- Journal Details
- First Published
- 30 Apr 2007
- Publication timeframe
- 4 times per year
- Open Access
Granulomatosis after autologous stem cell transplantation in nonHodgkin lymphoma – experience of single institution and a review of literature
Page range: 355 - 359
Sarcoidosis before and after treatment of malignancy is an important differential diagnosis that has to be distinguished from lymphoma.
Hodgkin lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and aggressive follicular lymphoma are being staged and treatment effect is evaluated with PET-CT. We report three cases of aggressive lymphoma after high dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation with positive lymph nodes on PET-CT, which were histologically diagnosed as sarcoidosis/granulomatosis. In the literature, we found that false positive lymph nodes were more common after allogeneic than after autologous transplantation.
Post-treatment PET-CT positive lymph nodes should always be examined histologically prior to any further treatment decision to avoid unnecessary toxic procedures.
- nonHodgkin lymphoma
- differential diagnosis
- tissue biopsy
- Open Access
Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the bowel wall with quantitative assessment of Crohn’s disease activity in childhood
Page range: 347 - 354
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has become an established non-invasive, patient-friendly imaging technique which improves the characterization of lesions. In addition, dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) provides valuable information concerning perfusion of examined organs. This review addresses current applications of CEUS in children, focused on DCE-US of the bowel wall in patients with Crohn disease, which enables realtime assessment of the bowel wall vascularity with semi-quantitative and quantitative assessment of disease activity and response to medical treatment.
Crohn’s disease is a chronic inflammatory relapsing disease. Frequent imaging re-evaluation is necessary. Therefore, imaging should be as little invasive as possible, children friendly with high diagnostic accuracy. US with wide varieties of techniques, including CEUS/DCE-US, can provide an important contribution for diagnosing and monitoring a disease activity. Even if the use of US contrast agent is off-label in children, it is welcome and widely accepted for intravesical use, and a little less for intravenous use, manly in evaluation of parenchymal lesions. To our knowledge this is the first time that the use of DCE-US in the evaluation of activity of small bowel Crohn disease with quantitative assessment of kinetic parameters is being described in children. Even if the results of the value and accuracy of different quantitative kinetic parameters in published studies in adult population often contradict one another there is a great potential of DCE-US to become a part of the entire sonographic evaluation not only in adults, but also in children. Further control studies should be performed.
- contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)
- dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US)
- Crohn disease
- Open Access
Red blood cell transfusion and skeletal muscle tissue oxygenation in anaemic haematologic outpatients
Page range: 449 - 455
Stored red blood cells (RBCs) accumulate biochemical and biophysical changes, known as storage lesion. The aim of this study was to re-challenge current data that anaemia in chronically anaemic haematology patients is not associated with low skeletal muscle tissue oxygen (StO2), and that RBC storage age does not influence the tissue response after ischaemic provocation, using near-infrared spectroscopy.
Twenty-four chronic anaemic haematology patients were included. Thenar skeletal muscle StO2 was measured at rest (basal StO2), with vascular occlusion testing (upslope StO2, maximum StO2) before and after transfusion.
Basal StO2 was low (53% ± 7%). Average RBC storage time was 10.5 ± 3.9 days. Effects of RBC transfusions were as follows: basal StO2 and upslope StO2 did not change significantly; maximum StO2 increased compared to baseline (64 ± 14%
Resting skeletal muscle StO2 in chronic anaemic patients is low. RBC storage time affects skeletal muscle StO2 in the resting period and after ischaemic provocation.
- skeletal muscle
- tissue oxygenation
- red blood cells
- storage lesion
- Open Access
Outcome of severe infections in afebrile neutropenic cancer patients
Page range: 442 - 448
In some neutropenic cancer patients fever may be absent despite microbiologically and/or clinically confirmed infection. We hypothesized that afebrile neutropenic cancer patients with severe infections have worse outcome as compared to cancer patients with febrile neutropenia.
We retrospectively analyzed all adult cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and severe infection, who were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit at our cancer center between 2000 and 2011. The outcome of interest was 30-day in-hospital mortality rate. Association between the febrile status and in-hospital mortality rate was evaluated by the Fisher’s exact test.
We identified 69 episodes of severe neutropenic infections in 65 cancer patients. Among these, 9 (13%) episodes were afebrile. Patients with afebrile neutropenic infection presented with hypotension, severe fatigue with inappetence, shaking chills, altered mental state or cough and all of them eventually deteriorated to severe sepsis or septic shock. Overall 30-day in-hospital mortality rate was 55.1%. Patients with afebrile neutropenic infection had a trend for a higher 30-day in-hospital mortality rate as compared to patients with febrile neutropenic infection (78%
Afebrile cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and severe infections might have worse outcome as compared to cancer patients with febrile neutropenia. Patients should be informed that severe neutropenic infection without fever can occasionally occur during cancer treatment with chemotherapy.
- afebrile infection
- Open Access
Virtual modelling of novel applicator prototypes for cervical cancer brachytherapy
Page range: 433 - 441
Standard applicators for cervical cancer Brachytherapy (BT) do not always achieve acceptable balance between target volume and normal tissue irradiation. We aimed to develop an innovative method of Target-volume Density Mapping (TDM) for modelling of novel applicator prototypes with optimal coverage characteristics. Patients and methods. Development of Contour-Analysis Tool 2 (CAT-2) software for TDM generation was the core priority of our task group. Main requests regarding software functionalities were formulated and guided the coding process. Software validation and accuracy check was performed using phantom objects. Concepts and terms for standardized workflow of TDM post-processing and applicator development were introduced.
CAT-2 enables applicator-based co-registration of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) structures from a sample of cases, generating a TDM with pooled contours in applicator-eye-view. Each TDM voxel is assigned a value, corresponding to the number of target contours encompassing that voxel. Values are converted to grey levels and transformed to DICOM image, which is transported to the treatment planning system. Iso-density contours (IDC) are generated as lines, connecting voxels with same grey levels. Residual Volume at Risk (RVR) is created for each IDC as potential volume that could contain organs at risk. Finally, standard and prototype applicators are applied on the TDM and virtual dose planning is performed. Dose volume histogram (DVH) parameters are recorded for individual IDC and RVR delineations and characteristic curves generated. Optimal applicator configuration is determined in an iterative manner based on comparison of characteristic curves, virtual implant complexities and isodose distributions.
Using the TDM approach, virtual applicator prototypes capable of conformal coverage of any target volume, can be modelled. Further systematic assessment, including studies on clinical feasibility, safety and effectiveness are needed before routine use of novel prototypes can be considered.
- cervical cancer
- Open Access
The ratio of weight loss to planning target volume significantly impacts setup errors in nasopharyngeal cancer patients undergoing helical tomotherapy with daily megavoltage computed tomography
Page range: 427 - 432
Changes in head and neck anatomy during radiation therapy (RT) produce setup uncertainties of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) irradiation. We retrospectively analyzed image guidance data to identify clinical predictors of setup errors.
The data of 217 NPC patients undergoing definitive RT on a helical tomotherapy (HT) unit were analyzed. Factors including tumor stage, body mass index, weight loss, and planning target volume (PTV) were assessed as predictors of daily megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) setup displacements, which were automatically registered using software.
Mean daily setup displacements (in mm) were 1.2 ± 0.6, 1.8 ± 0.8, 3.4 ± 1.4 in the medial-lateral (ML), superior-inferior (SI), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions, respectively. Mean weight loss was 4.6 ± 3.3 kg (6.8 ± 4.9%). Patients with weight loss > 5% had significantly larger setup displacements in the AP (3.6 ± 1.5
Patients with weight loss > 5% and smaller PTVs, possibly because of small body frame or neck girth, were more likely to have increased setup errors in the AP direction.
- nasopharyngeal cancer
- intensity-modulated radiotherapy
- setup errors
- Open Access
Survival of patients with intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma treated with superselective transarterial chemoembolization using doxorubicin-loaded DC Bead under cone-beam computed tomography control
Page range: 418 - 426
The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate treatment response, adverse events and survival rates of patients with intermediate stage HCC treated with superselective doxorubicin-loaded DC Bead transarterial chemoembolization (DEBDOX) under cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) control.
Between October 2010 and June 2012, 35 consecutive patients with intermediate stage HCC (32 male, 3 female; average age, 67.5 ± 7.8 years; 22 patients Child-Pugh class A, 8 class B, 5 without cirrhosis) were treated with DEBDOX TACE. Portal vein thrombosis was observed in 6 (17.1%) patients. DEBDOX TACE was performed by superselective catheterization of feeding vessels followed by embolization with 100-300 μm microspheres loaded with 50-100 mg of doxorubicin. In all cases, CBCT was used during chemoembolization. Tumor response rates were defined according to mRECIST criteria.
Overall, 120 procedures were performed (mean, 3.2 per patients). We treated 97 lesions with an average diameter of 4.9 ± 1.9 cm. There were 32 minor and 2 (1.6%) major complications (one liver abscess and one cerebrovascular insult). After a mean follow-up of 27.7 ± 10.5 months, 94.3% of patients achieved an objective response to treatment (42.4% complete response and 57.6% partial response). Mean time to progression was 10.9 ± 5.3 months. Mean overall survival was 33.9 months (95% CI; 28.9 – 38.9 months), with 1- and 2- year survival of 97.1% and 65.7%, respectively.
Superselective DEBDOX TACE performed under CBCT control is a safe and effective method with high rates of tumor response and overall survival.
- hepatocellular carcinoma
- drug eluting bead
- cone-beam computed tomography
- Open Access
Tracheal cancer – treatment results, prognostic factors and incidence of other neoplasms
Page range: 409 - 417
Tracheal cancers (TC) are rare and treatment results that are reported are typically not satisfactory. The purpose of this research was assessment of the results of treatment of TC patients, identification of potential additional surgery candidates, evaluation of prognostic factors, and assessment of the occurrence of other malignancies.
The Regional Cancer Database and the Hospital Database were searched for patients with tracheal neoplasms. Fifty-eight of 418 patients identified initially, met the inclusion criteria (primary TC with confirmed histology and complete treatment records). Standard statistical tests were used.
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; 63.8%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC; 15.5%) were the most commonly diagnosed histological types of TC. Radiotherapy was delivered in 48 cases, surgery or endoscopic resection in 20, and chemotherapy in 14. TC was diagnosed as a second cancer in 10 patients, in 1 patient it occurred prior to the lung cancer, and in 1 was diagnosed simultaneously. During the median follow-up of 12.7 months, 85.5% of the patients died because of the disease. Local recurrence occurred in 17% cases. In univariate analysis, patients with ACC had statistically better five-year overall survival (77.8%) than those diagnosed with SCC (8.4%, p = 0.0001). Radiotherapy, performance status and haemoptysis were factors significantly influencing overall survival (OS) in the multivariate analysis. Among patients who were not treated surgically, 15–26% were found to constitute additional surgery candidates, depending on the selection criteria.
The diagnostic workup should be focused on the identification of TC patients suitable for invasive treatment and radiotherapy. Respiratory system cancer survivors can be considered a risk group for tracheal cancer. Radiotherapy constitutes an important part of the treatment of patients with TC.
- tracheal cancer
- metachronous neoplasms
- adenoid cystic carcinoma
- squamous cell carcinoma
- Open Access
Mobilization with cyclophosphamide reduces the number of lymphocyte subpopulations in the leukapheresis product and delays their reconstitution after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma
Page range: 402 - 408
Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is considered the standard of care for younger patients with multiple myeloma. Several mobilization regimens are currently used, most commonly growth factors alone or in combination with chemotherapy. The aim of our study was to investigate the differences in lymphocyte subpopulation counts between three different mobilization regimens on collection day, in the leukapheresis product and on day 15 after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
In total 48 patients were prospectively enrolled in three different mobilization regimens; (i) filgrastim (20), (ii) pegfilgrastim (19) and (iii) cyclophosphamide + filgrastim (9). Lymphocytes, CD16+/56+ natural killer and CD4+/CD25high T regulatory cells were determined by flow cytometry.
We found a statistically significant difference between the mobilization regimens. Cyclophosphamide reduced lymphocyte and natural killer (NK) cell counts on collection day (lymphocytes 1.08 × 109/L; NK cells 0.07 × 109/L) compared to filgrastim (lymphocytes 3.08 × 109/L; NK cells 0.52 × 109/L) and pegfilgrastim (lymphocytes 3 × 109/L; NK cells 0.42 × 109/L). As a consequence lymphocyte and NK cell counts were also lower in the leukapheresis products following cyclophosphamide mobilization regimen (lymphocytes 50.1 × 109/L; NK cells 4.18 × 109/L) compared to filgrastim (lymphocytes 112 × 109/L; NK cells 17.5 × 109/L) and pegfilgrastim (lymphocytes 112 × 109/L; NK cells 14.3 × 109/L). In all mobilization regimens T regulatory cells increased 2-fold on collection day, regarding the base line value before mobilization. There was no difference in T regulatory cell counts between the regimens.
Mobilization with cyclophophamide reduces the number of mobilized and collected lymphocytes and NK cells as compared to mobilization with growth factors only and results in their delayed reconstitution following autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We found no difference between filgrastim and pegfilgrastim mobilization.
- NK cell
- stem cell transplantation
- Open Access
Long-term survival in glioblastoma: methyl guanine methyl transferase (MGMT) promoter methylation as independent favourable prognostic factor
Page range: 394 - 401
In spite of significant improvement after multi-modality treatment, prognosis of most patients with glioblastoma remains poor. Standard clinical prognostic factors (age, gender, extent of surgery and performance status) do not clearly predict long-term survival. The aim of this case-control study was to evaluate immuno-histochemical and genetic characteristics of the tumour as additional prognostic factors in glioblastoma.
Long-term survivor group were 40 patients with glioblastoma with survival longer than 30 months. Control group were 40 patients with shorter survival and matched to the long-term survivor group according to the clinical prognostic factors. All patients underwent multimodality treatment with surgery, postoperative conformal radiotherapy and temozolomide during and after radiotherapy. Biopsy samples were tested for the methylation of MGMT promoter (with methylation specific polymerase chain reaction), IDH1 (with immunohistochemistry), IDH2, CDKN2A and CDKN2B (with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification), and 1p and 19q mutations (with fluorescent
Methylation of MGMT promoter was found in 95% and in 36% in the long-term survivor and control groups, respectively (p < 0.001). IDH1 R132H mutated patients had a non-significant lower risk of dying from glioblastoma (p = 0.437), in comparison to patients without this mutation. Other mutations were rare, with no significant difference between the two groups.
Molecular and genetic testing offers additional prognostic and predictive information for patients with glioblastoma. The most important finding of our analysis is that in the absence of MGMT promoter methylation, longterm survival is very rare. For patients without this mutation, alternative treatments should be explored.
- long-term survival
- methyl guanine methyl transferase
- prognostic factor
- Open Access
Somatic mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 are prognostic and follow-up markers in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia with normal karyotype
Page range: 385 - 393
Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (
In our study samples from 110 adult
Our study shows that the presence of
- acute myeloid leukaemia
- normal karyotype
- Open Access
Endovascular treatment of unruptured aneurysms of cavernous and ophthalmic segment of internal carotid artery with flow diverter device Pipeline
Page range: 378 - 384
Intra-arterial treatment of aneurysms by redirecting blood flow is a newer method. The redirection is based on a significantly more densely braided wire stent. The stent wall keeps the blood in the lumen of the stent and slows down the turbulent flow in the aneurysms. Stagnation of blood in the aneurysm sac leads to the formation of thrombus and subsequent exclusion of the aneurysm from the circulation. The aim of the study was to evaluate flow diverter device Pipeline for broad neck and giant aneurysm treatment.
Fifteen patients with discovered aneurysm of the internal carotid artery were treated between November 2010 and February 2014. The majority of aneurysms of the internal carotid artery were located intradural at the ophthalmic part of the artery. The patients were treated using a flow diverter device Pipeline, which was placed over the aneurysm neck. Treatment success was assessed clinically and angiographically using O’Kelly Marotta scale.
Control angiography immediately after the release of the stent showed stagnation of the blood flow in the aneurysm sac. In none of the patients procedural and periprocedural complications were observed. 6 months after the procedure, control CT or MR angiography showed in almost all cases exclusion of the aneurysm from the circulation and normal blood flow in the treated artery. Neurological status six months after the procedure was normal in all patients.
Treatment of aneurysms with flow diverter Pipeline device is a safe and significantly less time consuming method in comparison with standard techniques. This new method is a promising approach in treatment of broad neck aneurysms.
- flow diversion
- ophthalmic segment
- Open Access
Anatomic variations of the pancreatic duct and their relevance with the Cambridge classification system: MRCP findings of 1158 consecutive patients
Page range: 370 - 377
The study was conducted to evaluate the frequencies of the anatomic variations and the gender distributions of these variations of the pancreatic duct and their relevance with the Cambridge classification system as morphological sign of chronic pancreatitis using magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP).
We retrospectively reviewed 1312 consecutive patients who referred to our department for MRCP between January 2013 and August 2015. We excluded 154 patients from the study because of less than optimal results due to imaging limitations or a history of surgery on pancreas. Finally a total of 1158 patients were included in the study.
Among the 1158 patients included in the study, 54 (4.6%) patients showed
Vertical course (p = 0.004) and Type 2 (p = 0.03) configuration of pancreatic duct were more frequent in females than males. There were no statistically significant differences between the gender for the other pancreatic duct variations such as
- pancreas divisum
- pancreatic duct variants
- magnetic resonance imaging
- magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography
- Open Access
Prognosis estimation under the light of metabolic tumor parameters on initial FDG-PET/CT in patients with primary extranodal lymphoma
Page range: 360 - 369
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas arising from the tissues other than primary lymphatic organs are named primary extranodal lymphoma. Most of the studies evaluated metabolic tumor parameters in different organs and histopathologic variants of this disease generally for treatment response. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of metabolic tumor parameters derived from initial FDG-PET/CT in patients with a medley of primary extranodal lymphoma in this study.
There were 67 patients with primary extranodal lymphoma for whom FDG-PET/CT was requested for primary staging. Quantitative PET/CT parameters: maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), average standardized uptake value (SUVmean), metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were used to estimate disease-free survival and overall survival.
SUVmean, MTV and TLG were found statistically significant after multivariate analysis. SUVmean remained significant after ROC curve analysis. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated as 88% and 64%, respectively, when the cut-off value of SUVmean was chosen as 5.15. After the investigation of primary presentation sites and histo-pathological variants according to recurrence, there is no difference amongst the variants. Primary site of extranodal lymphomas however, is statistically important (p = 0.014). Testis and central nervous system lymphomas have higher recurrence rate (62.5%, 73%, respectively).
High SUVmean, MTV and TLG values obtained from primary staging FDG-PET/CT are potential risk factors for both disease-free survival and overall survival in primary extranodal lymphoma. SUVmean is the most significant one amongst them for estimating recurrence/metastasis.
- 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography
- metabolic tumor parameters
- primary extranodal lymphoma