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Innovative research of vertical video creation under the background of mobile communication

Pubblicato online: 12 Dec 2022
Volume & Edizione: AHEAD OF PRINT
Pagine: -
Ricevuto: 23 May 2022
Accettato: 19 Nov 2022
Dettagli della rivista
License
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2444-8656
Prima pubblicazione
01 Jan 2016
Frequenza di pubblicazione
2 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese
Introduction

The huge market of vertical video attracts the attention of users, capital, government and other aspects. Not only the short video platforms represented by Tik Tok and Kuai mainly use the vertical screen in their presentation mode, but traditional long video platforms such as IQIYI have also launched vertical screen online short dramas Life is on Me and Arg Director to improve the attractiveness of mobile phone users. Even traditional media, known for their authority, are making efforts in the field of vertical screen video, such as the vertical screen program The anchor said the broadcast launched by CCTV News. The vertical screen not only provides users with a new space for online expression but also opens up a new battlefield for the competition between long and short video platforms, traditional and new media, and provides new means for political propaganda. Due to the complexity of the creation purpose, the vertical video has huge differences between the creation groups with more diversity of the creation process and creation equipment.

Reform and innovation of vertical video creation tools

The choice of creation equipment is not only affected by external factors such as the theme of the work and the shooting environment but also restricted by internal conditions such as the subject and the purpose of creation. Among them, user-generated content (UGC) refers to a content production mechanism generated by user contributions on websites or other open media and is one of the components of the web 2.0 concept, as opposed to specialised content production in the traditional media industry-based production models, which are mostly aimed at recording life and expressing oneself. Mobile phones, GoPro and portable card cameras can meet their demands. In some specific scenes, lightweight creation equipment can break the limitations of professional equipment, and the creation process is simpler and faster. Professional video teams or studios, due to the strong live broadcast properties of vertical screens, have higher requirements for the interactivity, participation and timeliness of program content, and sometimes lightweight equipment is also introduced supplemented with creation. Therefore, the introduction of lightweight equipment has had a huge transformation and far-reaching impact on the industry.

Application prospects of lightweight creation equipment

The popularity of mobile devices has provided a wider space for the creation of vertical video, reduced the cost of information collection and enhanced the timeliness of production content. Mobile phones have become a necessity for people’s daily travel. Creators can record people or things around them anytime and anywhere, which makes it possible for improvisation. Facing news events that may occur anytime and anywhere, mobile phone users can take multiple roles to complete the shooting, explanation, interview, editing and other work of event, and collect and release information in a timely manner. Lightweight equipment has become an important tool for video creation in the new era, including lightweight pre-shooting equipment and post-video editing apps based on mobile phones.

Firstly, lightweight devices can make content products more time-sensitive. From the perspective of vertical video creation, using mobile phones to shoot and edit vertical video has its unique advantages. The vertical shooting operation of the mobile phone is faster, which is conducive to the first-time recording of on-site emergencies. At the same time, the vertical holding of the mobile phone conforms to the physiological structure, and the shooting can be completed with one hand, and the picture is more stable. These unique advantages of handheld creation encourage users to take vertical screen shooting. The screen does not need to be exported after shooting, and the post-production of the video can be quickly completed by using mobile phone editing software launched by major platforms. The portable and efficient creation mode of lightweight equipment meets the demand of timeliness of content products in the network era.

Secondly, from the perspective of social demand, the low price and convenient operation of mobile devices have promoted the production and consumption demand of vertical video. Mobile devices provide a lower threshold for creation, which is beneficial to the production model of UGC. Users can make videos at a low cost and get started quickly. Mobile phone editing software also provides a large number of templates, such as Tik Tok’s editing software ‘Clipping’, which provides the function of video editing templates for beginners. These templates correspond to the themes photographed by the creators. The rhythm of music and the length of the shots are adjusted in the templates. The creator only needs to select the corresponding shots to generate the corresponding works of sound and picture. This portability makes clips quick to pick up. The popularity of UGC has brought the richness and diversity of content production, attracting more users to participate in it. The huge video production group and receiving group not only bring huge commercial profits but also continuously promote the development of the video creation industry and form a virtuous circle.

Here comes the question. The application of lightweight equipment is becoming more and more popular, so can its shooting quality, shooting effect, clarity, etc. meet the creative requirements of the creator? Can the continued development be comparable to the shooting effect of an SLR camera or a card camera? What is gratifying is that through the unremitting efforts of researchers in recent years, the resolution of mobile phone images is getting clear, more and more easily applied in other functions, and comes with more and more special effects. In some functions, there is a great momentum to replace the card machine. To illustrate this problem, let us first consider the factors that affect the image quality of mobile phones. In short, there are three main factors: the first is the size of the sensor, mainly the complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor area. As the saying goes, ‘the larger the sensor, the better’. The amount of light captured determines the exposure balance, dynamic range and sharpness of the camera. The size of the sensor determines the amount of light the camera uses to create an image, so a larger sensor captures a large amount of light than a smaller sensor, and more light produces a better image.

However, due to size limitations, the camera sensor of most smartphones is usually only 1/2.55 inch, and some are 1/1.7 inch or even larger, such as Huawei P40 series and Sony IMX700 can reach 1/1.28 inch and Samsung GN2 can reach 1/1.28 inch/1.12 inches, all of which are relatively large sensors available on the market today, while digital SLR cameras can easily reach one inch, so in terms of sensor size, mobile phones do not have an advantage. Figure 1 is a comparison of sensor sizes in smartphones in recent years. It can be seen that the size of the camera sensor used in flagship models has gradually increased in recent years.

Fig. 1

Sensor size (inches, diagonal)

The other two main factors that affect image quality are lens quality and image algorithms. Especially in recent years, with the increasingly powerful computing power of smart phones, many shooting functions can be well realised through image algorithms. For example, in mobile phone shooting, the performance of many scenes such as white balance, HDR, colour matching and night scene all depend on the level of image algorithms.

Take white balance as an example; in photography creation, we know that different light shines on a piece of white paper, giving a different white effect, and there will be a certain colour cast. For example, incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps and the colour of white paper under natural light. For human eyes, they are all white or close to white because the human brain has some prior information about things and will automatically make some corrections. But the sensor will only faithfully record the real situation, so you will see that the image taken by the camera is more aurantia in orange light and blue in incandescent light. What white balance needs to do is to make white objects photographed under light with different colour temperatures close to white.

So how to make this different white close to real white? When processing images on mobile phones, a computational photography called grey world algorithm was adopted by many manufacturers.

The grey world algorithm is based on a simple observation: in most of the pictures, we take of the scene, taking the average of all the pixel values, the result should be grey (which was discovered through experiments). Grey is a colour between black and white, which means that the energy of R, G and B channels is roughly equal: R = G = B. Therefore, we can first calculate the mean of each channel in the whole graph according to Formulas (1)–(3): Ravg=1NrRsensor(r)\begin{align}R_{avg}=\frac{1}{Nr}\sum Rsensor(r)\end{align} r=redpixelsvalues,Nr=#ofredpixels\begin{align*}r = \text{red}\, \text{pixels}\, \text{values,}\qquad Nr = \#\, \text{of}\, \text{red}\, \text{pixels}\end{align*} Gavg=1NgGsensor(g)\begin{align}G_{avg}=\frac{1}{Ng}\sum Gsensor(g)\end{align} g=greenpixelsvalues,Ng=#ofgreenpixels,\begin{align*}g=\text{green}\, \text{pixels}\, \text{values,}\qquad Ng = \#\, \text{of}\, \text{green}\, \text{pixels,}\end{align*} Bavg=1NbBsensor(b)\begin{align}B_{avg}=\frac{1}{Nb}\sum Bsensor(b)\end{align} b=bluepixelsvalues,Nb=#ofbluepixels\begin{align*}b = \text{blue}\, \text{pixels}\, \text{values,}\qquad Nb = \#\, \text{of}\, \text{blue}\, \text{pixels}\end{align*}

Then, taking the G channel (human eyes are more sensitive to green) as the benchmark, the scaling coefficients of R and B channels are calculated, and then the scaling coefficients are applied to each pixel:

The final picture is closer to the perception of the naked eye. As a very basic operation, the grey world algorithm is easy to fail in some cases (e.g. the colour mean value of pictures with a pure sky background is not grey). Therefore, more new algorithms with stronger adaptability have emerged in the follow-up [1]. Generally speaking, the closer it is to the perception of the human eye, the better is the white balance algorithm. The algorithm of visible images has a great impact on the shooting quality of image. The shooting performance indicators affected by the image algorithm such as automatic exposure control (AEC), sharpening, gamma correction, denoising and portrait background blur, all of which need the help of algorithm calculation and processing to make the mobile phone take photos to the extreme (not introduced here one by one). Image processing is so complicated, fortunately, after so many years of development of various chips, the technology has been quite mature. Many algorithms are directly solidified (compiled in assembly code) in the chip, so the speed is very fast, ensuring that the moment of mobile phone photographing is almost senseless.

To sum up, the lightweight mobile phone shooting function and image quality can basically meet the hardware requirements of creation. The practice of mobile phone creation has proved that the ingenious use of the shooting function of lightweight mobile phones can create high-level image works. On 23 May 2019, the vertical screen film Wukong created by director Cai Chengjie using Huawei P30 Pro zero external lens was released on Huawei’s official microblog, which was highly praised by netizens, further proving that mobile phones can become a professional image creation tool. The film shows macroshooting effects, stable effects under mobile shooting, excellent image quality in low light and the convenience of wide-angle and telephoto lenses, which further break people’s inherent cognition of mobile phone camera functions and inspire creators to continuously develop shooting modes and creative techniques of mobile phone images.

Operation advantages of lightweight camera equipment in shooting process

The main function of the camera equipment is to capture clear and stable images with good image quality to provide material for post-production creation. Equipment can be divided into two categories, one is lightweight equipment for shooting and outputting pictures, and the other is related equipment for assisting picture shooting. In the shooting of traditional movies or TV programs, the equipment for shooting the output picture includes cameras, SLRs, and UAVs, and the auxiliary shooting equipment includes tripods, stabilisers, large rockers, various rails and lighting equipment so as to change scenes or shoot moving lens under the condition of stability. Nowadays, in the shooting of vertical screen works, the trend of daily and life-like expression of images is constantly reflected, and the audience’s pursuit of portability and timeliness of equipment is increasing. Lightweight equipment is widely used on this basis.

Firstly, the most obvious advantage of lightweight equipment is lightness. Mobile phones, action cameras and other devices can replace traditional SLR cameras and bulky cameras to capture images in shooting; secondly, technological advances have made lightweight creative devices with good stability, providing the possibility for direct shooting with handheld devices; for example, Huawei P40 Pro and sports camera DJI Osmo have excellent anti-shake effect for handheld shooting, and the picture has a strong sense of stability, which can be applied to many special scenes, such as lenses in sports scenes, subjective perspective lenses, and follow-up lenses. Thirdly, lightweight equipment is easy to deploy in a small space, such as shooting in a confined space, whereas a handheld camera needs to be equipped with a stabiliser, which is very bulky and difficult to move the mirror. At this time, using a mobile phone or an action camera, instead of a traditional camera, to shoot, panning and panning can be easily used, and the picture clarity and stability are excellent; finally, lightweight devices also have the characteristics of easy to operate, easy to use and low cost, including auxiliary equipment for mobile phones or lightweight action cameras, as well as small tripods, mobile phone stabilisers, simple flashes and simple lenses. These products are relatively cheap, allowing more and more ordinary people to participate in the team of film and television creation, and the content and style of the works are constantly innovating, which also promote the development of vertical video to a certain extent (Tables 13, respectively, list the models, functional characteristics and reference prices of some lightweight creation devices).

Models, features and prices of commonly used lightweight shooting equipment

Shooting equipmentShooting equipmentEquipment price (CNY)
1. Huawei P40 pro 256GHuawei P40 pro 256G Anti-shake shooting Better night shots4K 60fps shooting7680 frames/second slow motion¥ 6999
2. Canon G7 × 3Micro single with powerful beauty functionThe lens can be flipped¥ 4999
3. DJI osmoPortable Anti-Shake Smart followSuitable for shooting character details or slow motion¥ 2499
4. GoproAutomatic correction time-lapse photographyWaterproof and anti-shake¥ 1000–3000
5. Panoramic camera insta360HD PanoramaWaterproof and anti-shake Invisible selfie stick¥ 2798

Models, features and prices of commonly used lightweight and stable equipment

Shooting equipmentShooting equipmentEquipment price (CNY)
1. Stabiliser:Zhiyun smooth xAdvantages: The device comes with selfie stick, tripod function and can move the mirror intelligentlyDisadvantage: no pitch axis¥ 299
2. Small device tripodEnhanced stabilityTime-lapse photography¥ 20–200

Models, features and prices of commonly used lightweight lighting equipment

Shooting equipmentShooting equipmentEquipment price (CNY)
1. Photography light: Godox LEDp120cSet top available portableCan be used with a lamp holderSupport stepless dimming and portable operation¥ 195
2. Ring beauty lampRing light fill light evenlySoft light with simple soft light effect need close-up shots, light equipment¥ 20–300
Features and advantages of mobile video editing app software

Mobile video editing app software is a simple video editing software developed for non-professional users or creators who use mobile phones to edit video in mobile scenes with the help of mobile phones. Nowadays, the popularity rate of lightweight editing software is very high. The reason for its popularity is that it can help ordinary users to quickly edit and release video anytime and anywhere so as to meet their psychological demands of using video to record life to express themselves.

Nowadays, the competition of the video platform is increasingly fierce, and editing software provided is also very rich, which is not only convenient for users to create but also a means to improve users’ stickiness. For example, the ‘cut image’ developed by the Tik Tok platform and the ‘quick image’ developed by the Kwai platform have simple video creation steps, which can be quickly shared on the corresponding platform after creation, increasing the user’s dependence on the platform and utilisation rate.

After the rise of smartphones, the frequency of people using them to record their lives has increased greatly. Mobile phones are not only a communication tool but also a carrier for people to express themselves and record beautiful moments. Today, when vertical videos are prosperous, it does not necessarily require proficient editing skills to impress the audience. Simple editing software can meet the needs of users. As a result, various companies have launched their video editing apps. Even Adobe, the world’s leading digital media provider, launched its own mobile video editing software Clips in April 2017. As a mobile app, the biggest advantage is convenience. In the era of mobile Internet, people have become accustomed to taking photos and videos with smartphones. The emergence of video editing apps enables users to edit their shooting content anytime and anywhere, instead of transferring the material to the PC for secondary editing. Easy sharing is also an advantage of video editing apps. Almost all current video editing apps have the function of one-click sharing to social platforms. People can watch their edited videos anytime and anywhere and share their video achievements with friends. Compared with the video editing software on the PC, the output time of the finished video product is greatly shortened in the video editing app, and there are fixed templates and styles for replacement [2]. Introduction to some app editing software and functions shown in Table 4.

Categories, functions and user downloads of editing apps

Editing equipment categoryFeaturesUser downloads
1. ClippingSupport functions: cutting variable speed reverse playback, a variety of special effectsSupport functions: sticker text, exclusive hand-painted stickers, multiple styles of fonts, subtitlesSupport functions: exclusive music library of TikTok, massive music, support one-second voice changeSupport functions: a variety of advanced filters, exclusive beauty functions, intelligent face recognition1.2 billion
2. VueEdit mode: free mode, segment mode, support video skin beautificationSupport filter, capture, split, screen adjustment, zoom, reverse, lens speed (0.25-4x speed), sound enhancement, stickers, text, subtitles, music, recording200 million
3. Figure BugPhoto card point artefactSupport functions: music card points, one-click generation, up to 78 photo vlogsSupport functions: photo to watercolour, intelligent AI technology, photo to watercolour with one clickSupport function: dynamically present static pictures with powerful AI technology50.84 million
4. StoryCutSupport functions: multi-segment splicing, video speed change, video in the same frame, quick screen recordingSupport functions: basic tutorials – how to remove watermarks/how to cut pictures, etc.Supporting functions: creative intro/end/popular material47.16 million
5. VideoleapSupport mixer (i.e. video mixing pictures)Support for adding effects: lens flare, defocus, prism, kaleidoscope, colour fill, vignette, film grainSupport special effects: pixelation, RGB, CRT, scan, etching, pseudo-3D20 thousand
Reform and innovation of vertical video creation process

The particularity of vertical video creation is closely related to the inconsistency of technical requirements, equipment specifications and industry specifications of product creation in the industry. In terms of the relationship between early shooting and late editing, it can be roughly divided into ‘horizontal screen shooting and vertical screen editing’ and ‘vertical screen shooting and vertical screen editing’, with great differences between them.

‘Horizontal screen shooting, vertical screen editing’ can be a re-creation of a complete film and television work, or a vertical screen cropping of the original film and television work. For example, vertical screen variety show clips, vertical screen movie clips and event clips appear on some short video platforms. This kind of work saves the steps of pre-creation. It only needs to select the climax of the original work and then add simple subtitles, soundtrack or dubbing. It is often seen in the production mode of UGC. It is characterised by simple operation and a certain interactivity, enriching the ecology of content products, but the subsequent attraction is insufficient, and it is difficult to attract the audience’s continuous attention. Another form of ‘horizontal screen shooting, vertical screen editing’ is to use horizontal screen shooting recording methods in the early stage of creation, and use editing software to cut the early creative materials in the later stage of editing. Mango TV’s autonomous vertical screen network variety show ‘Strange Classmates’ adopts the processing method of horizontal screen shooting and vertical screen editing to solve the problem of depth of field of vertical screen. The horizontal screen shooting method conforms to the traditional image recording method, and the creators are more familiar with it. In most scenes, the screen captures the characters and the environment. However, this processing method also has many problems, such as 9:16 vertical screen cutting of 1080p images taken in 16:9 format, The picture resolution is reduced from 1920 × 1080 to 608 × 1080, which seriously affects the definition and is difficult to meet the audience’s visual needs for high-definition images. At the same time, cutting also magnifies the motion in the lens, making the picture look more jittery, and the subject person or object easier to draw.

The mode of ‘vertical screen shooting and vertical screen editing’ is another widely used creative means. Compared with the previous mode, the advantage of vertical screen shooting lies in the higher definition of materials in post-processing. Shooting can also find the composition in line with the vertical screen according to the characteristics of the vertical screen itself and cultivate the thinking mode of vertical screen creation. However, the difficulty lies in entering an unfamiliar creative field during creation. Many shooting skills and expression methods need to be explored, and there may be mismatched technical equipment. For example, the electronic viewfinder of the camera rotates above the camera during vertical video shooting, which is not conducive to observation and framing. At the same time, there are few vertical screen shooting stabilisers and aerial shooting equipment. Taking aerial photography equipment as an example, at present, among DJI series UAVs, only DJI Mavic Pro supports vertical screen shooting. Vertical screen shooting poses new challenges to creative techniques and equipment, which undoubtedly increase the difficulty of creation, especially for professional teams with higher requirements.

Reform and innovation of vertical video communication experience

The vertical screen mode based on mobile Internet communication also carries the attributes of network media with its important characteristics of interactive and strong interaction. For example, when watching the vertical screen, you can thumb up, collect, relay and comment. When watching the vertical screen, you do not need to invert the screen. You can perform such operations with one hand with a better interaction effect. Therefore, finding interactive expression methods in video creation and using the interactive characteristics of mobile media to meet the audience’s interactive needs is an effective means to meet the vertical screen mode and improve the communication effect.

The style change of vertical video screen language in the context of mobile communication

In the vertical screen program with a mobile phone as the communication carrier, the host changes the traditional style of previous TV programs and strengthens the interaction of communication with innovative tone, language and paraphrase, and the program is more in line with the Internet. The characteristics of the communication are conducive to the improvement of the communication effect. For example, the words ‘meeting emphasis’, ‘meeting pointed out’, ‘high importance’ and ‘implementation’ in the traditional ‘news broadcast’ appear frequently, which can easily create the illusion of abstraction, macroscopic, formalisation, etc. to the audience, and even the psychology of exclusion; thus, the important ideas transmitted cannot be accepted by the audience, especially the young people. Taking the mobile Internet as the communication carrier, the vertical screen news information program The anchor said the broadcat, which is broadcast by mobile phone users, has made transformative adjustments, which can be used for reference.

Firstly, the text style of the past News broadcast has been changed in The anchor said the broadcast. When creating commentaries, the style is much sharp and the words are bolder. Haixia used ‘Japan and South Korea delete each other’s friends and blackmail each other’. Describe the relationship between Japan and South Korea; Kanghui reminded Cathay Pacific ‘no Zuo no die’ [3]. This breaks the stereotype of the serious and unsmiling host in traditional hard news. It effectively shortens the distance between the audience and the communicator and completes the task of publicising and educating the audience in a relaxed and harmonious atmosphere.

The second is the use of paralanguage in the process of communication. In order to enhance interactivity, the use of paralanguage is a very effective means. The so-called paralanguage refers to the modal sounds with changing laws that naturally emerge in the process of communication, including tone, intonation, exclamation words, gestures and actions, including mood and intonation, exclamations and gesture movements. This kind of paralanguage can not only strengthen the appeal of communication but sometimes the emotions transmitted from it can also replace the voice language expression. For example, the host’s tone of voice is more vivid in The anchor said the broadcast, and gestures are added to strengthen emotional expression so that the audience has a stronger sense of communication when watching, so as to increase the interactivity of communication.

Interactive communication mode supported by H5 technology

HTML5 (H5) refers to the fifth-generation version of the hypertext markup language HTML. Different from H1 to H4 versions, the format specification of graphics and text and the support for audio and video are implemented by plug-ins. The H5 version of the web page has a better structure and meaning and provides an unprecedented data open interface. H5 perfectly supports the new features of mobile media, integrating text, pictures, audio and video, panorama, live broadcast and many other media forms. At the same time, H5 also supports mobile interaction algorithms such as touch screen, gyroscope, positioning and recording. It provides a broader innovation space for the change of the interactive mode of digital publishing content [4]. Vertical video is a mainstream direction of H5 in the near future, especially in the hot moment of short video, shooting and live broadcasting on the mobile terminal, which is in line with the habit of vertical holding by users on the mobile terminal.

In this process, H5 technology breaks the traditional way of content product dissemination. On the one hand, H5 breaks the traditional media concomitant communication mode and enhances the autonomy of information reception. Through modes such as sliding screen and clicking options, users’ passive reception is transformed into active reception, which enhances the interactivity and immersion of communication. On the other hand, H5 is a way to detect and strengthen the communication effect in the era of convergent media. For example, in the vertical screen Youth League class ‘Youth Learning’ shot by the ‘Central Committee of the Communist Youth League’, through the communication mode of ‘video explanation + H5’ answer test, the audience can take the corresponding answering test after watching the course and mark the right and wrong to explanation, which strengthen the viewer’s understanding and memory of the viewer and the learning effect.

Reform and innovation in vertical video composition

In order to adapt to the media such as TV and computer screens, the picture format of traditional film and television programs has undergone a change from 4:3 to 16:9 to 21:9. It can be said that before the popularity of smartphones, ‘horizontal screen’ shooting has become the mainstream mode of video shooting in the industry. The scenes of ‘far, full, medium, near and special’ presented in the ‘horizontal screen’ video can not only show a grand and shocking scene but also reveal the delicate inner world of the characters. The ‘vertical screen’ is good at showing the hierarchical relationship of the vertical depth of field, and the composition of the picture has a natural ‘sense of communication’ and ‘intimacy’. “Vertical screen” due to the limitation of smartphone screen proportion, the traditional 16:9 screen can not meet the needs of users holding with one hand, so most of them adopt the frame proportion of 9:16, which has also become an important symbol to distinguish between “horizontal screen” and “vertical screen”. Compared with ‘horizontal screen’, vertical screen video uses more central focus lens when shooting, and the subject is dominant, paying more attention to the presentation of the details of the subject. This means that the characters in some shots will even become ‘absolute subjects’, which is more in line with people’s visual habits. The visual focus of the audience is entirely focused on the inner emotional expression of the characters. ‘Vertical screen’ creates a strong sense of cognitive intimacy, visual closure and viewing surround; produces the pleasure of staring and immersive experience; and improves visual productivity and visual efficiency.

In the external vertical screen composition, the horizontal screen video can also be integrated in the way of ‘split screen’. ‘Split screen’ is a relatively common editing method in TV drama production. The earliest ‘split screen’ can be traced back to ‘Life of an American Fireman’ directed by Edwin Potter in 1902. At this time, ‘split screen’ is mostly regarded as a ‘fancy’. The form of expression lacks application value. It was not until the 1860s and 1970s that ‘split screen’ was gradually incorporated into the narrative system of film and television production. The ‘split screen’ in TV series refers to the splicing of two or more shots in the same picture, which usually has the effect of creating parallel time and space, deepening the image of characters and speeding up the rhythm of the film. In the vertical screen, the ‘split screen’ method appears more in situations such as explaining scenes, displaying items, expressing character relationships and showing conversations. In the vertical screen micro-movie Wukong, the split screen is used to display the various equipment that the teenagers were carrying to the cinema: slingshots, daggers and flashlights. The advantage of this display is that the expressions of the dialogue characters can be well taken into account, but to a certain extent, it weakens the positional relationship of the characters, which is similar to the expression method of holding horns and teasing horns while facing the lens to attract the audience with lines in crosstalk performance. The split screen can also explain the environment or background while showing the characters. The use of the split screen method in the vertical screen is also a means to effectively use the horizontal screen material shot or collected in the early stage. Taking account of the advantages of the horizontal screen material, the picture quality is also clearer.

Conclusion

With the surge of mobile phone users in China, the number of vertical video content products has shown a blowout trend. On the one hand, for ordinary users, the low-threshold creation method of vertical videos encourages social groups to use images to record and present life and gives ordinary people the power to be noticed by the society and the possibility to express themselves. Vertical video has become a new format to reflect people’s livelihood in the new era. On the other hand, for professional creators, vertical video puts forward new requirements, conforms to the trend of vertical screen creation, uses vertical video communication characteristics, develops creative methods in the new era, exerts the guiding function of new media and meets the spiritual and cultural needs of the people. Vertical video is of great significance in it.

Fig. 1

Sensor size (inches, diagonal)
Sensor size (inches, diagonal)

Models, features and prices of commonly used lightweight and stable equipment

Shooting equipment Shooting equipment Equipment price (CNY)
1. Stabiliser:Zhiyun smooth x Advantages: The device comes with selfie stick, tripod function and can move the mirror intelligentlyDisadvantage: no pitch axis ¥ 299
2. Small device tripod Enhanced stabilityTime-lapse photography ¥ 20–200

Models, features and prices of commonly used lightweight lighting equipment

Shooting equipment Shooting equipment Equipment price (CNY)
1. Photography light: Godox LEDp120c Set top available portableCan be used with a lamp holderSupport stepless dimming and portable operation ¥ 195
2. Ring beauty lamp Ring light fill light evenlySoft light with simple soft light effect need close-up shots, light equipment ¥ 20–300

Categories, functions and user downloads of editing apps

Editing equipment category Features User downloads
1. Clipping Support functions: cutting variable speed reverse playback, a variety of special effectsSupport functions: sticker text, exclusive hand-painted stickers, multiple styles of fonts, subtitlesSupport functions: exclusive music library of TikTok, massive music, support one-second voice changeSupport functions: a variety of advanced filters, exclusive beauty functions, intelligent face recognition 1.2 billion
2. Vue Edit mode: free mode, segment mode, support video skin beautificationSupport filter, capture, split, screen adjustment, zoom, reverse, lens speed (0.25-4x speed), sound enhancement, stickers, text, subtitles, music, recording 200 million
3. Figure Bug Photo card point artefactSupport functions: music card points, one-click generation, up to 78 photo vlogsSupport functions: photo to watercolour, intelligent AI technology, photo to watercolour with one clickSupport function: dynamically present static pictures with powerful AI technology 50.84 million
4. StoryCut Support functions: multi-segment splicing, video speed change, video in the same frame, quick screen recordingSupport functions: basic tutorials – how to remove watermarks/how to cut pictures, etc.Supporting functions: creative intro/end/popular material 47.16 million
5. Videoleap Support mixer (i.e. video mixing pictures)Support for adding effects: lens flare, defocus, prism, kaleidoscope, colour fill, vignette, film grainSupport special effects: pixelation, RGB, CRT, scan, etching, pseudo-3D 20 thousand

Models, features and prices of commonly used lightweight shooting equipment

Shooting equipment Shooting equipment Equipment price (CNY)
1. Huawei P40 pro 256G Huawei P40 pro 256G Anti-shake shooting Better night shots4K 60fps shooting7680 frames/second slow motion ¥ 6999
2. Canon G7 × 3 Micro single with powerful beauty functionThe lens can be flipped ¥ 4999
3. DJI osmo Portable Anti-Shake Smart followSuitable for shooting character details or slow motion ¥ 2499
4. Gopro Automatic correction time-lapse photographyWaterproof and anti-shake ¥ 1000–3000
5. Panoramic camera insta360 HD PanoramaWaterproof and anti-shake Invisible selfie stick ¥ 2798

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