There have been revealed and summarized the regularities in biocorrosion of steel 17G1S-U, which is traditionally used for manufacturing oil and gas mains. The basic regularities of biocorrosion processes in the 17G1S-U pipe steel under the influence of SRB Desulfovibrio Sp. strains Kyiv-10 was obtained by weight-loss testing and surface analysis techniques. Effective inhibitors are proposed, which allow protecting steel 17G1S-U against the development of anaerobic corrosion under the influence of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The effectiveness of inhibitors is estimated by the degree of their protective effect. The porous structure of the surface film contributes to the initiation of localized corrosion. Damage analysis of the specimen surface corroded under different test conditions was performed.