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Journal & Issues

Volume 49 (2022): Issue 2 (July 2022)

Volume 49 (2022): Issue 1 (January 2022)

Volume 48 (2021): Issue 2 (July 2021)

Volume 48 (2021): Issue 1 (May 2021)

Volume 47 (2020): Issue 2 (November 2020)
Special Issue: Invasive species in forest, agricultural and urban ecosystems

Volume 47 (2020): Issue 1 (May 2020)

Volume 46 (2019): Issue 2 (December 2019)

Volume 46 (2019): Issue 1 (May 2019)

Volume 45 (2018): Issue 2 (December 2018)

Volume 45 (2018): Issue 1 (May 2018)

Volume 44 (2017): Issue 2 (December 2017)

Volume 44 (2017): Issue 1 (June 2017)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1338-7014
First Published
16 Apr 2017
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 49 (2022): Issue 1 (January 2022)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1338-7014
First Published
16 Apr 2017
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

9 Articles
Open Access

Can the invasive ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus germanus withstand an unusually cold winter in the West Carpathian forest in Central Europe?

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 1 - 8

Abstract

Abstract

The capability of a non-native species to withstand adverse weather is indicative of its establishment in a novel area. An unusually cold winter of 2016/2017 that occurred in the West Carpathians of Slovakia and other regions within Europe provided an opportunity to indirectly assess survival of the invasive ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus germanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae). We compared trap captures of this species in the year preceding and succeeding the respective cold winter. Ethanol-baited traps were deployed in 24 oak dominated forest stands within the southern and central area from April to August 2016, and again from April to August 2017 to encompass the seasonal flight activity of X. germanus and to get acquainted with temporal changes in the abundance of this species in these two distant areas. Dispersing X. germanus were recorded in all surveyed stands before and after the aforementioned cold winter. Their total seasonal trap captures were lower in the southern area following low winter temperatures, but remained similar in the central area. Our results suggest that X. germanus can withstand adverse winter weather in oak dominated forests of the West Carpathians within altitudes of 171 and 450 m asl. It is likely that minimum winter temperatures will not reduce the establishment or further spread of this successful invader in forests in Central Europe.

Keywords

  • black timber bark beetle
  • invasive species
  • overwintering
  • Slovakia
  • Xyleborini
Open Access

Temporal and spatial changes in small mammal communities in a disturbed mountain forest

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 9 - 22

Abstract

Abstract

In 2005–2016, we investigated a secondary succession of small mammal communities in forest ecosystems in High Tatras (Slovakia) disturbed by windstorm and fire. This long-term ecological study confirmed the occurrence of significant temporal and spatial changes in species composition and number of dominant small mammal species. A comparison between disturbed and undisturbed plots indicated notable differences in species richness and abundance. The gradations of dominant small mammal species in disturbed habitats were asynchronous and showed a wider range of amplitude than in the undisturbed plots. An analysis of the temporal and spatial changes in the structure of small mammal communities in relation to selected environmental gradients confirmed the statistically significant effect of secondary succession on species composition, abundance, and exchange in forest ecosystems in the High Tatra Mountains following a disturbance.

Keywords

  • disturbance
  • habitat selection
  • plant succession
  • small mammals
Open Access

A comparative assessment between artificial neural network, neuro-fuzzy, and support vector machine models in splash erosion modelling under simulation circumstances

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 23 - 34

Abstract

Abstract

Splash erosion, as the first step of soil erosion, causes the movement of the soil particles and lumps and is considered an important process in soil erosion. Given the complexity of this process in nature, one way of identifying and modeling the process is to use a rainfall simulator and to study it under laboratory circumstances. For this purpose, transported material was measured with various rainfall intensities and different amounts of poly-acryl-amide. In the next step, artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), and support vector machine (SVM) were used to model the transported materials. The results showed that among the three methods, the best values of evaluation criteria were related to SVM, and ANFIS respectively. Among the three studied durations, the experiment with a duration of 30 minutes received the best results. The results based on available data showed by increasing the number of membership functions, over-fitting happens in the ANFIS method. To reduce the complexity of the model and the likelihood of over-fitting, some rules were eliminated. The results showed that the performance of the model improved by eliminating some rules.

Keywords

  • ANN
  • ANFIS
  • rainfall simulator
  • sediment load
  • soil particles
  • SVM
Open Access

Endemic and invasive Coccinellidae associated with maize (Zea mays L.) fields, in Manabi province, Ecuador

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 35 - 41

Abstract

Abstract

Maize (Zea mays L.), which is considered an important cereal everywhere, is widely cultivated in different agroecological conditions. Throughout their phenological stages, maize crops are attacked by pests and diseases, and in Ecuador these phytosanitary problems are usually counteracted with applications of pesticides. However, knowledge of beneficial entomofauna is fundamental to guide pest management programs. As part of this objective, the Coccinellidae species present in maize fields in localities (Santa Ana, Colon, and Danzarin) in Manabí province were identified. In each zone, maize plants were sampled from 2018–2019. A total of 2,654 specimens belonging to 14 taxa were collected in this study, of which Cheilomenes sexmaculata, Cycloneda sanguinea, Hippodamia convergens, Hyperaspis arida, and Psyllobora confluens were found in all the studied areas. Hyperaspis arida and Diomus apollonia are reported for the first time in Ecuador.

Keywords

  • biological control
  • diversity
  • lady beetles
  • natural enemies
  • predators
Open Access

The assessment of the current status of Gentiana lutea L. populations of the Ukrainian Carpathians: Ecological and genetic approaches

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 42 - 50

Abstract

Abstract

Based on the analysis of the genetic polymorphisms (RGAP- and CDDP-PCR) among populations and comparison of these results with ecological characteristics (density, area, spatial and vitality structure, age, ability of renewal and self-maintenance), the status of five natural (Lemska, Gutyn Tomnatyk, Sheshul-Pavlyk, Krachuneska, Troyaska-Tataruka) and one man-made (Pozhyzhevska) populations of Gentiana lutea from the Ukrainian Carpathians was assessed. The results of the complex ecological and genetic analysis have revealed that three populations are unstable (Krachuneska, Troyaska-Tataruka, Gutyn Tomnatyk), two are relatively stable (Lemska, Pozhyzhevska) and only one is stable (Sheshul-Pavlyk). The research results can be used for stabilizing the number of violations and restoring the endangered natural populations. Based on these data, the recommendations for the conservation and protection of G. lutea populations have been developed.

Keywords

  • CDDP- and RGAP-PCR
  • ecological characteristics of population
  • genetic diversity
  • L.
  • population status
  • population strategies
Open Access

Ecogenesis and primary soil formation on the East European Plain. A review

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 51 - 60

Abstract

Abstract

Numerous published studies have shown that soil formation, including primary pedogenesis, is closely connected functionally, energetically and operationally with ecogenesis as a key biogenic exploration mechanism of the Earth’s surface by living organisms. The ontogenetic stage of soil evolution, especially in the initial phases, is determined by geogenic conditions and the intensity and trends of biogenic-accumulative processes in the developing ecosystem. Primary soils are considered critical in the rapid development of the initial ancient biosphere, supporting multiple environmental possibilities for ecosystems in that stage of their formation. Currently, similar models of correlated soil formation and ecogenesis are actualised when new substrates appear suitable for biogenic-abiogenic interactions, which occur in both natural and anthropogenic landscapes. Biotic factors during primary pedogenesis have accumulative and transformative effects on the edaphic component complex. At this stage, the initial pedon is a key functional stage in the evolution of terrestrial ecosystems (biogeocenosis). When restoration of natural ecosystems occurs during the independent growth of exposed substrates, the natural regeneration mechanisms normally occur. These processes are based on the biogenic development of the substrate through the accumulation and transformation of organic matter.

Keywords

  • chronology
  • pedogenesis rate
  • Russian Federation
  • soil development
  • successions
Open Access

The cytogenetic parameters of Pinus sylvestris L. under conditions of the Far North of Russia (Karelia)

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 61 - 69

Abstract

Abstract

The cytogenetic analysis of the Pinus sylvestris L. seed progeny in the forests of the northern taiga in the Far North of Russia conditions was carried out. Two Pinus sylvestris populations growing in Ambarnskoy and Pyaozerskoy forest divisions of Loukhsky district of Karelia Republic were studied. The number of chromosomes, the frequency and types of mitosis disturbances at the metaphase, anaphase and telophase (as a percentage of the total number of dividing cells at the same stages), and the frequency of micronuclei occurrence, as well as the laboratory seed germination, were studied. As a result of the study, it was found that 50–56% of the studied sprouts were mixoploid. Analysis of mitosis showed that the root meristem of the studied samples contained cells with various pathologies; simultaneously, the frequency of mitosis pathologies in the Ambarnskoy population was significantly higher than in the Pyaozerskoy one. It amounted to 6.8 ± 0.4 and 4.9 ± 0.4%, respectively. Nine types of abnormalities were identified; chromosome overrun and bridges prevailed. Micronuclei were registered in 35–38% of the studied Pinus sylvestris sprouts. At the same time, the proportion of cells with micronuclei in the Ambarnskoy population was 2-fold higher than in the Pyaozerskoy one and averaged 0.12 ± 0.03% and 0.07 ± 0.02%, respectively.

Keywords

  • cytogenetics
  • germination
  • micronuclei
  • mitotic pathologies
  • mixoploidy
  • Scots pine
  • taiga ecosystems
Open Access

Spatial exploration, dendrometric characteristics and prediction models of wood production in a stand of Acacia schaffneri in Durango, Mexico

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 70 - 79

Abstract

Abstract

Degraded vegetation is the result of a process that affects structural and functional characteristics. Tree species from the Acacia genus are very important to the ecosystem in semi-arid lands due to their participation in the recovery of highly degraded areas. One of the most important species among this genus is A. schaffneri. The status of a forest stand is determined according to its structure, including height, stratum and density. Remote sensing is a valuable method for estimating volumetric stocks and associated changes in forest populations over established periods of time. The objective of this research was to estimate wood volume of A. schaffneri using remote sensing, and to complement that information with the results obtained from an estimation method based on forest measurements. The results obtained showed that the crown area was the dendrometric variable that can be used in a wood volume prediction model. In the exploratory analysis between dendrometric variables and remote sensing showed low and negative associations were observed in the four stations analyzed. There are conservation problems due to anthropogenic activities, among which stands out the intensive grazing that results in a decrease of the natural regeneration capacity of Acacia schaffneri.

Keywords

  • degradation
  • forest mensuration
  • grazing
  • prediction models
Open Access

Evaluation of Achillea, Matricaria, and Anthemis plants following selection for drought tolerance at seedling stages

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 80 - 91

Abstract

Abstract

The genetic potentials of eight species of Achillea (A. millefolium, A. fillipendulla, A. biebersteinii, A. nobilis, A. eriophora), Matricaria (M. ricotita), and Anthemis (An. haussknechtii and An. tinctoria) under drought conditions during the seedling stage were measured. Non-ionic water-soluble polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG, molecular weight 6000) was used to simulate water stress at five osmotic potential levels (0, –0.3, –0.6, –0.9, and –1.2 MPa). An acceptable threshold value for germination was osmotic potential –0.6 MPa, and the modest osmotic potential was –1.2 MPa for studied taxa. Seedlings of germinated at two control and osmotic potential –0.6 MPa (as an acceptable threshold value for germination) treatments were sowed in a field under rainfed conditions. Genetic differentiation of control plants (CP) versus early selected plants (ESP, germinated at osmotic potential –0.6 MPa) was studied using morphological, physiological, and molecular (ISSR) markers. No significant differences were observed between morphological traits of CP and ESP in all species, however, days to full flowering shortened in ESP. The physiological results demonstrate that under rainfed conditions, the ESP, in a quick response, collect osmolytes and amplify the activity of antioxidative enzymes to survive drought. The genetic relationship in the group of genotypes, that ISSR marker set it out, is affiliated to taxon even though AMOVA showed a partial differentiation between CP and ESP groups (21%). It was concluded that the selection of tolerating individuals at the seedling stage represents a likely positive strategy to have higher drought tolerance feature in plants under rainfed conditions.

Keywords

  • antioxidative enzymes
  • osmolytes
  • PEG
  • rainfed conditions
9 Articles
Open Access

Can the invasive ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus germanus withstand an unusually cold winter in the West Carpathian forest in Central Europe?

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 1 - 8

Abstract

Abstract

The capability of a non-native species to withstand adverse weather is indicative of its establishment in a novel area. An unusually cold winter of 2016/2017 that occurred in the West Carpathians of Slovakia and other regions within Europe provided an opportunity to indirectly assess survival of the invasive ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus germanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae). We compared trap captures of this species in the year preceding and succeeding the respective cold winter. Ethanol-baited traps were deployed in 24 oak dominated forest stands within the southern and central area from April to August 2016, and again from April to August 2017 to encompass the seasonal flight activity of X. germanus and to get acquainted with temporal changes in the abundance of this species in these two distant areas. Dispersing X. germanus were recorded in all surveyed stands before and after the aforementioned cold winter. Their total seasonal trap captures were lower in the southern area following low winter temperatures, but remained similar in the central area. Our results suggest that X. germanus can withstand adverse winter weather in oak dominated forests of the West Carpathians within altitudes of 171 and 450 m asl. It is likely that minimum winter temperatures will not reduce the establishment or further spread of this successful invader in forests in Central Europe.

Keywords

  • black timber bark beetle
  • invasive species
  • overwintering
  • Slovakia
  • Xyleborini
Open Access

Temporal and spatial changes in small mammal communities in a disturbed mountain forest

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 9 - 22

Abstract

Abstract

In 2005–2016, we investigated a secondary succession of small mammal communities in forest ecosystems in High Tatras (Slovakia) disturbed by windstorm and fire. This long-term ecological study confirmed the occurrence of significant temporal and spatial changes in species composition and number of dominant small mammal species. A comparison between disturbed and undisturbed plots indicated notable differences in species richness and abundance. The gradations of dominant small mammal species in disturbed habitats were asynchronous and showed a wider range of amplitude than in the undisturbed plots. An analysis of the temporal and spatial changes in the structure of small mammal communities in relation to selected environmental gradients confirmed the statistically significant effect of secondary succession on species composition, abundance, and exchange in forest ecosystems in the High Tatra Mountains following a disturbance.

Keywords

  • disturbance
  • habitat selection
  • plant succession
  • small mammals
Open Access

A comparative assessment between artificial neural network, neuro-fuzzy, and support vector machine models in splash erosion modelling under simulation circumstances

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 23 - 34

Abstract

Abstract

Splash erosion, as the first step of soil erosion, causes the movement of the soil particles and lumps and is considered an important process in soil erosion. Given the complexity of this process in nature, one way of identifying and modeling the process is to use a rainfall simulator and to study it under laboratory circumstances. For this purpose, transported material was measured with various rainfall intensities and different amounts of poly-acryl-amide. In the next step, artificial neural network (ANN), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), and support vector machine (SVM) were used to model the transported materials. The results showed that among the three methods, the best values of evaluation criteria were related to SVM, and ANFIS respectively. Among the three studied durations, the experiment with a duration of 30 minutes received the best results. The results based on available data showed by increasing the number of membership functions, over-fitting happens in the ANFIS method. To reduce the complexity of the model and the likelihood of over-fitting, some rules were eliminated. The results showed that the performance of the model improved by eliminating some rules.

Keywords

  • ANN
  • ANFIS
  • rainfall simulator
  • sediment load
  • soil particles
  • SVM
Open Access

Endemic and invasive Coccinellidae associated with maize (Zea mays L.) fields, in Manabi province, Ecuador

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 35 - 41

Abstract

Abstract

Maize (Zea mays L.), which is considered an important cereal everywhere, is widely cultivated in different agroecological conditions. Throughout their phenological stages, maize crops are attacked by pests and diseases, and in Ecuador these phytosanitary problems are usually counteracted with applications of pesticides. However, knowledge of beneficial entomofauna is fundamental to guide pest management programs. As part of this objective, the Coccinellidae species present in maize fields in localities (Santa Ana, Colon, and Danzarin) in Manabí province were identified. In each zone, maize plants were sampled from 2018–2019. A total of 2,654 specimens belonging to 14 taxa were collected in this study, of which Cheilomenes sexmaculata, Cycloneda sanguinea, Hippodamia convergens, Hyperaspis arida, and Psyllobora confluens were found in all the studied areas. Hyperaspis arida and Diomus apollonia are reported for the first time in Ecuador.

Keywords

  • biological control
  • diversity
  • lady beetles
  • natural enemies
  • predators
Open Access

The assessment of the current status of Gentiana lutea L. populations of the Ukrainian Carpathians: Ecological and genetic approaches

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 42 - 50

Abstract

Abstract

Based on the analysis of the genetic polymorphisms (RGAP- and CDDP-PCR) among populations and comparison of these results with ecological characteristics (density, area, spatial and vitality structure, age, ability of renewal and self-maintenance), the status of five natural (Lemska, Gutyn Tomnatyk, Sheshul-Pavlyk, Krachuneska, Troyaska-Tataruka) and one man-made (Pozhyzhevska) populations of Gentiana lutea from the Ukrainian Carpathians was assessed. The results of the complex ecological and genetic analysis have revealed that three populations are unstable (Krachuneska, Troyaska-Tataruka, Gutyn Tomnatyk), two are relatively stable (Lemska, Pozhyzhevska) and only one is stable (Sheshul-Pavlyk). The research results can be used for stabilizing the number of violations and restoring the endangered natural populations. Based on these data, the recommendations for the conservation and protection of G. lutea populations have been developed.

Keywords

  • CDDP- and RGAP-PCR
  • ecological characteristics of population
  • genetic diversity
  • L.
  • population status
  • population strategies
Open Access

Ecogenesis and primary soil formation on the East European Plain. A review

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 51 - 60

Abstract

Abstract

Numerous published studies have shown that soil formation, including primary pedogenesis, is closely connected functionally, energetically and operationally with ecogenesis as a key biogenic exploration mechanism of the Earth’s surface by living organisms. The ontogenetic stage of soil evolution, especially in the initial phases, is determined by geogenic conditions and the intensity and trends of biogenic-accumulative processes in the developing ecosystem. Primary soils are considered critical in the rapid development of the initial ancient biosphere, supporting multiple environmental possibilities for ecosystems in that stage of their formation. Currently, similar models of correlated soil formation and ecogenesis are actualised when new substrates appear suitable for biogenic-abiogenic interactions, which occur in both natural and anthropogenic landscapes. Biotic factors during primary pedogenesis have accumulative and transformative effects on the edaphic component complex. At this stage, the initial pedon is a key functional stage in the evolution of terrestrial ecosystems (biogeocenosis). When restoration of natural ecosystems occurs during the independent growth of exposed substrates, the natural regeneration mechanisms normally occur. These processes are based on the biogenic development of the substrate through the accumulation and transformation of organic matter.

Keywords

  • chronology
  • pedogenesis rate
  • Russian Federation
  • soil development
  • successions
Open Access

The cytogenetic parameters of Pinus sylvestris L. under conditions of the Far North of Russia (Karelia)

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 61 - 69

Abstract

Abstract

The cytogenetic analysis of the Pinus sylvestris L. seed progeny in the forests of the northern taiga in the Far North of Russia conditions was carried out. Two Pinus sylvestris populations growing in Ambarnskoy and Pyaozerskoy forest divisions of Loukhsky district of Karelia Republic were studied. The number of chromosomes, the frequency and types of mitosis disturbances at the metaphase, anaphase and telophase (as a percentage of the total number of dividing cells at the same stages), and the frequency of micronuclei occurrence, as well as the laboratory seed germination, were studied. As a result of the study, it was found that 50–56% of the studied sprouts were mixoploid. Analysis of mitosis showed that the root meristem of the studied samples contained cells with various pathologies; simultaneously, the frequency of mitosis pathologies in the Ambarnskoy population was significantly higher than in the Pyaozerskoy one. It amounted to 6.8 ± 0.4 and 4.9 ± 0.4%, respectively. Nine types of abnormalities were identified; chromosome overrun and bridges prevailed. Micronuclei were registered in 35–38% of the studied Pinus sylvestris sprouts. At the same time, the proportion of cells with micronuclei in the Ambarnskoy population was 2-fold higher than in the Pyaozerskoy one and averaged 0.12 ± 0.03% and 0.07 ± 0.02%, respectively.

Keywords

  • cytogenetics
  • germination
  • micronuclei
  • mitotic pathologies
  • mixoploidy
  • Scots pine
  • taiga ecosystems
Open Access

Spatial exploration, dendrometric characteristics and prediction models of wood production in a stand of Acacia schaffneri in Durango, Mexico

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 70 - 79

Abstract

Abstract

Degraded vegetation is the result of a process that affects structural and functional characteristics. Tree species from the Acacia genus are very important to the ecosystem in semi-arid lands due to their participation in the recovery of highly degraded areas. One of the most important species among this genus is A. schaffneri. The status of a forest stand is determined according to its structure, including height, stratum and density. Remote sensing is a valuable method for estimating volumetric stocks and associated changes in forest populations over established periods of time. The objective of this research was to estimate wood volume of A. schaffneri using remote sensing, and to complement that information with the results obtained from an estimation method based on forest measurements. The results obtained showed that the crown area was the dendrometric variable that can be used in a wood volume prediction model. In the exploratory analysis between dendrometric variables and remote sensing showed low and negative associations were observed in the four stations analyzed. There are conservation problems due to anthropogenic activities, among which stands out the intensive grazing that results in a decrease of the natural regeneration capacity of Acacia schaffneri.

Keywords

  • degradation
  • forest mensuration
  • grazing
  • prediction models
Open Access

Evaluation of Achillea, Matricaria, and Anthemis plants following selection for drought tolerance at seedling stages

Published Online: 30 Dec 2021
Page range: 80 - 91

Abstract

Abstract

The genetic potentials of eight species of Achillea (A. millefolium, A. fillipendulla, A. biebersteinii, A. nobilis, A. eriophora), Matricaria (M. ricotita), and Anthemis (An. haussknechtii and An. tinctoria) under drought conditions during the seedling stage were measured. Non-ionic water-soluble polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG, molecular weight 6000) was used to simulate water stress at five osmotic potential levels (0, –0.3, –0.6, –0.9, and –1.2 MPa). An acceptable threshold value for germination was osmotic potential –0.6 MPa, and the modest osmotic potential was –1.2 MPa for studied taxa. Seedlings of germinated at two control and osmotic potential –0.6 MPa (as an acceptable threshold value for germination) treatments were sowed in a field under rainfed conditions. Genetic differentiation of control plants (CP) versus early selected plants (ESP, germinated at osmotic potential –0.6 MPa) was studied using morphological, physiological, and molecular (ISSR) markers. No significant differences were observed between morphological traits of CP and ESP in all species, however, days to full flowering shortened in ESP. The physiological results demonstrate that under rainfed conditions, the ESP, in a quick response, collect osmolytes and amplify the activity of antioxidative enzymes to survive drought. The genetic relationship in the group of genotypes, that ISSR marker set it out, is affiliated to taxon even though AMOVA showed a partial differentiation between CP and ESP groups (21%). It was concluded that the selection of tolerating individuals at the seedling stage represents a likely positive strategy to have higher drought tolerance feature in plants under rainfed conditions.

Keywords

  • antioxidative enzymes
  • osmolytes
  • PEG
  • rainfed conditions

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