | 1/3 | 1/7 | 1/4 | |

1 | 3 | 1 | 1/5 | 1/2 | |

5 | 7 | 5 | 1 | 3 | |

2 | 4 | 2 | 1/3 | 1 |

Calculating the weight of each indicator in the criterion level and consistency test: Based on the judgement matrix constructed, the weight of each indicator in the criterion level is derived in three steps, as follows.

Step 1: The judgement matrix is normalised by column.

Step 2: Sum by rows.

Step 3: The sum is normalised to give the weights.

After the three steps above, the results are listed below (Table 3).

Level hierarchical weights and consistency tests

Guideline level | B1 | B2 | B3 | B4 | B5 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

0.13 | 0.0471 | 0.13 | 0.4797 | 0.2132 |

After calculating the five guideline level index weights of morphological properties B1, colour properties B2, material properties B3, human-machine properties B4 and overall relationship properties B5, a consistency test is required to determine whether the weighting results are reasonable. The consistency test is judged by the value of the consistency ratio CR. If the CR value is <0.1, the consistency test is passed and the resulting weights are reasonable; if the CR value is >0.1, the consistency test is not passed, and the judgement matrix needs to be reconstructed for calculation. CR is calculated as follows.

CI is calculated as follows.

In this equation,

RI criteria values for judgement matrices of different orders

Steps | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

0 | 0 | 0.52 | 0.89 | 1.12 | 1.26 | 1.36 | 1.41 | 1.46 |

The judgement matrix CI = 0.0187, RI = 1.12, CR = 0.0167, which is <0.1, indicating that it passes the consistency test, that is, the weighting results are reasonable.

Calculate the relative weights of indicator-level indicators and consistency test: Repeat the above process, calculate the weights of indicator-level indicators relative to each criterion-level indicators, and conduct consistency test, and obtain the weights of each level indicators as shown below (Table 5).

Weighting of indicators at each level

Guideline level | Weight | Indicator level | Relative weights |
---|---|---|---|

0.13 | Structural stability C1 | 0.1819 | |

Proportional relationship C2 | 0.3636 | ||

Confirmation style C3 | 0.0909 | ||

Morphological normality C4 | 0.3636 | ||

Colour coordination C5 | 0.3844 | ||

Colour comfort C6 | 0.3844 | ||

0.0471 | Colour matching C7 | 0.1432 | |

Colour stability C8 | 0.088 | ||

Material matching C9 | 0.096 | ||

Process complexity C10 | 0.2772 | ||

0.13 | Material quality C11 | 0.1609 | |

Material cost C12 | 0.4659 | ||

Assembly rationality C13 | 0.2857 | ||

Operational convenience C14 | 0.2857 | ||

0.4797 | Operational standardisation C15 | 0.1429 | |

Human-machine interaction C16 | 0.2857 | ||

Functional coordination C17 | 0.522 | ||

Volume coordination C18 | 0.2073 | ||

0.2132 | Overall sense of assembly C19 | 0.2073 | |

Overall style C20 | 0.0634 |

Determine the set of evaluation factors, the set of weights, the set of rubrics and the set of values for the industrial remote-control design. Evaluation factors: according to the industrial remote control design evaluation index system, the set of evaluation factors obtained has 2 levels.

Level 1 A = (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5).

Level 2 B1 = (C1, C2, C3, C4); B2 = (C5, C6, C7, C8); B3 = (C9, C10, C11, C12); B4 = (C13, C14, C15, C16); B5 = (C17, C18, C19, C20)

Weights set: based on the above weights obtained through the level hierarchical analysis, the set of target allocation weights can be obtained as follows.

W = (W1, W2, W3, W4, W5) = (0.13,0.0471,0.13,0.4797,0.2132) W1 = (0.1819,0.3636,0.0909,0.3636)

W2 = (0.3844,0.3844,0.1432,0.088)

W3 = (0.096,0.2772,0.1609,0.4659)

W4 = (0.2857,0.2857,0.1429,0.2857)

W5 = (0.522,0.2073,0.2073,0.0634)

Sets of comments V = (V1 V2 V3 V4 V5) = (Very good. Good. Normal. Poor. Very poor.)

The set of values corresponds to the set of comments, as follows = (N1, N2, N3, N4, N5) = (5, 4, 3, 2, 1)

Forty designers evaluated the quality of the styling design of the two schemes according to each evaluation indicator in the indicator level, and the affiliation of each indicator was obtained according to the number of completed evaluation levels.

Level 1 fuzzy evaluation: According to the affiliation matrix of each scheme, the fuzzy relationship matrix corresponding to each scheme’s criterion-level indicators can be obtained, which is expressed by Ri. Take Scheme 1 as an example, the fuzzy relationship matrix R1 for the criterion level indicator ‘morphological properties’ is shown below. Similarly, the fuzzy relationship matrix for the remaining criteria level indicators of Scheme 1 and the fuzzy relationship matrix for the criteria level indicators of Scheme 2 can be derived.

0.35 | 0.225 | 0.175 | 0.2 | 0.05 |

0.525 | 0.225 | 0.15 | 0.1 | 0 |

0.45 | 0.4 | 0.1 | 0.05 | 0 |

0.475 | 0.2 | 0.225 | 0.075 | 0.025 |

After finding out the fuzzy relationship matrix for each criterion level indicator of the two scenarios, the corresponding judgement matrix can be found by using the formula E = WR. Taking the example of the criterion level indicator ‘morphological properties’ for Scenario 1, the corresponding matrix is as follows.

Similarly, the judgement matrix corresponding to the remaining criterion level indicators for Scenario 1 and the judgement matrix corresponding to the criterion-level indicators for Scenario 2 can be derived, as shown below (Table 6).

Level 1 fuzzy evaluation results

Option | Indicators | Very good | Good | Normal | Poor | Very poor |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

0.4682 | 0.2318 | 0.1773 | 0.1046 | 0.0181 | ||

0.4126 | 0.2918 | 0.1838 | 0.0788 | 0.033 | ||

0.2991 | 0.3851 | 0.2695 | 0.0423 | 0.004 | ||

0.4464 | 0.3071 | 0.1787 | 0.0571 | 0.0107 | ||

0.4711 | 0.2789 | 0.1469 | 0.0484 | 0.0547 | ||

0.2955 | 0.1909 | 0.3159 | 0.1477 | 0.05 | ||

0.2904 | 0.3137 | 0.2525 | 0.0978 | 0.0456 | ||

0.228 | 0.3425 | 0.2658 | 0.1079 | 0.0558 | ||

0.2964 | 0.2536 | 0.2322 | 0.1714 | 0.0464 | ||

0.2504 | 0.2323 | 0.2804 | 0.1655 | 0.0714 |

Level 2 fuzzy evaluation: It is known that W = (W1 W2 W3 W4 W5) = (0.13, 0.0471, 0.13, 0.4797, 0.2132). In the first level fuzzy evaluation part, the judgement matrix corresponding to the criterion-level indicators of Scheme 1 and Scheme 2 is obtained, then the integrated fuzzy relationship matrix R of Scheme 1 and Scheme 2 can be obtained as follows.

After finding the comprehensive fuzzy relationship matrix, then find the comprehensive judgement matrix of each scheme. The comprehensive judgement matrix can be obtained by multiplying the weights of the indicators at the criterion level with the comprehensive fuzzy relationship matrix, as follows (Table 7).

Combined judgement results

Option | Very good | Good | Normal | Poor | Very poor |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

0.4338 | 0.3007 | 0.1838 | 0.0605 | 0.0212 | |

0.2773 | 0.2553 | 0.2587 | 0.1553 | 0.0534 | |

The overall score P = E × NT |

Option 1 scoring: P1 = 0.4338 × 5 + 0.3007 × 4 + 0.1838 × 3 + 0.0605 × 2 + 0.0212 × 1 = 4.0654

Option 2 scoring: P2 = 0.2773 × 5 + 0.2553 × 4 + 0.2587 × 3 + 0.1553 × 2 + 0.0534 × 1 = 3.5478

As P1 is greater than P2, Option 1 has better styling design quality. The results show that the usability issues uncovered by the virtual reality design system we built are more effective than the user interview method in improving usability at the product styling level, and are important for usability improvement design work focusing on styling design.

The 40 product design practitioners who completed the styling evaluation of the modified design solution continued to participate in this study. Each person was divided into five groups according to their company, with three groups of eight people each, and two groups of 6 and10 people, respectively. The reason for grouping by company is that there is a high degree of variability in business focus, working methods, staff composition and financial status between companies and it is uncertain in the initial validation to what extent this will affect the judgement of cost of use, therefore the feedback from each designer will be grouped and discussed individually.

The cost of using our virtual reality design system was clearly higher than the user interview method. The researcher conducted online focus group sessions with each group of designers to discuss the details of how to use the system, the caveats, and the costs of using the design system in practice over time and how to categories them. There was general agreement on the types of usage costs included in the design, namely: portability of the device, complexity of operation of the device, difficulty of using the software, time consumption, price of use and overall usage costs. Each designer’s willingness to accept each of these costs was evaluated individually using a 5-point Likert scale (1 not at all, 2 rather unacceptable, 3 average, 4 rather acceptable, 5 completely acceptable) and the average level of acceptance of each of the five groups is shown in Figure 3.

In the early stages of designing usability improvements for existing products, direct semi-structured interviews with users to uncover usability issues is a common method with high overall value. Although there is a long history of using immersion techniques in product design, there is no precedence for using immersion techniques to improve on this traditional approach. This study verifies the combined value of this combined approach over the use of user interviews alone in terms of the number and importance of usability questions mined by users, the level of styling of improved design solutions guided by usability questions, and the willingness of designers to use the approach. It provides a useful reference for the promotion of immersive techniques in the field of product design and the search for new focus points.

The virtual reality design system developed in this study provides additional large-scale models making it unsuitable for analysing large devices. The ability to quickly move and scale the model could be added to the system or special gesture commands could be used to lock on to the target object to improve the accuracy of the user’s manipulation. On the other hand, head-mounted virtual reality devices prevent users from observing the reality of their surroundings, so they need to use a safety measure to avoid accidental injuries and increase their sense of security as they walk through the venue.

0.35 | 0.225 | 0.175 | 0.2 | 0.05 |

0.525 | 0.225 | 0.15 | 0.1 | 0 |

0.45 | 0.4 | 0.1 | 0.05 | 0 |

0.475 | 0.2 | 0.225 | 0.075 | 0.025 |

#### Judgement matrix of criteria level indicators relative to target level

A | B1 | B2 | B3 | B4 | B5 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 3 | 1 | 1/5 | 1/2 | |

1/3 | 1 | 1/3 | 1/7 | 1/4 | |

1 | 3 | 1 | 1/5 | 1/2 | |

5 | 7 | 5 | 1 | 3 | |

2 | 4 | 2 | 1/3 | 1 |

#### Combined judgement results

Option | Very good | Good | Normal | Poor | Very poor |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

0.4338 | 0.3007 | 0.1838 | 0.0605 | 0.0212 | |

0.2773 | 0.2553 | 0.2587 | 0.1553 | 0.0534 | |

The overall score P = E × NT |

#### Judgement matrix templates

Scale | Definition |
---|---|

Compare the two indicators, equal importance | |

Compare the two indicators, the former is slightly more important than the latter | |

Compare the two indicators, the former is more important than the latter | |

Compare the two indicators, the former is more strongly important than the latter | |

Compare the two indicators, the former is extremely more important than the latter | |

Intermediate value of the above adjacent judgement | |

If the ratio of the importance of indicators |

#### Weighting of indicators at each level

Guideline level | Weight | Indicator level | Relative weights |
---|---|---|---|

0.13 | Structural stability C1 | 0.1819 | |

Proportional relationship C2 | 0.3636 | ||

Confirmation style C3 | 0.0909 | ||

Morphological normality C4 | 0.3636 | ||

Colour coordination C5 | 0.3844 | ||

Colour comfort C6 | 0.3844 | ||

0.0471 | Colour matching C7 | 0.1432 | |

Colour stability C8 | 0.088 | ||

Material matching C9 | 0.096 | ||

Process complexity C10 | 0.2772 | ||

0.13 | Material quality C11 | 0.1609 | |

Material cost C12 | 0.4659 | ||

Assembly rationality C13 | 0.2857 | ||

Operational convenience C14 | 0.2857 | ||

0.4797 | Operational standardisation C15 | 0.1429 | |

Human-machine interaction C16 | 0.2857 | ||

Functional coordination C17 | 0.522 | ||

Volume coordination C18 | 0.2073 | ||

0.2132 | Overall sense of assembly C19 | 0.2073 | |

Overall style C20 | 0.0634 |

#### Level hierarchical weights and consistency tests

Guideline level | B1 | B2 | B3 | B4 | B5 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

0.13 | 0.0471 | 0.13 | 0.4797 | 0.2132 |

#### Level 1 fuzzy evaluation results

Option | Indicators | Very good | Good | Normal | Poor | Very poor |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

0.4682 | 0.2318 | 0.1773 | 0.1046 | 0.0181 | ||

0.4126 | 0.2918 | 0.1838 | 0.0788 | 0.033 | ||

0.2991 | 0.3851 | 0.2695 | 0.0423 | 0.004 | ||

0.4464 | 0.3071 | 0.1787 | 0.0571 | 0.0107 | ||

0.4711 | 0.2789 | 0.1469 | 0.0484 | 0.0547 | ||

0.2955 | 0.1909 | 0.3159 | 0.1477 | 0.05 | ||

0.2904 | 0.3137 | 0.2525 | 0.0978 | 0.0456 | ||

0.228 | 0.3425 | 0.2658 | 0.1079 | 0.0558 | ||

0.2964 | 0.2536 | 0.2322 | 0.1714 | 0.0464 | ||

0.2504 | 0.2323 | 0.2804 | 0.1655 | 0.0714 |

#### RI criteria values for judgement matrices of different orders

Steps | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

0 | 0 | 0.52 | 0.89 | 1.12 | 1.26 | 1.36 | 1.41 | 1.46 |

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Optimisation analysis of distribution network planning based on the IVIF-AHP method Exploration of “English Plus” teaching mode under the background of blockchain construction A long command subsequence algorithm for manufacturing industry recommendation systems with similarity connection technology Analysis of tea culture communication path based on the principal component analysis method Supply chain network model of cost accounting based on improved particle swarm optimisation algorithm Construction of a multimodal poetry translation corpus based on AdaBoost model Research on personalised recommendation algorithm for college students’ employment Application of Higher-Order Ordinary Differential Equation Model in Financial Investment Stock Price Forecast Evaluation of spoken English self-study system considering speech knowledge recognition algorithm Design of a decentralized Internet-based control system for industrial robot robotic arms Design of a mechanical automatic transmission system for automobiles based on torsional vibration damping Application research on piano teaching in colleges and universities based on remote wireless network communication Construction of a mathematical modeling teaching quality assessment system for universities based on Eviews model Construction of Financial Risk Evaluation Index System for Biomass Graphene Fibre Industrialisation Project Innovative model of teaching in law experiment center based on LETS software A Study on the Implications of Critical Discourse Analysis Theory for College English Teaching in the Context of Big Data Computational research on flat image design and style based on perceptual feature quantification The artistic aesthetic and cultural value orientation of 3D printing A multidimensional interpretation of Marxist theory based on a decentralized Internet perspective Student management model of college student associations based on ant colony Algorithm Analysis of the evolution of China’s energy legal system under the background of discrete model theory and dual carbon Design of Morlet wavelet neural network to solve the non-linear influenza disease system An online statistical analysis of the hotel management and operation performance model Research on the relationship between the construction of school teachers’ team literacy and the educational environment Research on the post-purchase behaviour tendency of the product quality to customers in fast-selling marketing Motion about equilibrium points in the Jupiter-Europa system with oblateness Design of an embedded machine vision system for smart cameras Ultra-short-term power forecast of photovoltaic power station based on VMD–LSTM model optimised by SSA Optimal preview repetitive control for impulse-free continuous-time descriptor systems Design of information management system based on wireless communication under the background of Internet of Things The impact of global warming on the small Scottish Fishing Company Research on heat transfer properties of graphene composites Development of main functional modules for MVB and its application in rail transit Analysis of agricultural economic development and optimisation measures under the strategy of rural revitalisation Study on the impact of forest fire prevention policy on the health of forest resources Value Creation of Real Estate Company Spin-off Property Service Company Listing Selection by differential mortality rates Research on the relationship between government subsidies, R&D investment and high-quality development of manufacturing industry Research on the protection and inheritance of intangible cultural heritage under the background of rural revitalisation Research on behavioural differences in the processing of tenant listing information: An eye-movement experiment Computer vision recognition and tracking algorithm based on convolutional neural network Innovative reform strategy of artistic practice of university folk dance education based on information fusion technology A review of the treatment techniques of VOC Study on structural parameter design and life analysis of large four-point contact ball bearing channel Some classes of complete permutation polynomials in the form of ( x ^{pm}−x +δ )^{s}+ax ^{pm}+bx overF _{p2m}Digital marketing solutions based on consumer data and homomorphic encryption The consistency method of linguistic information and other four preference information in group decision-making Research on the driving principle and guiding strategy of the public's collaborative supervision of the sharing economy in my country Influence of innovative human capital on economic development of China through the STI model New ideas of precision teaching development based on the background of big data Research on the willingness of Forest Land’s Management Rights transfer under the Beijing Forestry Development Application research of bel canto performance based on artificial intelligence technology Research on the path of integrating blockchain technology into the teaching of film and television courses in higher education institutions Combined application of employment education and big data internet technology based on the context of vocational education reform Fractal structure of magnetic island in tokamak plasma College students' innovation and entrepreneurship model based on probability theory statistics Exploring the path of network security and student privacy protection in smart campus based on Markov model Innovation and entrepreneurship model of higher vocational college students based on probability theory statistics Application of knowledge graph in smart grid fault diagnosis Research on the innovation of youth network media literacy education in the context of Internet + education Research on the optimisation of logistics parcel intelligent sorting and conveying chain combined with variable clustering mathematical method Research on power quality assessment based on ubiquitous power IoT Analysis of the properties of matrix rank and the relationship between matrix rank and matrix operations Analysis of network information security issues under the background of big data Research on SOC estimation of residual power of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles based on extended Kalman filtering algorithm Harmonic current variation characteristics of shunt capacitors based on full-phase FFT algorithm Urban Public Epidemic Prevention and Control Model Based on Nonlinear Differential Equations Research on computer vision technology based on BP-LSTM hybrid network Research progress of computer vision tasks based on deep learning and SAE network Application of Discriminative Training Algorithm Based on Intelligent Computing in English Translation Evaluation Research on the application of GLE teaching mode in English-medium colleges The application of directional derivative in the design of animation characters and background elements Research on product process design and optimisation model based on IoT intelligent computing Simulation research on music feature recognition based on mobile big data and smart sensors Digital design and experimental testing of a compressor's suction muffler transmission loss LTE wireless network coverage optimisation based on corrected propagation model SCP model based on the new energy vehicle collaborative detection configuration method research Study on tourism development income index calculation of finite element ordinary differential mathematical equation The cardiovascular promotion of college taekwondo based on fractional differential equation Analysis and research on the economic benefits of employee labor in enterprises in the context of the Internet Application of renewable energy decorative materials in modern architectural design under low-carbon concept The boundedness of functional differential equations of hospital financial software under information Deep learning model-based brand design 3D image construction The character image setting of 3D animation works based on Poisson equation Research on the interaction between university physical culture education and college students’ physical exercise in the context of big data The optimization path of core literacy of innovative talents in universities based on the improved Markov model Analysis of the innovation path of university education management informatization in the era of big data Impact of ASEAN-China free trade area on fishery value chain based on difference-in-difference method Research on indoor environment design of comprehensive commercial shopping center based on numerical simulation Empirical analysis of the economic absolute income hypothesis based on mathematical statistics Realization of Book Collaborative Filtering Personalized Recommendation System Based on Linear Regression Equation Study on Interactive Relations between Enterprise Social Media and Decision Style Based on a vector Autoregressive Model Research on Dynamics of Flexible Multibody System with Deployable Antenna Based on Static Lagrangian Function The Optimization of Mathematics Teaching Models in Colleges and Universities Based on Nonlinear Differential Equations Study on spatial planning and design of learning commons in university libraries based on fuzzy matrix model The Stability Model of Piano Tone Tuning Based on Ordinary Differential Equations Construction and application of automobile user portrait based on k-mean clustering model The Homework Model of Screening English Teaching Courses Based on Fractional Differential Equations MATLAB-based simulation of industrial robots in water environment monitoring An innovative teaching model of automotive manufacturing process based on ADDIE model The train of thought and design of university talents training based on ADDIE model from the perspective of ideological and political education Research on the innovation of model based on the cultivation of talents in higher vocational art and design Calculus Logic Function in Integrated Manufacturing Automation of Single Chip Microcomputer Football Offense Training Strategy Based on Fractional Differential Mathematical Modeling The Mathematical Analysis Model of Educational System in Music Courses in Colleges and Universities Continuing Education Network Data Center Model Based on Fractional Differential Mathematical Equations Study on the factors influencing the evolution mechanism of cobalt trade network from the perspective of national competition Computer Art Design Model Based on Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equations The Optimization Model of Public Space Design Teaching Reform Based on Fractional Differential Equations The Approximate Solution of Nonlinear Vibration of Tennis Based on Nonlinear Vibration Differential Equation Graphical Modular Power Technology of Distribution Network Based on Machine Learning Statistical Mathematical Equation Reliability analysis of reinforced concrete beams based on the stochastic model of resistance calculation Employment and Professional Education Training System of College Graduates Based on the Law of Large Numbers Economic Research on Multiple Linear Regression in Fruit Market inspection and Management Nonlinear Differential Equations in Preventing Financial Risks Lagrange’s Mathematical Equations in the Sports Training of College Students Simulation Research of Electrostatic Precipitator Power Supply Voltage Control System Based on Finite Element Differential Equation Research on the effect of generative adversarial network based on wavelet transform hidden Markov model on face creation and classification Research on Lightweight Injection Molding (CAE) and Numerical Simulation Calculate of New Energy Vehicle Power Flow Calculation in Smart Distribution Network Based on Power Machine Learning Based on Fractional Differential Equations Demonstration of application program of logistics public information management platform based on fuzzy constrained programming mathematical model Basketball Shooting Rate Based on Multiple Regression Logical-Mathematical Algorithm The Optimal Application of Lagrangian Mathematical Equations in Computer Data Analysis Similarity Solutions of the Surface Waves Equation in (2+1) Dimensions and Bifurcation Optimal decisions and channel coordination of a green supply chain with marketing effort and fairness concerns Game theoretic model for low carbon supply chain under carbon emissions reduction sensitive random demand The Relationship Between College Students’ Taekwondo Courses and College Health Based on Mathematical Statistics Equations Fractional Differential Equations in the Exploration of Geological and Mineral Construction AdaBoost Algorithm in Trustworthy Network for Anomaly Intrusion Detection Enterprise Financial Risk Early Warning System Based on Structural Equation Model A Study on the Application of Quantile Regression Equation in Forecasting Financial Value at Risk in Financial Markets Fractional Differential Equations in the Model of Vocational Education and Teaching Practice Environment Information transmission simulation of Internet of things communication nodes under collision free probability equation Image denoising model based on improved fractional calculus mathematical equation Random Fourier Approximation of the Kernel Function in Programmable Networks The Complexity of Virtual Reality Technology in the Simulation and Modeling of Civil Mathematical Models University Library Lending System Model Based on Fractional Differential Equations Calculation and Performance Evaluation of Text Similarity Based on Strong Classification Features Intelligent Matching System of Clauses in International Investment Arbitration Cases Based on Big Data Statistical Model Evaluation and Verification of Patent Value Based on Combination Forecasting Model Financial Institution Prevention Financial Risk Monitoring System Under the Fusion of Partial Differential Equations Prediction and Analysis of ChiNext Stock Price Based on Linear and Non-linear Composite Model Calculus Logic Function in Tax Risk Avoidance in Different Stages of Enterprises The Psychological Memory Forgetting Model Based on the Analysis of Linear Differential Equations Optimization Simulation System of University Science Education Based on Finite Differential Equations The Law of Large Numbers in Children's Education Optimization System of Strength and Flexibility Training in Aerobics Course Based on Lagrangian Mathematical Equation Data structure simulation for the reform of the teaching process of university computer courses A multi-factor Regression Equation-based Test of Fitness Maximal Aerobic Capacity in Athletes Garment Image Retrieval based on Grab Cut Auto Segmentation and Dominate Color Method Financial Risk Prediction and Analysis Based on Nonlinear Differential Equations Constructivist Learning Method of Ordinary Differential Equations in College Mathematics Teaching Multiple Effects Analysis of Hangzhou Issuing Digital Consumer Coupons Based on Simultaneous Equations of CDM Model Response Model of Teachers’ Psychological Education in Colleges and Universities Based on Nonlinear Finite Element Equations A Hybrid Computational Intelligence Method of Newton's Method and Genetic Algorithm for Solving Compatible Nonlinear Equations Pressure Image Recognition of Lying Positions Based on Multi-feature value Regularized Extreme Learning Algorithm English Intelligent Question Answering System Based on elliptic fitting equation Precision Machining Technology of Jewelry on CNC Machine Tool Based on Mathematical Modeling Application Research of Mathematica Software in Calculus Teaching Computer Vision Communication Technology in Mathematical Modeling Skills of Music Creation Based on Homogeneous First-Order Linear Partial Differential Equations Mathematical Statistics Technology in the Educational Grading System of Preschool Students Music Recommendation Index Evaluation Based on Logistic Distribution Fitting Transition Probability Function Children's Educational Curriculum Evaluation Management System in Mathematical Equation Model Query Translation Optimization and Mathematical Modeling for English-Chinese Cross-Language Information Retrieval The Effect of Children’s Innovative Education Courses Based on Fractional Differential Equations Fractional Differential Equations in the Standard Construction Model of the Educational Application of the Internet of Things Optimization research on prefabricated concrete frame buildings based on the dynamic equation of eccentric structure and horizontal-torsional coupling Optimization in Mathematics Modeling and Processing of New Type Silicate Glass Ceramics Green building considering image processing technology combined with CFD numerical simulation Construction of an enterprise financial risk management system based on F-score model Research on education management system based on machine learning and multidimensional data modeling Multi-featured multi-scale combination of high-resolution remote sensing images for building extraction Abnormal Behavior of Fractional Differential Equations in Processing Computer Big Data Electronic properties of diamond semiconductor materials: based on response surface model Mathematical Modeling Thoughts and Methods Based on Fractional Differential Equations in Teaching Deep learning techniques in modern women’s smart clothing design Nonlinear Differential Equations in Computer-Aided Modeling of Big Data Technology A study on the aesthetic characteristics of ethnic music based on radial basis neural network model The Uniqueness of Solutions of Fractional Differential Equations in University Mathematics Teaching Based on the Principle of Compression Mapping Analysis of the application methods of film and television media and images in the era of big data cloud Air data computer simulation and design credibility assessment considering ADC calculation model Analysis of news communication strategies in the era of full media based on big data mining On the improvement, innovation and inheritance of stage makeup styling in opera under the background of big data Recognition of Electrical Control System of Flexible Manipulator Based on Transfer Function Estimation Method Evaluation Mechanism of Teaching Staff’s Building in Local Vocational Colleges Based on Big Data Technology Automatic Knowledge Integration Method of English Translation Corpus Based on Kmeans Algorithm Real Estate Economic Development Based on Logarithmic Growth Function Model Design of Tennis Mobile Teaching Assistant System Based on Ordinary Differential Equations Financial Crisis Early Warning Model of Listed Companies Based on Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis High Simulation Reconstruction of Crowd Animation Based on Optical Flow Constraint Equation Construction of Intelligent Search Engine for Big Data Multimedia Resource Subjects Based on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation 3D Animation Simulation of Computer Fractal and Fractal Technology Combined with Diamond-Square Algorithm Analysis of the Teaching Quality of Physical Education Class by Using the Method of Gradient Difference The Summation of Series Based on the Laplace Transformation Method in Mathematics Teaching Optimal Solution of the Fractional Differential Equation to Solve the Bending Performance Test of Corroded Reinforced Concrete Beams under Prestressed Fatigue Load Animation VR scene mosaic modeling based on generalized Laplacian equation Radial Basis Function Neural Network in Vibration Control of Civil Engineering Structure Optimal Model Combination of Cross-border E-commerce Platform Operation Based on Fractional Differential Equations The influence of accounting computer information processing technology on enterprise internal control under panel data simultaneous equation Research on Stability of Time-delay Force Feedback Teleoperation System Based on Scattering Matrix BIM Building HVAC Energy Saving Technology Based on Fractional Differential Equation Construction of comprehensive evaluation index system of water-saving irrigation project integrating penman Montei the quation Human Resource Management Model of Large Companies Based on Mathematical Statistics Equations Data Forecasting of Air-Conditioning Load in Large Shopping Malls Based on Multiple Nonlinear Regression Analysis of technical statistical indexes of college tennis players under the win-lose regression function equation Automatic extraction and discrimination of vocal main melody based on quadratic wave equation Analysis of wireless English multimedia communication based on spatial state model equation Optimization of Linear Algebra Core Function Framework on Multicore Processors Research on detection of parking space based on the combination of magnetoresistance and microwave radar sensor under IoT platform Research on sustainable development mechanism of regional ‘Artisan Workshop’ under big data environment Application of hybrid kernel function in economic benefit analysis and evaluation of enterprises The analysis method of the impact of missing audit information on the securities investment decisions based on Logistic regression models Research on the innovation theory of college students’ ideological and political education under the background of big data Research on classification of e-commerce customers based on BP neural network Research on the problems and reform strategies of government statistics based on big data technology The Control Relationship Between the Enterprise's Electrical Equipment and Mechanical Equipment Based on Graph Theory Adaptive fusion of multi-exposure images based on perceptron model Mathematical Modeling and Forecasting of Economic Variables Based on Linear Regression Statistics Exploring the Path of Integrating Excellent Traditional Culture into Civic Education in Universities in the Internet+ Era Nonlinear Differential Equations in Cross-border E-commerce Controlling Return Rate Design and research of environmentally friendly field sewage purification mechanical device 3D Mathematical Modeling Technology in Visualized Aerobics Dance Rehearsal System An analysis of time commitment for college students to online English writing and peer assessment learning Research on network security management monitoring platform based on Internet of things technology Study of frictional wear properties of materials for mechanical seals Fractional Differential Equations in Electronic Information Models Exploring the construction of an all-round cost management system for investment control in university engineering construction BIM Engineering Management Oriented to Curve Equation Model Relationship Between Physical Activity Sedentary Behavior and Body Mass Index in Children and Adolescents Based on FIT Modelo Leakage control of urban water supply network and mathematical analysis and location of leakage points based on machine learning Analysis of higher education management strategy based on entropy and dissipative structure theory Grid data asset relationship and intelligent classification integrating knowledge graph and Internet of Things Prediction of corporate financial distress based on digital signal processing and multiple regression analysis Mathematical Method to Construct the Linear Programming of Football Training Multimedia sensor image detection based on constrained underdetermined equation The Size of Children's Strollers of Different Ages Based on Ergonomic Mathematics Design Application of Numerical Computation of Partial Differential Equations in Interactive Design of Virtual Reality Media Stiffness Calculation of Gear Hydraulic System Based on the Modeling of Nonlinear Dynamics Differential Equations in the Progressive Method Knowledge Analysis of Charged Particle Motion in Uniform Electromagnetic Field Based on Maxwell Equation Relationship Between Enterprise Talent Management and Performance Based on the Structural Equation Model Method Term structure of economic management rate based on parameter analysis of estimation model of ordinary differential equation Influence analysis of piano music immersion virtual reality cooperation based on mapping equation Chinese painting and calligraphy image recognition technology based on pseudo linear directional diffusion equation Label big data compression in Internet of things based on piecewise linear regression Animation character recognition and character intelligence analysis based on semantic ontology and Poisson equation Analysis of digital humanistic knowledge production based on natural language processing Design of language assisted learning model and online learning system under the background of artificial intelligence Study on the influence of adolescent smoking on physical training vital capacity in eastern coastal areas Application of machine learning in stock selection Comparative analysis of CR of ideological and political education in different regions based on improved fuzzy clustering The Construction of Judgment Model for Cultivating Intelligent Accounting Professionals in Universities Based on Logarithmic Periodic Power Law Model Action of Aut( G ) on the set of maximal subgroups ofp -groupsDigital Regeneration and Database Construction of Hunan Embroidery Needlework under the Perspective of Artificial Intelligence Research on the practice of innovation and entrepreneurship education in universities under the environment of big data Application of digital technology in environmental art design Research on loyalty prediction of e-commerce customer based on data mining Research on the evaluation system of tourism management classroom teaching based on multimedia big data analysis The application of ARCS motivation model in college oral English teaching Research on Innovation of Translation Teaching and Translation Strategies for College Students in Multimedia Background A multi-channel convolutional neural network based on attention mechanism fusion for facial expression recognition Exploring the development of cultural and creative tourism under the perspective of ecological theory of tourism destination management Modeling Analysis of User Consumption Data of Internet Culture Industry in the Context of Emerging Technologies Reference: An algorithm for recognizing the main melody of orchestral music based on artificial intelligence of music melody contour Algebraic Equations in Educational Model of College Physical Education Course Education Professional English Translation Corpus Under the Binomial Theorem Coefficient Geometric Tolerance Control Method for Precision Machinery Based on Image Modeling and Novel Saturation Function Retrieval and Characteristic Analysis of Multimedia Tester Based on Bragg Equation Semiparametric Spatial Econometric Analysis of Household Consumption Based on Ordinary Linear Regression Model Video adaptive watermark embedding and detection algorithm based on phase function equation English Learning Motivation of College Students Based on probability Distribution Scientific Model of Vocational Education Teaching Method in Differential Nonlinearity Research on mobile Awareness service and data privacy Protection based on Linear Equations computing protocol Vocal Music Teaching Model Based on Finite Element Differential Mathematical Equations Studying a matching method combining distance proximity and buffer constraints The trend and influence of media information Propagation based on nonlinear Differential equation Research on the construction of early warning model of customer churn on e-commerce platform Evaluation and prediction of regional human capital based on optimised BP neural network Study on inefficient land use determination method for cities and towns from a city examination perspective A study of local smoothness-informed convolutional neural network models for image inpainting The construction of a practical platform for party building and ideological and political education based on information fusion A study on the influence of the spread of Yangming Studies in Japan on the psychology of the Japanese people based on big data analysis Research on personalized recommendation algorithm for micromechanical sensors based on cloud model Research on the value of modern vernacular literature in contemporary rural construction based on ADDIE model Robust speech recognition based on deep learning for sports game review Mathematical Calculus Modeling in Improving the Teaching Performance of Shot Put Model Construction of Influencing Factors of Physical Education Core Quality Cultivation Based on Multiple Linear Regression Application of Nonlinear Differential Equation in Electric Automation Control System Research on the operation and management mechanism of cross-border e-commerce shared practice training base Higher Mathematics Teaching Curriculum Model Based on Lagrangian Mathematical Model Strategies for improving Chinese language proficiency based on artificial intelligence technology The success rate model of college students’ new entrepreneurship based on nonlinear differential equations Computational Algorithm to Solve Two–Body Problem Using Power Series in Geocentric System Research on the application of marketing strategy of national fitness exercise and dance events in the construction of sports culture based on big data technology Decisions of competing supply chain with altruistic retailer under risk aversion Strategies for constructing mathematical models of nonlinear systems based on multiple linear regression models Optimization of Color Matching Technology in Cultural Industry by Fractional Differential Equations Research on human resource management performance evaluation based on BP algorithm The Marketing of Cross-border E-commerce Enterprises in Foreign Trade Based on the Statistics of Mathematical Probability Theory Application of Linear Partial Differential Equation Theory in Guiding Football Scientific Training Nonlinear Channel Estimation for Internet of Vehicles Some Necessary Conditions for Feedback Functions of de Bruijn Sequences The Evolution Model of Regional Tourism Economic Development Difference Based on Spatial Variation Function System Model of Shipping Enterprise Safety Culture Based on Dynamic Calculation Matrix Model An empirical research on economic growth from industrial structure optimisation in the Three Gorges Reservoir area The Inner Relationship between Students' Psychological Factors and Physical Exercise Based on Structural Equation Model (SEM) Analysis and Research on Influencing Factors of Ideological and Political Education Teaching Effectiveness Based on Linear Equation Study of agricultural finance policy information extraction based on ELECTRA-BiLSTM-CRF Fractional Differential Equations in Sports Training in Universities Examination and Countermeasures of Network Education in Colleges and Universities Based on Ordinary Differential Equation Model Innovative research of vertical video creation under the background of mobile communication Higher Education Agglomeration Promoting Innovation and Entrepreneurship Based on Spatial Dubin Model Chinese-English Contrastive Translation System Based on Lagrangian Search Mathematical Algorithm Model Genetic algorithm-based congestion control optimisation for mobile data network Law of interest rate changes in financial markets based on the differential equation model of liquidity Basalt fibre continuous reinforcement composite pavement reinforcement design based on finite element model Satisfactory consistency judgement and inconsistency adjustment of linguistic judgement matrix Badminton players’ trajectory under numerical calculation method Innovations to Attribute Reduction of Covering Decision System Based on Conditional Information Entropy Sensitivity Analysis of the Waterproof Performance of Elastic Rubber Gasket in Shield Tunnel Innovation of Economic Management Risk Control in Retailer Supply Chain Based on Differential Equation Model Statistical Model of College Ideological and Political Learning Based on Fractional Differential Equations Nonlinear Differential Equation in Anti-aging Test of Polymer Nanomaterials Mechanics of Building Structural Materials Based on Lagrangian Mathematical Model Analysis The Mental Health Education Management of Higher Vocational Students Based on Fractional Differential Equations Application of regression function model based on panel data in financial risk management of bank resource allocation University Ideological and Political Learning Model Based on Statistical Memory Curve Mathematical Equation Research on Resonance Properties of Semantic Wave Fractal Fractals Based on Quantitative Analysis of English Corpus Research on urban landscape big data information processing system based on ordinary differential equations Modeling of fractional differential equation in cloud computing image fusion algorithm Conventional Algorithms in Sports Training Based on Fractional Differential Equations Dynamic Nonlinear System Based on Complex System Theory in the Development of Vocational Education The Algorithm Accuracy of Mathematical Model to Improve the Transmission Speed of E-commerce Platform The Security of Database Network Model Based on Fractional Differential Equations Electric Vehicle Mechanical Transmission System Based on Fractional Differential Equations The Practice System of Physics and Electronics Courses in Higher Vocational Colleges Based on Fractional Differential Equations The Economic Model of Rural Supply and Demand Under the Data Analysis Function Based on Ordered Probit 3D Modeling System of Indoor Environment Art Landscape Design under Statistical Equation Electronic Information Security Model of Nonlinear Differential Equations The Optimization Model of College Students' Physical Exercise Motivation and Self-control Ability Based on the Mathematical Model of Probability Theory Health monitoring of Bridges based on multifractal theory Health status diagnosis of the bridges based on multi-fractal de-trend fluctuation analysis Application and risk assessment of the energy performance contracting model in energy conservation of public buildings Sensitivity analysis of design parameters of envelope enclosure performance in the dry-hot and dry-cold areas Criminal law imputation path for biometric information Research on composite dynamic disaster prevention and control system of mine earthquake and shock in thick and hard rock mines Research on urban energy Internet planning based on fuzzy comprehensive method Research on innovative strategies of college students’ English teaching under the background of artificial intelligence Electromagnetic interference prediction technology of new energy motor drive system Research on the intelligent path of college students’ network ideological and political education based on big data mining technology Research on the application of PLC technology in electrical automation engineering Application of matrix multiplication in signal sensor image perception Analysing the variation of metadiscourse verb patterns in English academic papers from within and between disciplines Impact of COVID-19 policy on stock prices of listed property companies Research on the experimental principle of deep integration of LETS software and criminal procedure under the background of artificial intelligence VR-based computer maintenance practical training platform development design and application research Design and implementation of an integrated management system for discipline construction and postgraduate education in universities Research on innovative human capital for China’s economic development based on STI model In-depth analysis of the artistic expression of paper-cut elements in the design of boat space Knowledge graph construction and Internet of Things optimisation for power grid data knowledge extraction Modeling the pathway of breast cancer in the Middle East Construction and intelligent analysis of power grid physical data knowledge graph based on Internet of Things for power system Research on industrial Internet of Things and power grid technology application based on knowledge graph and data asset relationship model Research on the effects of financial literacy on rural household credit constraint Research on educational resource recommendation system based on MRLG Rec Visual analysis of the trend of mental health changes among Chinese college students in the context of the normalisation of the new crown epidemic A study on the phenomenon of anaphoric correction in college students’ English conversation Limit cycles of a generalised Mathieu differential system Influence of displacement ventilation on the distribution of pollutant concentrations in livestock housing Application of data mining in basketball statistics The nonlinear effects of ageing on national savings rate – An Empirical Study based on threshold model Design of fitness walker for the elderly based on ergonomic SAPAD model Research on the innovation of collaborative education model of scientific research and teaching in colleges and universities based on the theory of process reengineering AtanK-A New SVM Kernel for Classification The innovative path of diversified vocal music education reform in colleges and universities under the advanced educational concepts of China and the West Mechanical behaviour of continuous girder bridge with corrugated steel webs constructed by RW Rhino application in ceramic packaging design teaching Study of a linear-physical-programming-based approach for web service selection under uncertain service quality Analysis and countermeasures of cultivating independent learning ability in colleges teaching English based on OBE theory A mathematical model of plasmid-carried antibiotic resistance transmission in two types of cells Projection of Early Warning Identification of Hazardous Sources of Gas Explosion Accidents in Coal Mines Based on NTM Deep Learning Network Burnout of front-line city administrative law-enforcing personnel in new urban development areas: An empirical research in China RETRACTION NOTE Research on the mining of ideological and political knowledge elements in college courses based on the combination of LDA model and Apriori algorithm Research on non-linear visual matching model under inherent constraints of images Good congruences on weakly U-abundant semigroups Can policy coordination facilitate unimpeded trade? An empirical study on factors influencing smooth trade along the Belt and Road Research on the processing method of multi-source heterogeneous data in the intelligent agriculture cloud platform Internal control index and enterprise growth: An empirical study of Chinese listed-companies in the automobile manufacturing industry Research on design of customer portrait system for E-commerce Research on rule extraction method based on concept lattice of intuitionistic fuzzy language Fed-UserPro: A user profile construction method based on federated learning Design and evaluation of intelligent teaching system on basic movements in PE Research on identifying psychological health problems of college students by logistic regression model based on data mining Research on evaluation system of cross-border E-commerce platform based on the combined model A mathematical model of PCNN for image fusion with non-sampled contourlet transform Financial customer classification by combined model Influence of displacement ventilation on the distribution of pollutant concentrations in livestock housing Retraction