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Burnout of front-line city administrative law-enforcing personnel in new urban development areas: An empirical research in China

Pubblicato online: 29 Apr 2022
Volume & Edizione: AHEAD OF PRINT
Pagine: -
Ricevuto: 25 Jun 2021
Accettato: 23 Jan 2022
Dettagli della rivista
License
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2444-8656
Prima pubblicazione
01 Jan 2016
Frequenza di pubblicazione
2 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese
Abstract

The city administrative law-enforcing personnel (shorted to ‘chengguan’ in China) burnout is serious. How to timely detect, accurately measure and alleviate the burnout is an important issue for the new urban development areas in China. To construct the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, surveys in new urban areas of China were carried out. Results showed that burnout of chengguan was significantly different in terms of demographic characteristics. Job burnout of chengguan can be predicted by job demands and job resources. These findings can provide implications and guidance for the government sectors to reduce the intangible loss of human resources and to improve their health.

Keywords

Introduction

Civil servants are the subjects of government action and are the specific contractors of the government to carry out public management and provide public services, whose work status directly affects the efficiency of public administration and the quality of public services of the government. As a member of civil servants who specialises in city administrative law enforcement, the city administrative law-enforcing personnel (commonly shorted to ‘chengguan’ in the People’s Republic of China) faces complex city administrative issues and changing situations. With the reform of the government in recent years, the city administrative law enforcement has also experienced an expansion of enforcement authority, which is closely related to the life of the masses; the concentration of difficulties in law enforcement and the high degree of public opinion have been further strengthened; and burnout of chengguan arises in the workplace. How to timely detect, accurately measure and alleviate the burnout of chengguan, reduce the loss of human resources of city administrative law enforcement team and improve the effectiveness of city administrative law enforcement is an important issue for governments.

Burnout, consisting of three components of emotional exhaustion, cynicism and reduced personal accomplishment, reflects the stress dimension, interpersonal dimension and self-evaluation dimension of burnout, respectively [1, 2]. Burnout is a series of negative physical, mental and emotional reactions that result from an individual’s inability to handle workloads and interpersonal relationships well at work. Individuals who feel burnout will not only affect their work efficiency, physical and mental health, work status and family relationships but also reduce their self-evaluation and happiness [3].

Regarding burnout among government and government-affiliated institutions staff, most of the current studies have been conducted on grassroots civil servant groups such as townships [4, 5, 6], police officers [7], and teachers [8] but few on front-line city administrative officers. In particular, the burnout of chengguan has not received adequate attention, and the related burnout issues have yet to be comprehensively studied. At the same time, some of the new urban development areas arise in China due to urbanisation. New cities have the functional positioning of taking over the out-migration of urban population, medical care and education [9], which have rapid urban construction, frequent economic activities, rapid growth of population and complex personnel structure, thus putting forward more requirements for city administration, making it more urgent to conduct relevant studies on chengguan.

The city administrative law-enforcing department in China is responsible for the 425 law enforcement items under 14 categories, and the scope of enforcement is wide. Meanwhile, there is a relative shortage of law-enforcing officers, which often requires overtime, and burnout is prone to occur. The new urban development areas have a wide coverage and complex composition of law-enforcing targets, which have different reactions to violations being enforced, while the public opinion is not friendly to chengguan, which makes chengguan easily frustrated. And the city administrative law-enforcing department has problems such as slow promotion and low ceiling for promotion, the less coordinated age composition of the staff and the institutional realities such as the section hierarchy.

Based on the conservation of resources theory (COR) and the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, this paper sorts out the influential factors that may affect burnout of chengguan. Interviews and questionnaires were conducted to understand the burnout of chengguan in Beijing and the degree of burnout with different demographic characteristics. We empirically analyse the factors influencing burnout of chenggaun and propose suggestions to alleviate burnout of front-line chengguan from organisational perspectives.

Literature review and model proposal
Conservation of resource theory

Hobfoll [10] and others explained burnout from a resource perspective, proposing the COR. COR indicates that burnout occurs when individuals fail to meet the job requirements and when the valuable resources invested do not yield the envisioned returns, i.e., when they lose their unique resource situation, individuals develop a sense of loss of their own resources and burnout occurs. Hobfoll proposed conditional resources, individual resources, physical resources and energy resources. Lee and Ashforth [11] analysed and studied the resources based on the COR and pointed out that various occupations have specific factors that affect burnout, and these different various factors can be divided into two main categories, namely, job demands and job resources. Burnout occurs when one of three situations occurs, an individual loses a particularly important resource, job demands are not met or work effort is not rewarded as expected. Access to resources then helps people to take appropriate defensive measures to improve their self-efficacy [12]. In addition, burnout and lack of job resources can bring about some specific behaviours and states such as the tendency to turnover, lower organisational commitment, lower job satisfaction and weakened job engagement [11].

JD-R model of burnout based on COR

Regarding the factors influencing burnout, scholars have proposed different theoretical models through empirical studies [13]. Dermerouti et al. (2001) proposed the JD-R model of burnout based on COR–JD-R model (see Figure 1), which is widely recognised and has demonstrated its general applicability in various occupational empirical studies [14].

Fig. 1

The job demands-resources model of burnout

Job demands respond to the physical, social or organisational aspects of the job, such as physical workload, time pressure, physical environment, role pressure and emotional demands, and require employees to put in physical or emotional effort [15]. Job resources are features of work that contribute to the achievement of work goals, including physical, psychological, social and organisational resources, such as emotional intelligence as a psychological resource, job control, participation and task diversity as job resources [15]. These resources help to reduce the physical and mental efforts required to meet job demands and stimulate personal growth and development. Excessive job demands will deplete individual employees’ resources, leading to energy depletion and health problems, and lack of job resources will reduce employees’ work engagement.

The COR theory and the JD-R model were proposed to clarify that influences on burnout are job demands and job resources, providing a theoretical framework for burnout research in a specific occupational field. The study of burnout has gradually expanded from mainly teachers and healthcare workers to police officers, civil servants and corporate employees [4, 7, 16, 17, 18]. However, there is little research on the factors influencing burnout of chengguan, and this paper conducts a targeted study on this.

JD-R model of front-line chengguan

Through the above related theoretical and JD-R model research results and combined with the interviews with the first-line chengguan and the generalisation of actual work characteristics, this study concluded that the following dimensions have significant impact on the burnout of the relevant staff and should be included in the scope of the study.

Job demands
Workload

The daily work of chengguan involves a wide range of specific tasks, from supervision of cleaning, small advertisements, garbage classification, ground stakes and ground locks to construction site dust, vehicle spills, gas safety and electrical safety; and the scope of law enforcement is very wide. For example, each town and street in one district is composed of 5–8 official chengguan and a corresponding number of auxiliary law-enforcing officers. Staffing is often stretched to the limit, overtime is often required and burnout tends to occur.

Role pressure

The scope of city administrative law enforcement involves the people’s livelihood of the country, and the responsibility of chengguan is huge. As an important law enforcement portion within the jurisdiction of the township, the task is sometimes beyond the authority of city administrative law enforcement and the role is sometimes ambiguous.

Work-family conflict

Township chengguan is usually required to be on duty once every 3–4 days, which is several times more frequently than the general administration and often requires overtime. And they usually cannot take all weekends off and need to take shifts, resulting in little time and energy to balance family and work at the same time, which sometimes brings family conflict.

Job resources
Supervisor, colleague and organisational support

Whether an employee is supported by his/her superiors and colleagues and feels recognised by the organisation for his/her work are the important aspects of job resources. According to the theory of organisational support, when employees receive organisational support, they will work harder, improve their attendance and performance, have a greater sense of organisational identification and be more willing contribute to the development of the organisation.

Career control and development

Due to the hierarchy system, the relevant administrative departments generally have narrow promotion channels. As an administrative law-enforcing department, there is the problem of slow promotion and low ceiling for promotion.

Psychological regulation

City administrative law enforcement faces both individuals and units, and the law enforcement covers a wide range and has a complex composition, and the reaction to violations by law enforcement varies. As the public opinion is not friendly to chengguan, they are easily frustrated, so the psychological regulation also has an impact on the generation of burnout. The research model is shown in Figure 2.

Fig. 2

Research Model

Methods
Sample and procedures

The survey includes questionnaires and in-depth interviews. A total of 23 members of the front-line city administration team were interviewed in depth, focussing on their views on burnout, their own feelings and performance and suggestions for alleviating burnout. Subjects of the survey are front-line chengguan and auxiliary law-enforcing officers under the jurisdiction of the City Administrative Law-Enforcing Bureau of Beijing (CALEB). A total of 327 questionnaires were distributed, 327 questionnaires were collected, 23 invalid questionnaires were excluded and 304 valid questionnaires were obtained. We tested the potential bias by Harman’s one-factor test, which indicated that no single factor explained most of the variance (the largest was 27.45%).

Table 1 reveals the sample representativeness with necessary parameter values.

Samples (n=304)

Variable Frequency Percentage

Gender Male 199 65.5%
Female 105 34.5%
Age Younger than 30 83 27.3%
31–35 83 27.3%
36–40 72 23.7%
41–45 18 5.9%
46–50 17 5.6%
51 and above 31 10.2%
Marriage Married 221 72.3%
Unmarried 83 27.3%
Education High school 15 4.9%
Associate 69 22.7%
Bachelor 199 65.5%
Post graduate 21 6.9%
Working years Less than 5 year 86 28.3%
5–10 year 87 28.6%
11–15 year 64 21.1%
16–20 year 42 13.8%
20 year and above 25 8.2%
Type of positions Team leader, instructor, deputy team leader 42 13.8%
permanent 183 60.2%
auxiliary 79 26.0%
Rank Division and deputy division level 6 2.0%
section level 41 13.5%
deputy section level 69 22.7%
Section Member 109 35.9%
Unranked 79 26.0%
Measures
Burnout

Using a 7-point Likert-type scale (1 = never; 7 = everyday), we measure job burnout using the Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey (MBI-GS) [1,2], which measured emotional exhaustion (five items, sample item: ‘working all day is really a strain for me’), cynicism (four items, sample item: ‘I doubt the significance of my work’) and personal accomplishment (six items, sample item: ‘I have accomplished many worthwhile things in this job’ [reverse scored]). Cronbach’s α of 0.92 was considered.

Job demands and resources

The job demands include workload, role pressure, work-family conflict and other aspects of a total of 11 questions. Cronbach’s α of 0.92 was considered. Job resources include a total of 16 questions in the areas of supervisor and colleague support, organisational support, sense of control at work and self-psychological regulation. Cronbach’s α of 0.89 was considered. Officers give the perception of their job demand and resources, which is given on a five-point Likert scale ranging from 1 = never to 5 = always.

Analytic strategy

The data analysis consists of three parts. The first part is the descriptive statistics and correlation analysis, which describes the basic characteristics of all variables and the correlations between them. The second part uses t-test and ANOVA to test for differences in burnout among demographic characteristics of front-line chengguan. The third part is to use regression analysis to test the different effects of various dimensions of job demands and job resources on burnout of front-line chengguan so as to discover the predictors of burnout.

Results
Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis

As shown in Table 2, the mean value of the burnout of chengguan is 2.95. Specifically, mean values of emotional exhaustion, cynicism and reduced personal accomplishment are 3.00, 2.64 and 3.16, respectively. It can be seen that burnout arises mainly because the administrative law enforcement is at the focus of social conflicts, and the resistance and overtime duty are still relatively high, thus leading to a rising sense of energy depletion. And institutional mechanisms such as the hierarchy system and social opinion restrictions are not easy to form a high self-evaluation for personal achievement, thus resulting in a lack of personal accomplishment.

Correlations

Mean S.D Exhaustion Cynicism Reduced personal accomplishment Burnout

1. job demands 2.88 1.03 0.78** 0.71** 0.24** 0.71**
2. workload 3.43 1.09 0.63** 0.51** 0.07 0.50**
3. work-family conflicts 2.67 1.10 0.77** 0.72** 0.29** 0.73**
4. job resources 2.47 0.79 −0.66** −0.72** −0.55** −0.80**
5. supervisor and co-worker support 3.08 0.98 −0.58** −0.61** −0.38** −0.65**
6. organizational support 2.27 1.17 −0.45** −0.55** −0.53** −0.64**
7. career control and development 1.54 1.30 −0.45** −0.44** −0.12 −0.41**
8. psychological regulation 2.80 0.96 −0.48** −0.54** −0.54** −0.65**

. p<.01

The mean value of workload is 3.43, which is in line with the reality that city administrative law enforcement involves a wide range of enforcement and heavy tasks. Furthermore, the mean value of career control and development is 1.54, which indicates that under the current hierarchy system, bottom-level staff (mainly section members) has difficulties in promotion, limited development space and low ceiling for career development, while the mechanism for salary increase needs to be improved.

Job demands are positively associated with burnout and its three dimensions; workload is positively associated with burnout, emotional exhaustion and cynicism; work-family conflict is positively associated with burnout and its three dimensions. The dimensions of job resources were negatively correlated with the three dimensions of burnout.

Differential analysis of burnout by demographic characteristics

Considering some demographic variables that may affect job burnout, for example, job burnout may be different for employees of different ages; so, we first analysed the effect of demographic variables on job burnout.

The data analysis showed that burnout of chengguan was significantly different in terms of gender, marriage, age, educational level, working years, job position and rank. As shown in Table 3, there was a significant difference in cynicism by gender, with females (M = 2.98) being higher than males (M = 2.43). Both emotional exhaustion and cynicism are associated with marriage, which are greater for the married than the unmarried.

Burnout differences in gender and marriage

Variables Gender t Marriage t
Male (n=199) Female (n=105) Married (n=221) Unmarried (n=83)
M SD M SD M SD M SD

Emotional exhaustion 2.88 1.57 3.20 1.62 −1.17 3.15 1.60 2.56 1.51 2.03*
Cynicism 2.43 1.21 2.98 1.48 −2.44* 2.77 1.34 2.26 1.26 2.01*
Reduced personal accomplishment 3.14 1.43 3.20 1.31 −0.189 3.10 1.34 3.35 1.49 −0.98

. p< 0.05

The mean values of burnout and emotional exhaustion increased with working years in each age group (from 2.61 to 3.38 and from 2.46 to 4.27, respectively). The mean value of emotional exhaustion in the 41–45 age group was 4.27. Burnout, emotional exhaustion and cynicism were significantly different between auxiliary law-enforcing officers and permanent officers and significantly lower than those in the latter one. In terms of rank, the associate deputy section group had the highest burnout level (3.98), and emotional exhaustion, cynicism and reduced personal accomplishment were also highest in the associate deputy section group (4.21, 3.91, 3.83 and respectively), while the section member group ranked second in the emotional exhaustion and cynicism (3.74 and 3.23). Emotional exhaustion, cynicism and reduced personal accomplishment were also the highest in the associate section group on three dimensions (4.21, 3.91 and 3.83).

The effects of job demands and job resources on burnout

We developed a regression model of job demands, job resources and job burnout. According to previous studies and differential analysis of burnout by demographic characteristics, variables that may have an impact on job work burnout include age, marriage, working years, rank [19]. So, we include them as control variables in the regression model.

As shown in Table 4, work-family conflict and workload have positive effects on emotional exhaustion. Education, workload and work-family conflict have positive effects on cynicism; work-family conflict has a positive effect on reduced personal accomplishment.

Regression analysis of job demands on burnout

Variable Exhaustion Cynicism Reduced personal accomplishment

Control variables
Gender 0.017 .122 .016
Age 0.189 .102 −.273
Marriage −0.007 −.037 .129
Education 0.153 .265** .025
Working years 0.187** .082 .294
Type of positions −0.697** −.440 −.252
Rank 0.644 .261 .022
Independent variables
workload 0.190** .396** 0.071
Work conflicts and contradictions 0.636** .648** .286**
ΔR2 0.609** 0.557** 0.082**
ΔF 112.744 91.102 12.974

. p< 0.05,

p< .01

As shown in Table 5, psychological regulation, career control and development and colleague support have negative effects on emotional exhaustion. Colleague support, organisational support, career control and development and psychological regulation have negative effects on the cynicism. Organisational support and psychological regulation have negative effects on reduced personal accomplishment.

Regression analysis of job resources on burnout

Variable exhaustion cynicism Reduced personal accomplishment

Control variables
Gender 0.017 .122 .016
Age 0.189 .102 −.273
Marriage −0.007 −.037 .129
Education 0.153 .265** .025
Working years 0.187** .082 .294
Type of positions −0.697** −.440 −.252
rank 0.644 .261 .022
Independent variables
Supervisor and co-workers’ support .318** .311** .074
Organizational support .096 .197** .313**
Career control and development .252** .189** −.114
Psychological regulation .239** .211** .335**
ΔR2 .454** 0.552** 0.369**
ΔF 29.760 34.948 42.461

p< 0.05,

p< .01

Implications
The causes of burnout among front-line chengguan
More demanding work leads to more conflict

The average workload of chengguan is high (3.43). The city administrative law-enforcing team is an important force towns and streets. After the law-enforcing force was put under direct local management in July 2018, it is an indispensable component of joint inspections, environmental remediation and joint enforcement activities at various levels carried out by towns and streets, and the workload of chengguan has further increased.

There are conflicts in city administrative law-enforcing process. First, it mainly includes the contradiction between daily inspection and enforcement punishment. The inspection of daily maintenance of city administrative law enforcement is complicated, especially the street environmental improvement needs to invest a lot of manpower to keep the results from degrading. At the same time, the performance assessment carried out by the city administrative system is mainly based on the number of law enforcement cases and the amount of punishment. And this requires chengguan to spend a lot of energy to carry out investigation and evidence collection, interview transcripts and document production in terms of administrative penalties. All of these have put demands on the energy and time invested by chengguan, making it difficult for them to balance.

Second, there is obvious imbalance between the number of law enforcement tasks and personnel. City administrative law-enforcing tasks include hundreds of penalties in different categories and industries, while the average number of official members on staff in each town and street team is mostly less than 10, and the problem of understaffing is relatively significant. Although supplemented by auxiliary law-enforcing officers, there is still a difference in work engagement, which is also reflected in burnout and emotional exhaustion, with a significantly higher number of permanent staff than auxiliary law-enforcing officers. Moreover, some teams also have unbalanced human resources ratios, for example, some town city administrative law-enforcing teams have a total of nine staffs, of which five are older than 50 years old, bringing difficulties in allocation and distribution of work.

Third, the change of assessment indicators has brought about conflict. The 12345 hotline is currently implemented to adopt the principle of centralised acceptance, classification and disposal, and time-bound processing. And the only basis for evaluating the results of the issues is whether the public is satisfied. The change of assessment index also brings more work pressure. However, some problems involve the whole administrative system design and implementation, which cannot be completely solved by the city administrative law-enforcement agencies.

Insufficient job resources result in serious brain drain

It appears that under the current hierarchy of the administrative system, what is more widely agreed upon at the bottom (mainly section members) is the difficulty of promotion. The number of chengguan who have been working for 5–10 years and are still at the section level is very high, and the room for development is limited and the ceiling of career development is low. In recent years, more than 40 people have left the city administrative law-enforcing departments. Most of them transferred to the town, street government or other party and government departments, and the number of transfers is close to 10% of the total number of units, making the age structure of chengguan imbalanced. In addition, compared with the continuous growth of tasks and more overtime work, the growth mechanism of the compensation and benefits needs to be improved and properly enhanced.

The mean value of organisational support is 2.27. Front-line chengguan often gave feedback that the higher-level organisations did not fully understand the workload intensity and the difficulties in completing tasks and that the task targets or time requirements for data submission were out of line with reality and sometimes difficult to complete.

Practical implication
Control the growth of job requirements

The scope of work boundary should be determined to avoid unlimited expansion and cross confusion of work responsibilities. The city administrative enforcement has integrated the exercise of a number of administrative departments of the penalty power. The rights of city administrative enforcement come from the relatively centralised exercise of other departments’ enforcement authority; so, CALEB needs to clearly define the boundaries between the authority of law enforcement and the authority of other departments and clarify their respective duties and responsibilities. Avoid the situation that all can manage but all do not care and only city administrative enforcement department finally stepped in to take on the responsibility. In this way, chengguan can clarify the direction of their work and feel the sense of accomplishment when their work goals are accomplished, thus reducing the generation of emotional exhaustion.

The overall construction of city administrative law-enforcing system needs to be strengthened

From the current feedback of interviews with personnel, the reform goal of empowering the grass-roots government organisations of town and street has been achieved because of the decentralisation of personnel, wealth and materials to the management of town and street, but for the city administrative law-enforcing system, it is a weakening function. CALEB does not directly manage the personnel and financial power of the town and street city administrative law-enforcing teams. There is only the relationship of business guidance between the two. The ability of the CALEB to dispatch, command and comprehensive use of the town and street teams is reduced. A weak systematic relationship is formed between the district and street city administrative law-enforcing departments, and the sense of belonging is not strong. Under the existing system, towns and streets should appropriately increase the number of staffing of city administrative law-enforcing teams and improve the age structure of the team. Through business support, guidance and special training, we can improve the professional level of the front-line chengguan, make them feel the support provided by the organisation, enhance the centripetal force and cohesion of them and prevent the formation of burnout.

The construction of rank, compensation and performance appraisal needs to be strengthened

The setting of salary for chengguan should not only consider the position and rank but also take into account the different hardship of work. The basic salary and performance salary should be set separately, and the grade difference should be enlarged appropriately to increase the proportion of performance salary. In addition, because of the grassroots work is complicated and heavy, the allowance should be increased appropriately to retain the talents. The performance appraisal system should be improved to distinguish between administrative managers and administrative technicians and to reflect the job performance of chengguan in a comprehensive manner. A reasonable mobility and promotion mechanism should be established to prevent the boredom caused by doing the same job for a long time. Based on the parallel system of jobs and ranks being implemented, the number of ranks at the grassroots level should be increased appropriately to increase the opportunities for promotion and solve the problem of ‘promotion ceiling’ so as to motivate the staff. The organisation should also standardise the occupational classification and standards according to different job types and develop a scientific and operable assessment system based on performance and composed of knowledge, ability and ideological integrity. The assessment standards should be quantified, and the assessment process should be democratized and made public, while supervision should be strengthened.

Strengthening organisational support in terms of non-material incentives

We should strengthen the construction of non-material incentives for chengguan in response to emotional exhaustion of middle-aged and highly educated groups. Care for their family life and difficulties, carry out special training on psychological regulation, alleviate or prevent the generation of cumulative fatigue and burnout due to increasing age and working years. Strengthen the psychological guidance for middle-aged staff and above, carry out relevant consolation and recuperation, to buffer the sense of burnout brought about by the growth of working years and enhance their psychological regulation ability. On the premise of respecting the aspirations of the highly educated talents, the organisation should fully understand the personal needs and career development goals of the highly educated chengguan, carry out career management and meet the pursuit of career success and personal development through talent assessment, organisational recommendation and other ways.

Strengthen learning and improve their own quality

In the face of the complicated task of law enforcement, front-line chengguan must establish a correct outlook on life and values. Based on the attitude of serving the people wholeheartedly, they should set their own position and adjust their mentality. Correctly understand and deal with the relationship between personal interests and collective interests, and continuously improve their abilities in the work. In addition, grass-roots civil servants should also actively participate in various training and constantly improve themselves. To do a good job of their own psychological adjustment, they should learn to use a variety of methods to relieve psychological pressure.

Career planning should be reasonable

The deviation between personal goals and organisational goals is the trigger for burnout. Chengguan should look at society, life and their own situation correctly, set reasonable career expectations for themselves as a starting point to serve the people and improve their sense of self-efficacy by gradually accomplishing their career goals. In the new period when China’s development is undergoing a new normal, chengguan should learn to have an all-round scientific evaluation of themselves, clarify the gap between their strengths and weaknesses and their career needs and make scientific planning for their careers.

Conclusion

We found that burnout of chengguan was significantly different in terms of gender, marriage, age, educational level, working years, job position and rank. The predictors of emotional exhaustion are work-family conflict and workload in terms of job demands and co-worker support, career control and development and psychological regulation in terms of job resources. The predictors of cynicism are education and work-family conflict in terms of job demands and education, colleague support, organisational support, career control and development and psychological regulation in terms of job resources. Predictors of reduced personal accomplishment are work-family conflict in terms of job demands and organisational support and psychological regulation in terms of job resources. On this basis, we analyse the causes of burnout among front-line chengguan and propose management suggestions to intervene in burnout.

Fig. 1

The job demands-resources model of burnout
The job demands-resources model of burnout

Fig. 2

Research Model
Research Model

Burnout differences in gender and marriage

Variables Gender t Marriage t
Male (n=199) Female (n=105) Married (n=221) Unmarried (n=83)
M SD M SD M SD M SD

Emotional exhaustion 2.88 1.57 3.20 1.62 −1.17 3.15 1.60 2.56 1.51 2.03*
Cynicism 2.43 1.21 2.98 1.48 −2.44* 2.77 1.34 2.26 1.26 2.01*
Reduced personal accomplishment 3.14 1.43 3.20 1.31 −0.189 3.10 1.34 3.35 1.49 −0.98

Regression analysis of job demands on burnout

Variable Exhaustion Cynicism Reduced personal accomplishment

Control variables
Gender 0.017 .122 .016
Age 0.189 .102 −.273
Marriage −0.007 −.037 .129
Education 0.153 .265** .025
Working years 0.187** .082 .294
Type of positions −0.697** −.440 −.252
Rank 0.644 .261 .022
Independent variables
workload 0.190** .396** 0.071
Work conflicts and contradictions 0.636** .648** .286**
ΔR2 0.609** 0.557** 0.082**
ΔF 112.744 91.102 12.974

Correlations

Mean S.D Exhaustion Cynicism Reduced personal accomplishment Burnout

1. job demands 2.88 1.03 0.78** 0.71** 0.24** 0.71**
2. workload 3.43 1.09 0.63** 0.51** 0.07 0.50**
3. work-family conflicts 2.67 1.10 0.77** 0.72** 0.29** 0.73**
4. job resources 2.47 0.79 −0.66** −0.72** −0.55** −0.80**
5. supervisor and co-worker support 3.08 0.98 −0.58** −0.61** −0.38** −0.65**
6. organizational support 2.27 1.17 −0.45** −0.55** −0.53** −0.64**
7. career control and development 1.54 1.30 −0.45** −0.44** −0.12 −0.41**
8. psychological regulation 2.80 0.96 −0.48** −0.54** −0.54** −0.65**

Samples (n=304)

Variable Frequency Percentage

Gender Male 199 65.5%
Female 105 34.5%
Age Younger than 30 83 27.3%
31–35 83 27.3%
36–40 72 23.7%
41–45 18 5.9%
46–50 17 5.6%
51 and above 31 10.2%
Marriage Married 221 72.3%
Unmarried 83 27.3%
Education High school 15 4.9%
Associate 69 22.7%
Bachelor 199 65.5%
Post graduate 21 6.9%
Working years Less than 5 year 86 28.3%
5–10 year 87 28.6%
11–15 year 64 21.1%
16–20 year 42 13.8%
20 year and above 25 8.2%
Type of positions Team leader, instructor, deputy team leader 42 13.8%
permanent 183 60.2%
auxiliary 79 26.0%
Rank Division and deputy division level 6 2.0%
section level 41 13.5%
deputy section level 69 22.7%
Section Member 109 35.9%
Unranked 79 26.0%

Regression analysis of job resources on burnout

Variable exhaustion cynicism Reduced personal accomplishment

Control variables
Gender 0.017 .122 .016
Age 0.189 .102 −.273
Marriage −0.007 −.037 .129
Education 0.153 .265** .025
Working years 0.187** .082 .294
Type of positions −0.697** −.440 −.252
rank 0.644 .261 .022
Independent variables
Supervisor and co-workers’ support .318** .311** .074
Organizational support .096 .197** .313**
Career control and development .252** .189** −.114
Psychological regulation .239** .211** .335**
ΔR2 .454** 0.552** 0.369**
ΔF 29.760 34.948 42.461

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