The huge market of vertical video attracts the attention of users, capital, government and other aspects. Not only the short video platforms represented by Tik Tok and Kuai mainly use the vertical screen in their presentation mode, but traditional long video platforms such as IQIYI have also launched vertical screen online short dramas
The choice of creation equipment is not only affected by external factors such as the theme of the work and the shooting environment but also restricted by internal conditions such as the subject and the purpose of creation. Among them, user-generated content (UGC) refers to a content production mechanism generated by user contributions on websites or other open media and is one of the components of the web 2.0 concept, as opposed to specialised content production in the traditional media industry-based production models, which are mostly aimed at recording life and expressing oneself. Mobile phones, GoPro and portable card cameras can meet their demands. In some specific scenes, lightweight creation equipment can break the limitations of professional equipment, and the creation process is simpler and faster. Professional video teams or studios, due to the strong live broadcast properties of vertical screens, have higher requirements for the interactivity, participation and timeliness of program content, and sometimes lightweight equipment is also introduced supplemented with creation. Therefore, the introduction of lightweight equipment has had a huge transformation and far-reaching impact on the industry.
The popularity of mobile devices has provided a wider space for the creation of vertical video, reduced the cost of information collection and enhanced the timeliness of production content. Mobile phones have become a necessity for people’s daily travel. Creators can record people or things around them anytime and anywhere, which makes it possible for improvisation. Facing news events that may occur anytime and anywhere, mobile phone users can take multiple roles to complete the shooting, explanation, interview, editing and other work of event, and collect and release information in a timely manner. Lightweight equipment has become an important tool for video creation in the new era, including lightweight pre-shooting equipment and post-video editing apps based on mobile phones.
Firstly, lightweight devices can make content products more time-sensitive. From the perspective of vertical video creation, using mobile phones to shoot and edit vertical video has its unique advantages. The vertical shooting operation of the mobile phone is faster, which is conducive to the first-time recording of on-site emergencies. At the same time, the vertical holding of the mobile phone conforms to the physiological structure, and the shooting can be completed with one hand, and the picture is more stable. These unique advantages of handheld creation encourage users to take vertical screen shooting. The screen does not need to be exported after shooting, and the post-production of the video can be quickly completed by using mobile phone editing software launched by major platforms. The portable and efficient creation mode of lightweight equipment meets the demand of timeliness of content products in the network era.
Secondly, from the perspective of social demand, the low price and convenient operation of mobile devices have promoted the production and consumption demand of vertical video. Mobile devices provide a lower threshold for creation, which is beneficial to the production model of UGC. Users can make videos at a low cost and get started quickly. Mobile phone editing software also provides a large number of templates, such as Tik Tok’s editing software ‘Clipping’, which provides the function of video editing templates for beginners. These templates correspond to the themes photographed by the creators. The rhythm of music and the length of the shots are adjusted in the templates. The creator only needs to select the corresponding shots to generate the corresponding works of sound and picture. This portability makes clips quick to pick up. The popularity of UGC has brought the richness and diversity of content production, attracting more users to participate in it. The huge video production group and receiving group not only bring huge commercial profits but also continuously promote the development of the video creation industry and form a virtuous circle.
Here comes the question. The application of lightweight equipment is becoming more and more popular, so can its shooting quality, shooting effect, clarity, etc. meet the creative requirements of the creator? Can the continued development be comparable to the shooting effect of an SLR camera or a card camera? What is gratifying is that through the unremitting efforts of researchers in recent years, the resolution of mobile phone images is getting clear, more and more easily applied in other functions, and comes with more and more special effects. In some functions, there is a great momentum to replace the card machine. To illustrate this problem, let us first consider the factors that affect the image quality of mobile phones. In short, there are three main factors: the first is the size of the sensor, mainly the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor area. As the saying goes, ‘the larger the sensor, the better’. The amount of light captured determines the exposure balance, dynamic range and sharpness of the camera. The size of the sensor determines the amount of light the camera uses to create an image, so a larger sensor captures a large amount of light than a smaller sensor, and more light produces a better image.
However, due to size limitations, the camera sensor of most smartphones is usually only 1/2.55 inch, and some are 1/1.7 inch or even larger, such as Huawei P40 series and Sony IMX700 can reach 1/1.28 inch and Samsung GN2 can reach 1/1.28 inch/1.12 inches, all of which are relatively large sensors available on the market today, while digital SLR cameras can easily reach one inch, so in terms of sensor size, mobile phones do not have an advantage. Figure 1 is a comparison of sensor sizes in smartphones in recent years. It can be seen that the size of the camera sensor used in flagship models has gradually increased in recent years.
The other two main factors that affect image quality are lens quality and image algorithms. Especially in recent years, with the increasingly powerful computing power of smart phones, many shooting functions can be well realised through image algorithms. For example, in mobile phone shooting, the performance of many scenes such as white balance, HDR, colour matching and night scene all depend on the level of image algorithms.
Take white balance as an example; in photography creation, we know that different light shines on a piece of white paper, giving a different white effect, and there will be a certain colour cast. For example, incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps and the colour of white paper under natural light. For human eyes, they are all white or close to white because the human brain has some prior information about things and will automatically make some corrections. But the sensor will only faithfully record the real situation, so you will see that the image taken by the camera is more aurantia in orange light and blue in incandescent light. What white balance needs to do is to make white objects photographed under light with different colour temperatures close to white.
So how to make this different white close to real white? When processing images on mobile phones, a computational photography called grey world algorithm was adopted by many manufacturers.
The grey world algorithm is based on a simple observation: in most of the pictures, we take of the scene, taking the average of all the pixel values, the result should be grey (which was discovered through experiments). Grey is a colour between black and white, which means that the energy of R, G and B channels is roughly equal: R = G = B. Therefore, we can first calculate the mean of each channel in the whole graph according to Formulas (1)–(3):
Then, taking the G channel (human eyes are more sensitive to green) as the benchmark, the scaling coefficients of R and B channels are calculated, and then the scaling coefficients are applied to each pixel:
The final picture is closer to the perception of the naked eye. As a very basic operation, the grey world algorithm is easy to fail in some cases (e.g. the colour mean value of pictures with a pure sky background is not grey). Therefore, more new algorithms with stronger adaptability have emerged in the follow-up . Generally speaking, the closer it is to the perception of the human eye, the better is the white balance algorithm. The algorithm of visible images has a great impact on the shooting quality of image. The shooting performance indicators affected by the image algorithm such as automatic exposure control (AEC), sharpening, gamma correction, denoising and portrait background blur, all of which need the help of algorithm calculation and processing to make the mobile phone take photos to the extreme (not introduced here one by one). Image processing is so complicated, fortunately, after so many years of development of various chips, the technology has been quite mature. Many algorithms are directly solidified (compiled in assembly code) in the chip, so the speed is very fast, ensuring that the moment of mobile phone photographing is almost senseless.
To sum up, the lightweight mobile phone shooting function and image quality can basically meet the hardware requirements of creation. The practice of mobile phone creation has proved that the ingenious use of the shooting function of lightweight mobile phones can create high-level image works. On 23 May 2019, the vertical screen film
The main function of the camera equipment is to capture clear and stable images with good image quality to provide material for post-production creation. Equipment can be divided into two categories, one is lightweight equipment for shooting and outputting pictures, and the other is related equipment for assisting picture shooting. In the shooting of traditional movies or TV programs, the equipment for shooting the output picture includes cameras, SLRs, and UAVs, and the auxiliary shooting equipment includes tripods, stabilisers, large rockers, various rails and lighting equipment so as to change scenes or shoot moving lens under the condition of stability. Nowadays, in the shooting of vertical screen works, the trend of daily and life-like expression of images is constantly reflected, and the audience’s pursuit of portability and timeliness of equipment is increasing. Lightweight equipment is widely used on this basis.
Firstly, the most obvious advantage of lightweight equipment is lightness. Mobile phones, action cameras and other devices can replace traditional SLR cameras and bulky cameras to capture images in shooting; secondly, technological advances have made lightweight creative devices with good stability, providing the possibility for direct shooting with handheld devices; for example, Huawei P40 Pro and sports camera DJI Osmo have excellent anti-shake effect for handheld shooting, and the picture has a strong sense of stability, which can be applied to many special scenes, such as lenses in sports scenes, subjective perspective lenses, and follow-up lenses. Thirdly, lightweight equipment is easy to deploy in a small space, such as shooting in a confined space, whereas a handheld camera needs to be equipped with a stabiliser, which is very bulky and difficult to move the mirror. At this time, using a mobile phone or an action camera, instead of a traditional camera, to shoot, panning and panning can be easily used, and the picture clarity and stability are excellent; finally, lightweight devices also have the characteristics of easy to operate, easy to use and low cost, including auxiliary equipment for mobile phones or lightweight action cameras, as well as small tripods, mobile phone stabilisers, simple flashes and simple lenses. These products are relatively cheap, allowing more and more ordinary people to participate in the team of film and television creation, and the content and style of the works are constantly innovating, which also promote the development of vertical video to a certain extent (Tables 1–3, respectively, list the models, functional characteristics and reference prices of some lightweight creation devices).
Models, features and prices of commonly used lightweight shooting equipment
|1. Huawei P40 pro 256G||Huawei P40 pro 256G Anti-shake shooting Better night shots||¥ 6999|
|2. Canon G7 × 3||Micro single with powerful beauty function||¥ 4999|
|3. DJI osmo||Portable Anti-Shake Smart follow||¥ 2499|
|4. Gopro||Automatic correction time-lapse photography||¥ 1000–3000|
|5. Panoramic camera insta360||HD Panorama||¥ 2798|
Models, features and prices of commonly used lightweight and stable equipment
|1. Stabiliser:Zhiyun smooth x||Advantages: The device comes with selfie stick, tripod function and can move the mirror intelligently||¥ 299|
|2. Small device tripod||Enhanced stability||¥ 20–200|
Models, features and prices of commonly used lightweight lighting equipment
|1. Photography light: Godox LEDp120c||Set top available portable||¥ 195|
|2. Ring beauty lamp||Ring light fill light evenly||¥ 20–300|
Mobile video editing app software is a simple video editing software developed for non-professional users or creators who use mobile phones to edit video in mobile scenes with the help of mobile phones. Nowadays, the popularity rate of lightweight editing software is very high. The reason for its popularity is that it can help ordinary users to quickly edit and release video anytime and anywhere so as to meet their psychological demands of using video to record life to express themselves.
Nowadays, the competition of the video platform is increasingly fierce, and editing software provided is also very rich, which is not only convenient for users to create but also a means to improve users’ stickiness. For example, the ‘cut image’ developed by the Tik Tok platform and the ‘quick image’ developed by the Kwai platform have simple video creation steps, which can be quickly shared on the corresponding platform after creation, increasing the user’s dependence on the platform and utilisation rate.
After the rise of smartphones, the frequency of people using them to record their lives has increased greatly. Mobile phones are not only a communication tool but also a carrier for people to express themselves and record beautiful moments. Today, when vertical videos are prosperous, it does not necessarily require proficient editing skills to impress the audience. Simple editing software can meet the needs of users. As a result, various companies have launched their video editing apps. Even Adobe, the world’s leading digital media provider, launched its own mobile video editing software Clips in April 2017. As a mobile app, the biggest advantage is convenience. In the era of mobile Internet, people have become accustomed to taking photos and videos with smartphones. The emergence of video editing apps enables users to edit their shooting content anytime and anywhere, instead of transferring the material to the PC for secondary editing. Easy sharing is also an advantage of video editing apps. Almost all current video editing apps have the function of one-click sharing to social platforms. People can watch their edited videos anytime and anywhere and share their video achievements with friends. Compared with the video editing software on the PC, the output time of the finished video product is greatly shortened in the video editing app, and there are fixed templates and styles for replacement . Introduction to some app editing software and functions shown in Table 4.
Categories, functions and user downloads of editing apps
|1. Clipping||Support functions: cutting variable speed reverse playback, a variety of special effects||1.2 billion|
|2. Vue||Edit mode: free mode, segment mode, support video skin beautification||200 million|
|3. Figure Bug||Photo card point artefact||50.84 million|
|4. StoryCut||Support functions: multi-segment splicing, video speed change, video in the same frame, quick screen recording||47.16 million|
|5. Videoleap||Support mixer (i.e. video mixing pictures)||20 thousand|
The particularity of vertical video creation is closely related to the inconsistency of technical requirements, equipment specifications and industry specifications of product creation in the industry. In terms of the relationship between early shooting and late editing, it can be roughly divided into ‘horizontal screen shooting and vertical screen editing’ and ‘vertical screen shooting and vertical screen editing’, with great differences between them.
‘Horizontal screen shooting, vertical screen editing’ can be a re-creation of a complete film and television work, or a vertical screen cropping of the original film and television work. For example, vertical screen variety show clips, vertical screen movie clips and event clips appear on some short video platforms. This kind of work saves the steps of pre-creation. It only needs to select the climax of the original work and then add simple subtitles, soundtrack or dubbing. It is often seen in the production mode of UGC. It is characterised by simple operation and a certain interactivity, enriching the ecology of content products, but the subsequent attraction is insufficient, and it is difficult to attract the audience’s continuous attention. Another form of ‘horizontal screen shooting, vertical screen editing’ is to use horizontal screen shooting recording methods in the early stage of creation, and use editing software to cut the early creative materials in the later stage of editing. Mango TV’s autonomous vertical screen network variety show ‘Strange Classmates’ adopts the processing method of horizontal screen shooting and vertical screen editing to solve the problem of depth of field of vertical screen. The horizontal screen shooting method conforms to the traditional image recording method, and the creators are more familiar with it. In most scenes, the screen captures the characters and the environment. However, this processing method also has many problems, such as 9:16 vertical screen cutting of 1080p images taken in 16:9 format, The picture resolution is reduced from 1920 × 1080 to 608 × 1080, which seriously affects the definition and is difficult to meet the audience’s visual needs for high-definition images. At the same time, cutting also magnifies the motion in the lens, making the picture look more jittery, and the subject person or object easier to draw.
The mode of ‘vertical screen shooting and vertical screen editing’ is another widely used creative means. Compared with the previous mode, the advantage of vertical screen shooting lies in the higher definition of materials in post-processing. Shooting can also find the composition in line with the vertical screen according to the characteristics of the vertical screen itself and cultivate the thinking mode of vertical screen creation. However, the difficulty lies in entering an unfamiliar creative field during creation. Many shooting skills and expression methods need to be explored, and there may be mismatched technical equipment. For example, the electronic viewfinder of the camera rotates above the camera during vertical video shooting, which is not conducive to observation and framing. At the same time, there are few vertical screen shooting stabilisers and aerial shooting equipment. Taking aerial photography equipment as an example, at present, among DJI series UAVs, only DJI Mavic Pro supports vertical screen shooting. Vertical screen shooting poses new challenges to creative techniques and equipment, which undoubtedly increase the difficulty of creation, especially for professional teams with higher requirements.
The vertical screen mode based on mobile Internet communication also carries the attributes of network media with its important characteristics of interactive and strong interaction. For example, when watching the vertical screen, you can thumb up, collect, relay and comment. When watching the vertical screen, you do not need to invert the screen. You can perform such operations with one hand with a better interaction effect. Therefore, finding interactive expression methods in video creation and using the interactive characteristics of mobile media to meet the audience’s interactive needs is an effective means to meet the vertical screen mode and improve the communication effect.
In the vertical screen program with a mobile phone as the communication carrier, the host changes the traditional style of previous TV programs and strengthens the interaction of communication with innovative tone, language and paraphrase, and the program is more in line with the Internet. The characteristics of the communication are conducive to the improvement of the communication effect. For example, the words ‘meeting emphasis’, ‘meeting pointed out’, ‘high importance’ and ‘implementation’ in the traditional ‘news broadcast’ appear frequently, which can easily create the illusion of abstraction, macroscopic, formalisation, etc. to the audience, and even the psychology of exclusion; thus, the important ideas transmitted cannot be accepted by the audience, especially the young people. Taking the mobile Internet as the communication carrier, the vertical screen news information program
Firstly, the text style of the past
The second is the use of paralanguage in the process of communication. In order to enhance interactivity, the use of paralanguage is a very effective means. The so-called paralanguage refers to the modal sounds with changing laws that naturally emerge in the process of communication, including tone, intonation, exclamation words, gestures and actions, including mood and intonation, exclamations and gesture movements. This kind of paralanguage can not only strengthen the appeal of communication but sometimes the emotions transmitted from it can also replace the voice language expression. For example, the host’s tone of voice is more vivid in
HTML5 (H5) refers to the fifth-generation version of the hypertext markup language HTML. Different from H1 to H4 versions, the format specification of graphics and text and the support for audio and video are implemented by plug-ins. The H5 version of the web page has a better structure and meaning and provides an unprecedented data open interface. H5 perfectly supports the new features of mobile media, integrating text, pictures, audio and video, panorama, live broadcast and many other media forms. At the same time, H5 also supports mobile interaction algorithms such as touch screen, gyroscope, positioning and recording. It provides a broader innovation space for the change of the interactive mode of digital publishing content . Vertical video is a mainstream direction of H5 in the near future, especially in the hot moment of short video, shooting and live broadcasting on the mobile terminal, which is in line with the habit of vertical holding by users on the mobile terminal.
In this process, H5 technology breaks the traditional way of content product dissemination. On the one hand, H5 breaks the traditional media concomitant communication mode and enhances the autonomy of information reception. Through modes such as sliding screen and clicking options, users’ passive reception is transformed into active reception, which enhances the interactivity and immersion of communication. On the other hand, H5 is a way to detect and strengthen the communication effect in the era of convergent media. For example, in the vertical screen Youth League class ‘Youth Learning’ shot by the ‘Central Committee of the Communist Youth League’, through the communication mode of ‘video explanation + H5’ answer test, the audience can take the corresponding answering test after watching the course and mark the right and wrong to explanation, which strengthen the viewer’s understanding and memory of the viewer and the learning effect.
In order to adapt to the media such as TV and computer screens, the picture format of traditional film and television programs has undergone a change from 4:3 to 16:9 to 21:9. It can be said that before the popularity of smartphones, ‘horizontal screen’ shooting has become the mainstream mode of video shooting in the industry. The scenes of ‘far, full, medium, near and special’ presented in the ‘horizontal screen’ video can not only show a grand and shocking scene but also reveal the delicate inner world of the characters. The ‘vertical screen’ is good at showing the hierarchical relationship of the vertical depth of field, and the composition of the picture has a natural ‘sense of communication’ and ‘intimacy’. “Vertical screen” due to the limitation of smartphone screen proportion, the traditional 16:9 screen can not meet the needs of users holding with one hand, so most of them adopt the frame proportion of 9:16, which has also become an important symbol to distinguish between “horizontal screen” and “vertical screen”. Compared with ‘horizontal screen’, vertical screen video uses more central focus lens when shooting, and the subject is dominant, paying more attention to the presentation of the details of the subject. This means that the characters in some shots will even become ‘absolute subjects’, which is more in line with people’s visual habits. The visual focus of the audience is entirely focused on the inner emotional expression of the characters. ‘Vertical screen’ creates a strong sense of cognitive intimacy, visual closure and viewing surround; produces the pleasure of staring and immersive experience; and improves visual productivity and visual efficiency.
In the external vertical screen composition, the horizontal screen video can also be integrated in the way of ‘split screen’. ‘Split screen’ is a relatively common editing method in TV drama production. The earliest ‘split screen’ can be traced back to ‘Life of an American Fireman’ directed by Edwin Potter in 1902. At this time, ‘split screen’ is mostly regarded as a ‘fancy’. The form of expression lacks application value. It was not until the 1860s and 1970s that ‘split screen’ was gradually incorporated into the narrative system of film and television production. The ‘split screen’ in TV series refers to the splicing of two or more shots in the same picture, which usually has the effect of creating parallel time and space, deepening the image of characters and speeding up the rhythm of the film. In the vertical screen, the ‘split screen’ method appears more in situations such as explaining scenes, displaying items, expressing character relationships and showing conversations. In the vertical screen micro-movie
With the surge of mobile phone users in China, the number of vertical video content products has shown a blowout trend. On the one hand, for ordinary users, the low-threshold creation method of vertical videos encourages social groups to use images to record and present life and gives ordinary people the power to be noticed by the society and the possibility to express themselves. Vertical video has become a new format to reflect people’s livelihood in the new era. On the other hand, for professional creators, vertical video puts forward new requirements, conforms to the trend of vertical screen creation, uses vertical video communication characteristics, develops creative methods in the new era, exerts the guiding function of new media and meets the spiritual and cultural needs of the people. Vertical video is of great significance in it.
Models, features and prices of commonly used lightweight and stable equipment
|1. Stabiliser:Zhiyun smooth x||Advantages: The device comes with selfie stick, tripod function and can move the mirror intelligently
|2. Small device tripod||Enhanced stability
Models, features and prices of commonly used lightweight lighting equipment
|1. Photography light: Godox LEDp120c||Set top available portable
|2. Ring beauty lamp||Ring light fill light evenly
Categories, functions and user downloads of editing apps
|1. Clipping||Support functions: cutting variable speed reverse playback, a variety of special effects
|2. Vue||Edit mode: free mode, segment mode, support video skin beautification
|3. Figure Bug||Photo card point artefact
|4. StoryCut||Support functions: multi-segment splicing, video speed change, video in the same frame, quick screen recording
|5. Videoleap||Support mixer (i.e. video mixing pictures)
Models, features and prices of commonly used lightweight shooting equipment
|1. Huawei P40 pro 256G||Huawei P40 pro 256G Anti-shake shooting Better night shots
|2. Canon G7 × 3||Micro single with powerful beauty function
|3. DJI osmo||Portable Anti-Shake Smart follow
|4. Gopro||Automatic correction time-lapse photography
|5. Panoramic camera insta360||HD Panorama
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Things optimisation for power grid data knowledge extraction Modeling the pathway of breast cancer in the Middle East Construction and intelligent analysis of power grid physical data knowledge graph based on Internet of Things for power system Research on industrial Internet of Things and power grid technology application based on knowledge graph and data asset relationship model Research on the effects of financial literacy on rural household credit constraint Calculus Logic Function in Integrated Manufacturing Automation of Single Chip Microcomputer Football Offense Training Strategy Based on Fractional Differential Mathematical Modeling Research on educational resource recommendation system based on MRLG Rec The Mathematical Analysis Model of Educational System in Music Courses in Colleges and Universities Continuing Education Network Data Center Model Based on Fractional Differential Mathematical Equations A study on the phenomenon of anaphoric correction in college students’ English conversation Computer Art Design Model Based on Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equations The Optimization Model of Public Space Design Teaching Reform Based on Fractional Differential Equations The Approximate Solution of Nonlinear Vibration of Tennis Based on Nonlinear Vibration Differential Equation Graphical Modular Power Technology of Distribution Network Based on Machine Learning Statistical Mathematical Equation Employment and Professional Education Training System of College Graduates Based on the Law of Large Numbers Economic Research on Multiple Linear Regression in Fruit Market inspection and Management Nonlinear Differential Equations in Preventing Financial Risks Lagrange’s Mathematical Equations in the Sports Training of College Students Simulation Research of Electrostatic Precipitator Power Supply Voltage Control System Based on Finite Element Differential Equation Research on the effect of generative adversarial network based on wavelet transform hidden Markov model on face creation and classification Research on Lightweight Injection Molding (CAE) and Numerical Simulation Calculate of New Energy Vehicle Power Flow Calculation in Smart Distribution Network Based on Power Machine Learning Based on Fractional Differential Equations Demonstration of application program of logistics public information management platform based on fuzzy constrained programming mathematical model Basketball Shooting Rate Based on Multiple Regression Logical-Mathematical Algorithm The Optimal Application of Lagrangian Mathematical Equations in Computer Data Analysis Similarity Solutions of the Surface Waves Equation in (2+1) Dimensions and Bifurcation Optimal decisions and channel coordination of a green supply chain with marketing effort and fairness concerns Game theoretic model for low carbon supply chain under carbon emissions reduction sensitive random demand Limit cycles of a generalised Mathieu differential system Influence of displacement ventilation on the distribution of pollutant concentrations in livestock housing Application of data mining in basketball statistics The nonlinear effects of ageing on national savings rate – An Empirical Study based on threshold model Design of fitness walker for the elderly based on ergonomic SAPAD model AtanK-A New SVM Kernel for Classification Mechanical behaviour of continuous girder bridge with corrugated steel webs constructed by RW Study of a linear-physical-programming-based approach for web service selection under uncertain service quality The Relationship Between College Students’ Taekwondo Courses and College Health Based on Mathematical Statistics Equations Analysis and countermeasures of cultivating independent learning ability in colleges teaching English based on OBE theory A mathematical model of plasmid-carried antibiotic resistance transmission in two types of cells Fractional Differential Equations in the Exploration of Geological and Mineral Construction AdaBoost Algorithm in Trustworthy Network for Anomaly Intrusion Detection Projection of Early Warning Identification of Hazardous Sources of Gas Explosion Accidents in Coal Mines Based on NTM Deep Learning Network Burnout of front-line city administrative law-enforcing personnel in new urban development areas: An empirical research in China Enterprise Financial Risk Early Warning System Based on Structural Equation Model A Study on the Application of Quantile Regression Equation in Forecasting Financial Value at Risk in Financial Markets Fractional Differential Equations in the Model of Vocational Education and Teaching Practice Environment Information transmission simulation of Internet of things communication nodes under collision free probability equation Image denoising model based on improved fractional calculus mathematical equation Random Fourier Approximation of the Kernel Function in Programmable Networks The Complexity of Virtual Reality Technology in the Simulation and Modeling of Civil Mathematical Models University Library Lending System Model Based on Fractional Differential Equations Calculation and Performance Evaluation of Text Similarity Based on Strong Classification Features Intelligent Matching System of Clauses in International Investment Arbitration Cases Based on Big Data Statistical Model Evaluation and Verification of Patent Value Based on Combination Forecasting Model Financial Institution Prevention Financial Risk Monitoring System Under the Fusion of Partial Differential Equations Prediction and Analysis of ChiNext Stock Price Based on Linear and Non-linear Composite Model Calculus Logic Function in Tax Risk Avoidance in Different Stages of Enterprises The Psychological Memory Forgetting Model Based on the Analysis of Linear Differential Equations Optimization Simulation System of University Science Education Based on Finite Differential Equations The Law of Large Numbers in Children's Education Optimization System of Strength and Flexibility Training in Aerobics Course Based on Lagrangian Mathematical Equation Data structure simulation for the reform of the teaching process of university computer courses RETRACTION NOTE Research on the mining of ideological and political knowledge elements in college courses based on the combination of LDA model and Apriori algorithm Research on non-linear visual matching model under inherent constraints of images Good congruences on weakly U-abundant semigroups Can policy coordination facilitate unimpeded trade? An empirical study on factors influencing smooth trade along the Belt and Road Research on the processing method of multi-source heterogeneous data in the intelligent agriculture cloud platform Internal control index and enterprise growth: An empirical study of Chinese listed-companies in the automobile manufacturing industry Research on design of customer portrait system for E-commerce Research on rule extraction method based on concept lattice of intuitionistic fuzzy language Fed-UserPro: A user profile construction method based on federated learning A multi-factor Regression Equation-based Test of Fitness Maximal Aerobic Capacity in Athletes Design and evaluation of intelligent teaching system on basic movements in PE Garment Image Retrieval based on Grab Cut Auto Segmentation and Dominate Color Method Financial Risk Prediction and Analysis Based on Nonlinear Differential Equations Constructivist Learning Method of Ordinary Differential Equations in College Mathematics Teaching Multiple Effects Analysis of Hangzhou Issuing Digital Consumer Coupons Based on Simultaneous Equations of CDM Model Response Model of Teachers’ Psychological Education in Colleges and Universities Based on Nonlinear Finite Element Equations A Hybrid Computational Intelligence Method of Newton's Method and Genetic Algorithm for Solving Compatible Nonlinear Equations Pressure Image Recognition of Lying Positions Based on Multi-feature value Regularized Extreme Learning Algorithm English Intelligent Question Answering System Based on elliptic fitting equation Precision Machining Technology of Jewelry on CNC Machine Tool Based on Mathematical Modeling Application Research of Mathematica Software in Calculus Teaching Computer Vision Communication Technology in Mathematical Modeling Skills of Music Creation Based on Homogeneous First-Order Linear Partial Differential Equations Mathematical Statistics Technology in the Educational Grading System of Preschool Students Music Recommendation Index Evaluation Based on Logistic Distribution Fitting Transition Probability Function Children's Educational Curriculum Evaluation Management System in Mathematical Equation Model Query Translation Optimization and Mathematical Modeling for English-Chinese Cross-Language Information Retrieval The Effect of Children’s Innovative Education Courses Based on Fractional Differential Equations Fractional Differential Equations in the Standard Construction Model of the Educational Application of the Internet of Things Optimization research on prefabricated concrete frame buildings based on the dynamic equation of eccentric structure and horizontal-torsional coupling Optimization in Mathematics Modeling and Processing of New Type Silicate Glass Ceramics Green building considering image processing technology combined with CFD numerical simulation Research on identifying psychological health problems of college students by logistic regression model based on data mining Abnormal Behavior of Fractional Differential Equations in Processing Computer Big Data Mathematical Modeling Thoughts and Methods Based on Fractional Differential Equations in Teaching Research on evaluation system of cross-border E-commerce platform based on the combined model A mathematical model of PCNN for image fusion with non-sampled contourlet transform Nonlinear Differential Equations in Computer-Aided Modeling of Big Data Technology The Uniqueness of Solutions of Fractional Differential Equations in University Mathematics Teaching Based on the Principle of Compression Mapping Financial customer classification by combined model Influence of displacement ventilation on the distribution of pollutant concentrations in livestock housing Recognition of Electrical Control System of Flexible Manipulator Based on Transfer Function Estimation Method Automatic Knowledge Integration Method of English Translation Corpus Based on Kmeans Algorithm Real Estate Economic Development Based on Logarithmic Growth Function Model Design of Tennis Mobile Teaching Assistant System Based on Ordinary Differential Equations Financial Crisis Early Warning Model of Listed Companies Based on Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis High Simulation Reconstruction of Crowd Animation Based on Optical Flow Constraint Equation Construction of Intelligent Search Engine for Big Data Multimedia Resource Subjects Based on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation 3D Animation Simulation of Computer Fractal and Fractal Technology Combined with Diamond-Square Algorithm Analysis of the Teaching Quality of Physical Education Class by Using the Method of Gradient Difference The Summation of Series Based on the Laplace Transformation Method in Mathematics Teaching Optimal Solution of the Fractional Differential Equation to Solve the Bending Performance Test of Corroded Reinforced Concrete Beams under Prestressed Fatigue Load Animation VR scene mosaic modeling based on generalized Laplacian equation Radial Basis Function Neural Network in Vibration Control of Civil Engineering Structure Optimal Model Combination of Cross-border E-commerce Platform Operation Based on Fractional Differential Equations The influence of accounting computer information processing technology on enterprise internal control under panel data simultaneous equation Research on Stability of Time-delay Force Feedback Teleoperation System Based on Scattering Matrix BIM Building HVAC Energy Saving Technology Based on Fractional Differential Equation Construction of comprehensive evaluation index system of water-saving irrigation project integrating penman Montei the quation Human Resource Management Model of Large Companies Based on Mathematical Statistics Equations Data Forecasting of Air-Conditioning Load in Large Shopping Malls Based on Multiple Nonlinear Regression Analysis of technical statistical indexes of college tennis players under the win-lose regression function equation Automatic extraction and discrimination of vocal main melody based on quadratic wave equation Analysis of wireless English multimedia communication based on spatial state model equation Optimization of Linear Algebra Core Function Framework on Multicore Processors Application of hybrid kernel function in economic benefit analysis and evaluation of enterprises Research on classification of e-commerce customers based on BP neural network The Control Relationship Between the Enterprise's Electrical Equipment and Mechanical Equipment Based on Graph Theory Mathematical Modeling and Forecasting of Economic Variables Based on Linear Regression Statistics Nonlinear Differential Equations in Cross-border E-commerce Controlling Return Rate 3D Mathematical Modeling Technology in Visualized Aerobics Dance Rehearsal System Fractional Differential Equations in Electronic Information Models BIM Engineering Management Oriented to Curve Equation Model Leakage control of urban water supply network and mathematical analysis and location of leakage points based on machine learning Analysis of higher education management strategy based on entropy and dissipative structure theory Prediction of corporate financial distress based on digital signal processing and multiple regression analysis Mathematical Method to Construct the Linear Programming of Football Training Multimedia sensor image detection based on constrained underdetermined equation The Size of Children's Strollers of Different Ages Based on Ergonomic Mathematics Design Application of Numerical Computation of Partial Differential Equations in Interactive Design of Virtual Reality Media Stiffness Calculation of Gear Hydraulic System Based on the Modeling of Nonlinear Dynamics Differential Equations in the Progressive Method Knowledge Analysis of Charged Particle Motion in Uniform Electromagnetic Field Based on Maxwell Equation Relationship Between Enterprise Talent Management and Performance Based on the Structural Equation Model Method Term structure of economic management rate based on parameter analysis of estimation model of ordinary differential equation Influence analysis of piano music immersion virtual reality cooperation based on mapping equation Chinese painting and calligraphy image recognition technology based on pseudo linear directional diffusion equation Label big data compression in Internet of things based on piecewise linear regression Animation character recognition and character intelligence analysis based on semantic ontology and Poisson equation Design of language assisted learning model and online learning system under the background of artificial intelligence Study on the influence of adolescent smoking on physical training vital capacity in eastern coastal areas Application of machine learning in stock selection Comparative analysis of CR of ideological and political education in different regions based on improved fuzzy clustering Action of Aut( G) on the set of maximal subgroups of p-groups Research on loyalty prediction of e-commerce customer based on data mining Algebraic Equations in Educational Model of College Physical Education Course Education Professional English Translation Corpus Under the Binomial Theorem Coefficient Geometric Tolerance Control Method for Precision Machinery Based on Image Modeling and Novel Saturation Function Retrieval and Characteristic Analysis of Multimedia Tester Based on Bragg Equation Semiparametric Spatial Econometric Analysis of Household Consumption Based on Ordinary Linear Regression Model Video adaptive watermark embedding and detection algorithm based on phase function equation English Learning Motivation of College Students Based on probability Distribution Scientific Model of Vocational Education Teaching Method in Differential Nonlinearity Research on mobile Awareness service and data privacy Protection based on Linear Equations computing protocol Vocal Music Teaching Model Based on Finite Element Differential Mathematical Equations Studying a matching method combining distance proximity and buffer constraints The trend and influence of media information Propagation based on nonlinear Differential equation Research on the construction of early warning model of customer churn on e-commerce platform Evaluation and prediction of regional human capital based on optimised BP neural network Study on inefficient land use determination method for cities and towns from a city examination perspective A study of local smoothness-informed convolutional neural network models for image inpainting Mathematical Calculus Modeling in Improving the Teaching Performance of Shot Put Application of Nonlinear Differential Equation in Electric Automation Control System Higher Mathematics Teaching Curriculum Model Based on Lagrangian Mathematical Model Computational Algorithm to Solve Two–Body Problem Using Power Series in Geocentric System Decisions of competing supply chain with altruistic retailer under risk aversion Optimization of Color Matching Technology in Cultural Industry by Fractional Differential Equations The Marketing of Cross-border E-commerce Enterprises in Foreign Trade Based on the Statistics of Mathematical Probability Theory Application of Linear Partial Differential Equation Theory in Guiding Football Scientific Training Nonlinear Channel Estimation for Internet of Vehicles Some Necessary Conditions for Feedback Functions of de Bruijn Sequences The Evolution Model of Regional Tourism Economic Development Difference Based on Spatial Variation Function System Model of Shipping Enterprise Safety Culture Based on Dynamic Calculation Matrix Model An empirical research on economic growth from industrial structure optimisation in the Three Gorges Reservoir area The Inner Relationship between Students' Psychological Factors and Physical Exercise Based on Structural Equation Model (SEM) Analysis and Research on Influencing Factors of Ideological and Political Education Teaching Effectiveness Based on Linear Equation Study of agricultural finance policy information extraction based on ELECTRA-BiLSTM-CRF Fractional Differential Equations in Sports Training in Universities Examination and Countermeasures of Network Education in Colleges and Universities Based on Ordinary Differential Equation Model Innovative research of vertical video creation under the background of mobile communication Higher Education Agglomeration Promoting Innovation and Entrepreneurship Based on Spatial Dubin Model Chinese-English Contrastive Translation System Based on Lagrangian Search Mathematical Algorithm Model Genetic algorithm-based congestion control optimisation for mobile data network