1. bookVolume 56 (2017): Edizione 2 (January 2017)
Dettagli della rivista
License
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2545-3149
Prima pubblicazione
01 Mar 1961
Frequenza di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese, Polacco
Accesso libero

Francisella tularensis – a deceitful pathogen

Pubblicato online: 21 May 2019
Volume & Edizione: Volume 56 (2017) - Edizione 2 (January 2017)
Pagine: 187 - 195
Ricevuto: 01 Sep 2016
Accettato: 01 Mar 2017
Dettagli della rivista
License
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2545-3149
Prima pubblicazione
01 Mar 1961
Frequenza di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese, Polacco

Anda P., Martínez Nawarro J.F i wsp.: Waterborne outbreak of tularemia associated with crayfish fishing. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3, 575–582 (2001)Search in Google Scholar

Apicella M.A., Gibson B.W. i wsp.: Identification, characterization and immunogenicity of an O-antigen capsular polysaccharide of Francisella tularensis. PLoS ONE, 5, e11060 (2010)10.1371/journal.pone.0011060289788320625403Search in Google Scholar

Bakshi C.S., Malik M., Regan K., Melendez J.A., Metzger D.W., Pavlov V.M., Sellati J.S.: Super oxide dismutase B gene(sodB)-deficient mutants of Francisella tularensis demonstrate hyper sensitivity to oxidative stress and attenuated virulence. J. Bacteriol. 188, 6443–6448 (2006)10.1128/JB.00266-06159538416923916Search in Google Scholar

Barker J.R, Klose K.E.: Molecular and genetic basis of pathogenesis in Francisella tularensis. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1105, 138–159 (2007)Search in Google Scholar

Barker J.R., Chong A., Wehrly T.D., Yu J.J., Rodriguez S.A., Liu J., Celli J., Arulanandam B.P., Klose K.E.: The Francisella tularensis pathogenicity island encodes a secretion system that is required for phagosome escape and virulence. Mol. Microbiol. 74, 1459–1470 (2009)Search in Google Scholar

Baron G.S, Nano F.E.: MglA and MglB are required for the intramacrophage growth of Francisella novicida. Mol. Microbiol. 29, 247–259 (1998)Search in Google Scholar

Baumann-Popczyk A., Sadkowska-Todys M., Zieliński A.: Choroby zakaźne i pasożytnicze-epidemiologia i profilaktyka. Wyd. VII, 2014, LublinSearch in Google Scholar

Bernard K., Tessier S., Winstanley J., Chang D., Borczyk A.: Early recognition of atypical Francisella tularensis strains lacking a cysteine requirement. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32, 551–553 (1994)Search in Google Scholar

Brevik O.J., Ottem K.F., Kamaishi T., Watanabe K., Nylund A.: Francisella halioticida sp. nov., a pathogen of farmed giant abalone (Haliotis gigantea) in Japan. J. Appl. Microbiol. 5, 1044–1056 (2011)Search in Google Scholar

Broms J.E., MeyerL., Sun K., Lavander M., Sjösted A.: Unique substrates secreted by the type VI secretion system of Francisella tularensis during intramacrophage infection. PLoS One, 7, (2012)10.1371/journal.pone.0050473350232023185631Search in Google Scholar

Bröms J.E., Sjöstedt A., Lavander M.: The role of the Francisella tularensis pathogenicity island in type VI secretion, intracellular survival, and modulation of host cell signaling. Front. Microbiol. 1, 136 (2010)10.3389/fmicb.2010.00136310935021687753Search in Google Scholar

Brotcke A., Weiss A.D., Kim C.C., Chain P., Malfatti S., Garcia E. Monack D.M.: Identification of MglA-regulated genes reveals novel virulence factors in Francisella tularensis. Infect. Immun. 74, 6642–6655 (2006)Search in Google Scholar

Bruin O.M., Duplantis B.N., Ludu J.S., Hare R.F., Nix E.B., Schmerk C.L., Robb C.S., Boraston A.B., Hueffer K., Francis E.: The biochemical properties of the Francisella pathogenicity island (FPI)-encoded proteins IglA, IglB, IglC, PdpB and DotU suggest roles in type VI secretion. Microbiology, 157, 3483–3491 (2011)10.1099/mic.0.052308-0335227921980115Search in Google Scholar

Bruin O.M., Ludu J.S., Nano F.E.: The Francisella pathogenicity island protein IglA localizes to the bacterial cytoplasm and is needed for intracellular growth. BMC Microbiology, 7, doi:10.1186/1471-2180-7 (2007)Search in Google Scholar

Carvalho C.L., Lopes de Carvalho L., Zé-Zé L., Núncio M.S., Duarte E.L.: Tularaemia: A challenging zoonosis. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 37, 85–96 (2014)Search in Google Scholar

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Emergency Preparedness and Response, http://emergency.cdc.gov/bioterrorism/overview.asp (20.02.2017)Search in Google Scholar

Champion M.D., Galagan J i wsp.: Comparative genomic characterization of Francisella tularensis strains belonging to low and high virulence subspecies. PloS Pathog. 5, e1000459 (2009)10.1371/journal.ppat.1000459268266019478886Search in Google Scholar

Chong A., ChildR., Wehrly T.D., Rockx-Brouwer D., Qin A., Mann B.J., Jean C. Structure-function analysis of DipA a virulence factor required for intracellular replication. PLoS One, 8, e67965 (2013)10.1371/journal.pone.0067965369416023840797Search in Google Scholar

Clemens D. L., Lee B.Y., Horwitz M.A.: Virulent and avirulent strains of Francisella tularensis prevent acidification and maturation of their phagosomes and escape into the cytoplasm in human macrophages. Infect. Immun. 72, 3204–3217 (2004)10.1128/IAI.72.6.3204-3217.200441569615155622Search in Google Scholar

Clemens D.L, Lee B.Y, Horwitz M.A.: Francisella tularensis enters macrophages via a novel process involving pseudopod loops. Infect. Immun. 73, 5892–5902 (2005)Search in Google Scholar

Clemens D.L., Ge P., Lee B.Y., Horwitz M.A., Zhou Z.H.: Atomics structure of T6SS reveals interlaced array essential to function. Cell, 160, 940–951 (2015)10.1016/j.cell.2015.02.005435186725723168Search in Google Scholar

Corey A. Dillaha T. and J.A.: Francisella tularensis endocarditis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 30, 399–400 (2000)Search in Google Scholar

Dai S., Mohapatra N.P., Schlesinger L.S., Gunn J.S.: The acid phosphatase AcpA issecreted in vitro and in macrophages by Francisella spp. Infect. Immun. 80, 1088–1097 (2012)Search in Google Scholar

Dennis D.T., Tonat K.: Tularemia as a biological weapon: medical and public management. JAMA, 285, 2763–2773 (2001)10.1001/jama.285.21.276311386933Search in Google Scholar

Formińska K., Zasada A.A, Rastawicki W., Śmietańska K., Bander D., Wawrzynowicz-Syczewska M., Yanushevych M., Niścigórska-Olsen J., Wawszczak M.: Increasing role of arthropod bites in tularemia transmission in Poland – case reports and diagnostic methods. Ann. Agric. Environ. Med. 22, 443–6 (2015)Search in Google Scholar

Forslund A.L., Salomonsson E.N., Golovliov I., Kuoppa K., Michell S., Titball R., Oyston P., Noppa L., Sjöstedt A., Forsber A.: The type IV pilin, PilA, is required for full virulence of Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis. BMC Microbiol. 10, 227 (2010)10.1186/1471-2180-10-227294150220796283Search in Google Scholar

Francis E.,M.D., Moore D. M.D.: Identity of Ohara’s disease and tularemia. JAMA, 86, 1329–1332 (1926)10.1001/jama.1926.02670440003002Search in Google Scholar

Franke J., Fritzsch J., Tomaso H., Straube E., Dorn W., Hildebrandt A.: Coexistence of pathogens In host-seeking and feeding ticks within a single natural habitat In Central Germany. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76, 6929–6836 (2010)Search in Google Scholar

Garrity G.M, Bell J.A., Lilburn T.G.: Taxonomic outline of the prokaryotes Bergey’s manual of systemic bacteriology, wyd. 2, Springer, New York, 2004Search in Google Scholar

Gil H., Benach J.L., ThanassiD.G.: Presence of pili on the surface of Francisella tularensis. Infect. Immun. 72, 3042–3047 (2004)Search in Google Scholar

Golovilov I., Baranov Z., Krocova., Kovarova H., Sjöstedt A.: An attenuated strain of the facultative intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis can escape the phagosome of monocytic cells. Infect. Immun. 71, 5940–5950 (2003)Search in Google Scholar

Golovliov I., Ericsson M., Sandstrom G., Tarnvik A., Sjostedt A.: Identification of proteins of Francisella tularensis induced during growth in macrophages and cloning of the gene encoding a prominently induced 23-kilodalton protein. Infect. Immun. 65, 2183–2189 (1997)10.1128/iai.65.6.2183-2189.19971753019169749Search in Google Scholar

Gray C. G., Cowley S.C., Cheung K.K, Nano F.E.: The identification of five genetic loci of Francisella novicida associated with intracellular growth. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 215, 53–56 (2002)Search in Google Scholar

Gun J.S., Ernst R.K.: The ctructure and function of Francisella Lipopolysaccharide. Ann. Ny. Acad. Sci. 1105, 202–218 (2007)Search in Google Scholar

Gunnell M.K., Robison R.A., Adams B.J.: Natural selection in virulence genes of Francisella tularensis. J Mol. Evol. 82, 264–278 (2016)Search in Google Scholar

Gürcan S.: Epidemiology of tularemia. Balkan Med. J. 31, 3–10 (2014)10.5152/balkanmedj.2014.13117411599825207161Search in Google Scholar

Hodges L., Penn R.L.: Tularemia and bioterrorism. JAMA, 21, 285 (2001)Search in Google Scholar

Hager A.J., Bolton D.L., Pelletier M.R., Brittnacher M.J., Gallagher L.A., Kaul R., Skerrett S.J., Miller S.I., Guina T.: Type IV pili-mediated secretion modulates Francisella virulence. Mol. Microbiol. 62, 227–237 (2006)Search in Google Scholar

Hanke C.A., Otten J.E., Berner R., Serr A., Splettstoesser W., Schnakenburg C.: Ulceroglandular tularemia in a toddler in Germany after a mosquito bite. Eur. J. Pediatr. 168, 937–940 (2009)Search in Google Scholar

Hare R.F., Hueffer K.: Francisella novicida pathogenicity island encoded proteins were secreted during infection of macrophage-like cells. Plos One, 9, (2014) e105773Search in Google Scholar

Hauri A.M., Hofstetter I., Seibold E., Kaysser P., Eckert J., Neubauer H., Splettstoesser W.D.: Investigating an airborne tularemia outbreak, Germany. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2, 238–224 (2010)Search in Google Scholar

Huber B., Escudero R., Busse H.J., Seibold E., Scholz H.C. Anda P., Ka¨mpfer P., Huntley J.F., Conley P.G., Hagman K.E., Norgard M.V.: Characterization of Francisella tularensis outer membrane proteins. J. Bacteriol. 189, 561–574 (2007)Search in Google Scholar

Huber B., Escudero R., Busse H.J., Seibold E., Scholz H.C., Anda P., Kamper P., SplettstoessermW.D.: Description of Francisella hispaniensis sp. nov., isolates from human blood, reclassification of Francisella novicida (Larson et al. 1955) olsufiev et al. 1959 as Francisella tularensis subsp. Novicida comb. nov. and emended description of the genus Francisella. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 60, 1887–1896 (2010)Search in Google Scholar

Huntley J.F., Conley P.G., Hagman K.E., Norgard M.V.: Characterization of Francisella tularensis outer membrane eproteins. J. Bacteriol. 189, 561–574(2007)10.1128/JB.01505-06179740117114266Search in Google Scholar

Jaohansson A., Keim P.: Worldwide genetic relationships among Francisella tularensis isolates determined by multiple – locus variable – number tandem repeat analysis. J. Bacteriol. 17, 5808–5818 (2004)10.1128/JB.186.17.5808-5818.200451680915317786Search in Google Scholar

Johansson A., Petersen J.M.: Genotyping of Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia. J. AOAC Int. 93(6), 1930–1943 (2010)10.1093/jaoac/93.6.1930Search in Google Scholar

Jones B.D., Faron M., Rasmussen J.A., Fletcher J.R.: Uncovering the components of the Francisella tularensis virulence stealth strategy. Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol. 7(4), 201410.3389/fcimb.2014.00032394574524639953Search in Google Scholar

Kłapeć T., Cholewa A.: Tularemia – wciąż groźna zoonoza. MONZ, 3, 155–160 (2011)Search in Google Scholar

Larson M.A., Nalbantoglu U., Sayood K., Zentz E.B., Cer R.Z., Iwen P.C., Francesconi S.C., Bishop-Lilly K.A., Mokashi V.P., Sjöstedt A., Hinrichs S.H.: Reclassification of Wolbachia persica as Francisella persica comb. nov. and emended description of the family Francisellaceae. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 66, 1200–1205 (2016)Search in Google Scholar

Larson M.A., Fey P.D., Hinrichs S.H., Iwen P.C.: Francisella tularensis bacteria associated with feline tularemia in the United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 20(12), 2068–2071 (2014)Search in Google Scholar

Leelaporn A., Yongyod S., Limsrivanichakorn S., Yungyuen T., Kiratisin P. Emergence of Francisella novicida bacteremia, Thailand. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14(12), 1935–1937 (2008)10.3201/eid1412.080435263462019046526Search in Google Scholar

Lindemann S.R., Peng K., Long M.E., Hunt J.R., Apicella M.A., Monack D.M., Allen L.A, Jones B.D.: Francisella tularensis SchuS4O-antigen and capsule biosynthesis gene mutants induce early cell death in human macrophages. Infect. Immun. 79, 581–594 (2011) doi:10.1128/IAI.00863-1010.1128/IAI.00863-10302886521078861Search in Google Scholar

Lindgren H., Shen H., Zingmark C., Golovliov I., Conlan W., Sjöstedt A.: Resistance of Francisella tularensis strains against reactive nitrogen and oxygen species with special reference to the role of KatG. Infect. Immun. 75, 1303–1309 (2007)Search in Google Scholar

Mahawar M., Atianand M.K., Dotson R.J., MoraV., Rabadi S.M., MetzgerD. W., Huntley J.F., Harton J.A., Malik M., Bakshi C.S.: Identification of a novel Francisella tularensis factor required for intramacrophage survival and subversion of innate immuneresponse. J. Biol. Chem. 287, 25216–25229 (2012)Search in Google Scholar

Marrs C.F, Weir S.: Pili (fimbriae) of Branhamella species. Am. J. Med. 14, 36–40 (1990)Search in Google Scholar

May C. Chu., Carey R.B., Welch D.F.: Basic protocols for level a laboratories. For the presumptive identification of Francisella tularensis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Search in Google Scholar

Meldunki epidemiologiczne NIZP-PZH, http://www.pzh.gov.pl/oldpage/epimeld/index_p.html (07.02.2017)Search in Google Scholar

Melillo A., Sledjeski D.D., Lipski S., Wooten R.M., Basrur V., Lafontaine E.R.: Identificationofa Francisella tularensis LVS outer membrane protein that confers adherence to A549 human lungcells. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 263, 102–108 (2006)10.1111/j.1574-6968.2006.00413.xSearch in Google Scholar

Mierzyńska D., Hermanowska-Szpakowicz T.: Tularemia jako potencjalna broń bioterrorystów. Med. Pr. 53, 279–281 (2002)Search in Google Scholar

Mohapatra N.P., Balagopal A., Soni S., Schlesinger L.S., Gunn J.S.: AcpA is a Francisella acid phosphatase that affects intra macrophage survival and virulence. Infect. Immun. 75, 390–396 (2007)Search in Google Scholar

Monike L van Hoek.: Biofilms an advancement in our understanding of Francisella species. Virulence, 4: 8, 833–846 (2015)Search in Google Scholar

Moniuszko A., Zajkowska J., Pancewicz S. i wsp.: Arthropod-Borne Tularemia In Poland: A Case Report. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 10, 1399–1401 (2011)Search in Google Scholar

Nano F.E, Zhang N., Cowley S.C., Klose K.E, Cheung K.M., Roberts M.J., Ludu J.S, Letendre G.W, Meierovics A.I, Stephens G,. Elkings K.L.: A Francisella tularensis pathogenicity island required for intramacrophage growth. J. Bacteriol. 186, 6430–6436 (2004)Search in Google Scholar

Nano F.E., Schmerk C.: The Francisella pathogenicity island. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1105, 122–137 (2007)10.1196/annals.1409.000Search in Google Scholar

Nano F.E.: Identification of a heat-modifiable protein of Francisella tularensis and molecular cloning of the encoding gene. Microb. Pathogenesis. 5, 109–119 (1988)10.1016/0882-4010(88)90013-7Search in Google Scholar

Nordstoga A., Handeland K., Johansen T.B., Iversen L., Gavier-Wide’n D., Mattsson R., Wik-Larssen K., Afset J.G., Næverdal R., Lund A.: Tularaemia in Norwegian dogs. Vet. Microbiol. 10, 318–322 (2014)Search in Google Scholar

Olsufjew N., Meshcheryakova I.S.: Subspecific taxonomy of Francisella tularensis. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 33, 872–874 (1983)Search in Google Scholar

Ottem K.F., Nylund A., Karlsbakk E., Friis-Møller A., Krossøy B., Knappskog B.: New species in the genus Francisella (Gammaproteobacteria; Francisellaceae); Francisella piscicida sp. nov. isolated from cod (Gadus morhua). Arch. Microbiol. 188, 547–550 (2007)Search in Google Scholar

Pechous R.D, McCarthy T.R, Zahrt T.C. Working toward the future: insights into Francisella tularensis pathogenesis and vaccine development. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 73, 684–711 (2009)Search in Google Scholar

Pierini L.M.: Uptake of serum-opsonized Francisella tularensis by macrophages can be mediated by class A scavenger receptors. Cell. Microbiol. 8, 1361–1370 (2006)Search in Google Scholar

Pilo P., Johansson A., Frey J.: Identification of Francisella tularensis Cluster in Central and Western Europe. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12, 2049–2051 (2009)Search in Google Scholar

Qin A., Scott D.W., Thompson J.A., Mann B.J.: Identification of an essential Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis virulence factor. Infect. Immun. 77, 152–161 (2009)Search in Google Scholar

Qu P.H., Chen S.Y., Scholz H.C., Busse H.J., Gu Q., Kämpfer P., Foster J.T., Glaeser S.P., Chen C., Yang Z.C.: Francisella guangzhouensis sp. nov., isolated from air-conditioning systems. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 63, 3628–3635 (2013)Search in Google Scholar

Ramakrishnan G., Sen B., Johnson R.: Paralogous outer membrane proteins mediate uptake of different forms of iron and synergistically govern virulence in Francisella tularensis tularensis. J. Biol. Chem. 287, 25191–25202 (2012)Search in Google Scholar

Reye A.L., Hübschen J.M., Sausy A. i wsp.: Prevalence and seasonality of Tick-Borne pathogens in Questing Ixodes ricinus Ticks from Luxembourg. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 9, 2923–2931 (2010)Search in Google Scholar

Robertson G.T., Case E.D., Dobbs N., Ingle C., Balaban M., Celli J., Norgard M.V.: FTT0831c/FTL_0325 contributes to Francisella tularensis cell division maintenance of cell shape, and structural integrity. Infect. Immun. 82, 2935–2948 (2014)Search in Google Scholar

Rohmer L. Brittnacher M.J. i wsp.: Comparison of Francisella tularensis genomes reveals evolutionary events associated with the emergence of human pathogenic strains. Genome Biol. 8, (2007)10.1186/gb-2007-8-6-r102239475017550600Search in Google Scholar

Rowe H.M, Huntley J.F.: From the outside-in: the Francisella tularensis envelope and virulence. Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol. 5, 1–20 (2015)Search in Google Scholar

Salomonsson Näslund E., Forslund A.L., Forsberg Å.: Type IV pili in Francisella – a virulence trait in an intracellular pathogen. Front. Microbiol. 2, 29 (2011)10.3389/fmicb.2011.00029310929121687421Search in Google Scholar

Sandström G., Sjöstedt A., Johansson T., Kuoppa K., Williams J.C.: Immunogenicity and toxicity of lipopolysaccharide from Francisella tularensis LVS. FEMS Microbiol. Immunol. 105, 201–210 (1992)Search in Google Scholar

Schulert G.S., Allen L.A.: Differential infection of mononuclear phagocytes by Francisella tularensis: role of the macrophage mannose receptor. J. Leukoc. Biol. 80, 563–571 (2006)10.1189/jlb.0306219186550616816147Search in Google Scholar

Sjöstedt A., Sandström G., Tärnvik A., Jaurin B.: Nucleotide sequence and T cell epitopes of a membrane protein of Francisella tularensis. J. Immunol. 145, 311–317 (1990)Search in Google Scholar

Splettstoesser W.D, Piechotowski I., Buckendahl A., Frangoulidis D., Kaysser P., Kratzer W., Kimmig P., Seibold E., Brockmann S.O.: Tularemia in Germany: the tip of the iceberg? Epidemiol. Infect. 137, 736–743 (2009)Search in Google Scholar

Schmidt H, Hensel M.: Pathogenicity islands in bacterial pathogenesis. Clin. Microbial. Rev. 17, 14–56 (2004)Search in Google Scholar

Strom M.S, Lory S.: Structure-function and biogenesis of the type IV pili. Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 47, 565–596 (1993)Search in Google Scholar

Su J., Yang J., Zhao D., Kawula T.H., Banas J.A. and Zhang J.R.: Genome-wide identification of Francisella tularensis virulence determinants. Infect. Immun. 75, 3089–3101 (2007)Search in Google Scholar

Surveillance Report Annual epidemiological report. Reporting on 2009 surveillance data and 2010 epidemic intelligence data. ECDC, 2011Search in Google Scholar

Svensson K., Johansson A. i wsp.: Genome sequence of Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica strain FSC200, isolated from a child with tularemia. J. Bacteriol. 194, 6965–6966. (2012)Search in Google Scholar

Svensson K., Larsson P., Johansson D., Bystrom M., Forsman M., Johansson A.: Evolution of subspecies of Francisella tularensis. J. Bacteriol. 187(11), 3903–3908 (2005)10.1128/JB.187.11.3903-3908.2005111205715901721Search in Google Scholar

Tomaso H., Scholz H.C., Naubauer H., Al Dahouk S., Seibold E., Landt O., Forsman M., Splettstoesser W.D.: Real-time PCR using hybridization probes for rapid and specific identification of Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis. Mol. Cell. Probes. 21, 12–16 (2007)Search in Google Scholar

Versage J.L, Severin D.D.M., Chu M.C., Petersen J.M.: Development of multitarget real-time TaqMan PCR assay for enhanced detection of Francisella tularensis in complex speciments. J. Clin. Micorbiol. 41, 5492–5499 (2003)Search in Google Scholar

Vogler A.J., Keim P.: Phylogeography of Francisella tularensis: global expansion of a highly fit clone. J. Bacteriol. 191, 2474–2484 (2009)10.1128/JB.01786-08266839819251856Search in Google Scholar

Vogler AJ, Keim P. i wsp.: Phylogeography of Francisella tularensis: global expansion of a highly fit clone. J. Bacteriol. 191, 2474–2484 (2009)Search in Google Scholar

Wang X., Ribeiro A.A., Guan Z., Abraham S.M., Raetz C.R.H.: Attenuated virulence of a Francisella mutant lacking the lipid A 4’-phosphatase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104, 4136–4141 (2006)10.1073/pnas.0611606104182072117360489Search in Google Scholar

Whipp M.J., Davis J.M., Lum G., De Boer J., Zhou J.Y., Bearden S.W., Petersen J.M., Chu M.C., Hogg G.: Characterization of a novicida-like subspecies of Francisella tularensis isolated in Australia. J. Med. Microbiol. 52, 839–842 (2003)Search in Google Scholar

Articoli consigliati da Trend MD

Pianifica la tua conferenza remota con Sciendo