Journal & Issues

Volume 15 (2022): Issue 4 (December 2022)

Volume 15 (2022): Issue 3 (September 2022)

Volume 15 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 15 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 14 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 14 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Volume 14 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 14 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Volume 13 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 13 (2020): Issue 3 (September 2020)

Volume 13 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 13 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 12 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Volume 12 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)

Volume 12 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 12 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 11 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)

Volume 11 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)

Volume 11 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 11 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 10 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)

Volume 10 (2017): Issue 3 (September 2017)

Volume 10 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 10 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2451-182X
First Published
30 Jun 2011
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 13 (2020): Issue 3 (September 2020)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2451-182X
First Published
30 Jun 2011
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

8 Articles
Open Access

Cross-Border Ukrainian–Polish Cooperation in the Sphere of Tourism

Published Online: 30 Sep 2020
Page range: 271 - 283

Abstract

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: Investigation and statistical analysis of tourism flows and of trends observed in Ukrainian-Polish cross-border tourism. The purpose of the study is aiding further cross-border tourism-related cooperation between Ukraine and Poland.

Materials and methods: Government and commercial statistics sources. Data analysis methods included literary, analytical, comparative, and quantitative methods.

Results: The processes and dynamics of cross-border cooperation between Ukraine and Poland in the field of tourism during 12 years (from 2006 to 2017) have been investigated. The authors analysed data related to tourism flows and determined the primary source-countries of visitors based on the inbound and outbound indicators and the current tourism market trends within this cross-border cooperation.

Conclusions: The main trend in the Ukraine-Poland tourism flow over the last decade is the stabilisation ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL STUDIES STUDIA EKONOMICZNE I REGIONALNE ISSN 2083-3725 to Poland. In the last few years, it has been driven by Ukraine’s focus on Euro-integration.

Keywords

  • cross-border tourism
  • cross-border cooperation
  • Euro-Region
  • tourism flows

JEL Classification

  • M16
Open Access

Migration of the Banking Sector to Digital Banking in Poland

Published Online: 30 Sep 2020
Page range: 284 - 294

Abstract

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The aim of the article is to present selected aspects of the digitization process of the banking sector in Poland, including the role of the digital channel in the sale of banking products.

Materials and methods: The research is of comparative character and is based on data from the financial website PRNews.pl, NBP, KNF and the ECB Bank.

Results: Mobile banking in Poland is highly concentrated. In 2016-2019, the five largest banks serviced 82% of all mobile banking customers, and their number increased by 27% annually.

Conclusions: Digitization simplifies the process of obtaining and processing information and contributes to reducing operating costs. However it also forces banks to prepare appropriate security and implement costly technological investments. It increases the availability and quality of banking services, and moves customer service from banking branches to the digital channel. Additionally it contributes to reducing the network of branches and the number of employees employed in them.

Keywords

  • banking in Poland
  • digitization
  • banking services
  • mobile banking

JEL Classification

  • G21
  • O11
  • O31
  • O33
  • R11
Open Access

An Assessment of Sustainability of Rural Areas of Upper Beas Valley, Himachal Pradesh, India

Published Online: 30 Sep 2020
Page range: 295 - 306

Abstract

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The study aims to assess the sustainability of rural areas of Western Himalayas during the year 2019.

Materials and methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in upper Beas Valley of Himachal Pradesh. A total of 101 individuals were interviewed and the questionnaire was filled by the surveyor.

Results: Survey showed that high level of unemployment prevailed in the region with minimal monthly income. However, they engaged in agriculture and allied activities along with collection of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) to supplement their incomes. The proximity to protected areas led to frequent encounter with wildlife and such encounters increased after the commencement of Hydro Power Projects. Respondents believed that construction HPPs and expansion road network in the region has increased the occurrence of landslides; and many of them had lost their cultivated land due to landslides.

Conclusions: The study showed rural areas of upper Beas Valley were moderately unsustainable.

Keywords

  • forest
  • rural areas
  • Himalayas
  • wildlife
  • Hydro Power Project

JEL Classification

  • Q
  • R
Open Access

Venture Capital and Private Equity Funds as Source of Financing Enterprises in Poland

Published Online: 30 Sep 2020
Page range: 307 - 327

Abstract

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The main issue of the work is to present the essence of venture capital, i.e. Venture Capital funds and Private Equity funds. The aim of the article is to indicate the size of the share and the role of funds in financing enterprises located in Poland. The time horizon of the presented data covers the years 2012-2019.

Materials and methods: The material for analysis is available statistical data, reports of commercial companies and other entities researching the size of the Venture Capital and Private Equity sector in Poland. For the purposes of the study, the literature on the subject was used as well as the data of: Narodowy Centrum Badań i Rozwoju, KPMG Sp. z o.o., the State Development Fund, the Startup Poland Foundation and the European Association of Venture Capital and Private Equity Investors. The method of analysis and criticism of the literature and the method of examining documents were used.

Results: The research carried out in Poland makes it possible to assess the size of the implemented venture capital investments, i.e. VC and PE funds, over the years 2012-2019. The presented data indicate that the share of funds in financing Polish enterprises has a variable tendency. The percentage share of VC and PE investors in Europe in 2017-2018 is also variable.

Conclusions: The Polish economic market is an attractive investment area in terms of cash allocation needs by venture capital funds. Increasing awareness of enterprise managers about the benefits of using these capitals to subsidize the activities of entrepreneurs allows them to discount VC and PE funds in innovative startups and in other processes, the implementation of which takes place in further phases of the company’s operations. The studies conducted so far cover the entire territory of Poland and are of an overview nature. The VC and PE funds, which are a new financial instrument, allow Polish enterprises to implement innovative projects.

Keywords

  • enterprise
  • risk capital
  • Venture Capital funds
  • Private Equity funds

JEL Classification

  • G23
  • G24
  • G32
Open Access

Modern Trends in the Functioning of Grain-Product Subcomplex of the Agricultural Sector of Ukraine in the Context of Implementing Its External Economic Potential

Published Online: 30 Sep 2020
Page range: 328 - 341

Abstract

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The main purpose of the article is to research the state of grain-product subcomplex of the agro-industrial complex and identify the main trends in its functioning as a prerequisite for the implementation of the external economic potential of Ukraine.

Materials and methods: The research used methodical tools for analysis, construction of econometric models, as well as open information sources of the State Statistics Service of Ukraine.

Results: A set of factors (independent variables) were determined and the existence of theoretically their relationship with the production profitability of cereals and legumes (dependent variable) was substantiated. The regression equations for the investigated factors dependence were formed. The reliability of the econometric model was proved using Fisher’s criterion and Student’s t-criterion test.

Conclusions: To increase the external economic potential of the grain-product subcomplex of the agro-industrial complex, it is advisable to focus on building rational mechanisms for managing the identified determinants of efficiency ensuring of the latter.

Keywords

  • grain-product subcomplex
  • agro-industrial complex
  • grain and leguminous crops
  • external economic potential

JEL Classification

  • N50
  • O13
Open Access

Savings and Migration Capital of Households: World Experience and Domestic Realities

Published Online: 30 Sep 2020
Page range: 342 - 354

Abstract

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The subject of the paper is the formation of household savings in Ukraine and their sources of aggregate household incomes, with particular attention to the Ukrainian labor migration. It is an important source of foreign exchange earnings in the form of remittances, which help improve the welfare of population and ensure economic growth in the country.

The purpose of the paper is to research and determine major trends of the development of households’ financial resources, to examine the foreign experience of forming and use of residents’ savings and to determine the ways it can be applied in Ukraine, and to analyze the main trends of state policy in the regulation of labor migrants’ remittances.

Materials and methods: The author of this paper analyzed the literature on the subject and performed desk research using data from reports and studies published by EU statistics (Euro stat Statistics) and GUS (Statistics Poland), statistical yearbooks of Europe; WDR reports (Global Financial Development Report 2019/2020) and NBU (Official website of the National Bank of Ukraine).

Results: The author’s research has shown that the process of saving is quite popular for European people is quite popular. Accordingly, in 2019, the residents of Poland, Hungary and Romania were the most frugal – 82%, 84% and 85%. Further attitudes towards savings are the following: Turks (77%), Ukrainians (76%), Croats (75%), Serbs (72%), Germans (73%), while savings are slightly less important for Austrians (70%), Slovaks (67%), Czechs (66%), and Montenegrins (59%). This savings situation has clearly demonstrated the power of effective household decisions for overall political and economic activity in Europe. Finally, the migration capital of Ukraine has a “shadow character” due to, first of all, the desire to minimize the costs of transferring funds home through official channels, as well as distrust of the banking sector in Ukraine.

Conclusions: To increase the efficiency of the formation and use of household savings in Ukraine, it is necessary to increase the interest of citizens in savings by partially or completely exempting from taxation the income directed to accumulation and create the conditions necessary for the implementation of new banking, insurance, and other types of financial services.

Keywords

  • households
  • expenditures
  • remittances
  • migration capital
  • total resources

JEL Classification

  • D10
Open Access

Labour Migration of Poles

Published Online: 30 Sep 2020
Page range: 355 - 362

Abstract

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The contemporary labour market in Poland is characterised by a large scale of migration of people, caused by the desire to find a good job. This situation is facilitated by the possibility of free movement within the European Union. The purpose of this study is to present the concept of migration, its types, causes and effects. Statistics related to the labour migration of Poles are also presented. The subject of the study is the migration activity of Poles abroad. The obtained data are presented using the descriptive method and graphical methods.

Materials and methods: National literature and statistical data were used during the work on the research problem.

Results: Statistics showing the scale of the migration phenomenon in Poland are presented. The research period covered the years 2013-2018.

Conclusions: Over the period under consideration, the number of Poles travelling abroad for work purposes decreased. This may be due to the decreasing number of unemployed people and the lower unemployment rate in Poland. At the same time, an increasing number of job offers in the national labour market can be observed.

Keywords

  • unemployment
  • immigration
  • migration
  • work
  • travel

JEL Classification

  • F22
Open Access

Review of the Monograph “Unconditional Basic Income. A Revolutionary Reform of the 21st Century Society” By Maciej Szlinder, Pwn, Warsaw, 2018, P. 310

Published Online: 30 Sep 2020
Page range: 363 - 374

Abstract

Summary

The economic forum currently sees the postulate of a multi-dimensional analysis of economic issues, as exemplified by behavioural and institutional economics, cliometrics, wikinomics and others – taking into consideration of the achievements of cultural anthropology, sociology, ethics, philosophy, the history of economics, as well as selected exact sciences, such as mathematics and physics. The redistribution economics, the relationship between capital and labour, the issues of the precariat, guaranteed minimum income for each citizen – both conditional and unconditional, which is a new idea for economy and the society – become more and more apparent in the aforementioned areas. The idea stems from the criticism of neoliberalism, and it interferes with the system of values shaped under capitalism, the role of the welfare state, the welfare system from the perspective of institutions and beneficiaries, who would replace their current privileges with inalienable rights. The author recommends unconditional minimum income upon providing a characteristic of a wide scope of postulated solutions, implemented on an experimental scale and applied in the practice of social policy. The monograph, while constituting the author’s moderate manifesto, provides a wide – in terms of time, authors and trends in economy – review of the standpoints on the participation in the national income.

Keywords

  • income
  • taxes
  • basic income
  • minimum wages

JEL Classification

  • E02
  • E6
  • H2
8 Articles
Open Access

Cross-Border Ukrainian–Polish Cooperation in the Sphere of Tourism

Published Online: 30 Sep 2020
Page range: 271 - 283

Abstract

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: Investigation and statistical analysis of tourism flows and of trends observed in Ukrainian-Polish cross-border tourism. The purpose of the study is aiding further cross-border tourism-related cooperation between Ukraine and Poland.

Materials and methods: Government and commercial statistics sources. Data analysis methods included literary, analytical, comparative, and quantitative methods.

Results: The processes and dynamics of cross-border cooperation between Ukraine and Poland in the field of tourism during 12 years (from 2006 to 2017) have been investigated. The authors analysed data related to tourism flows and determined the primary source-countries of visitors based on the inbound and outbound indicators and the current tourism market trends within this cross-border cooperation.

Conclusions: The main trend in the Ukraine-Poland tourism flow over the last decade is the stabilisation ECONOMIC AND REGIONAL STUDIES STUDIA EKONOMICZNE I REGIONALNE ISSN 2083-3725 to Poland. In the last few years, it has been driven by Ukraine’s focus on Euro-integration.

Keywords

  • cross-border tourism
  • cross-border cooperation
  • Euro-Region
  • tourism flows

JEL Classification

  • M16
Open Access

Migration of the Banking Sector to Digital Banking in Poland

Published Online: 30 Sep 2020
Page range: 284 - 294

Abstract

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The aim of the article is to present selected aspects of the digitization process of the banking sector in Poland, including the role of the digital channel in the sale of banking products.

Materials and methods: The research is of comparative character and is based on data from the financial website PRNews.pl, NBP, KNF and the ECB Bank.

Results: Mobile banking in Poland is highly concentrated. In 2016-2019, the five largest banks serviced 82% of all mobile banking customers, and their number increased by 27% annually.

Conclusions: Digitization simplifies the process of obtaining and processing information and contributes to reducing operating costs. However it also forces banks to prepare appropriate security and implement costly technological investments. It increases the availability and quality of banking services, and moves customer service from banking branches to the digital channel. Additionally it contributes to reducing the network of branches and the number of employees employed in them.

Keywords

  • banking in Poland
  • digitization
  • banking services
  • mobile banking

JEL Classification

  • G21
  • O11
  • O31
  • O33
  • R11
Open Access

An Assessment of Sustainability of Rural Areas of Upper Beas Valley, Himachal Pradesh, India

Published Online: 30 Sep 2020
Page range: 295 - 306

Abstract

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The study aims to assess the sustainability of rural areas of Western Himalayas during the year 2019.

Materials and methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in upper Beas Valley of Himachal Pradesh. A total of 101 individuals were interviewed and the questionnaire was filled by the surveyor.

Results: Survey showed that high level of unemployment prevailed in the region with minimal monthly income. However, they engaged in agriculture and allied activities along with collection of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) to supplement their incomes. The proximity to protected areas led to frequent encounter with wildlife and such encounters increased after the commencement of Hydro Power Projects. Respondents believed that construction HPPs and expansion road network in the region has increased the occurrence of landslides; and many of them had lost their cultivated land due to landslides.

Conclusions: The study showed rural areas of upper Beas Valley were moderately unsustainable.

Keywords

  • forest
  • rural areas
  • Himalayas
  • wildlife
  • Hydro Power Project

JEL Classification

  • Q
  • R
Open Access

Venture Capital and Private Equity Funds as Source of Financing Enterprises in Poland

Published Online: 30 Sep 2020
Page range: 307 - 327

Abstract

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The main issue of the work is to present the essence of venture capital, i.e. Venture Capital funds and Private Equity funds. The aim of the article is to indicate the size of the share and the role of funds in financing enterprises located in Poland. The time horizon of the presented data covers the years 2012-2019.

Materials and methods: The material for analysis is available statistical data, reports of commercial companies and other entities researching the size of the Venture Capital and Private Equity sector in Poland. For the purposes of the study, the literature on the subject was used as well as the data of: Narodowy Centrum Badań i Rozwoju, KPMG Sp. z o.o., the State Development Fund, the Startup Poland Foundation and the European Association of Venture Capital and Private Equity Investors. The method of analysis and criticism of the literature and the method of examining documents were used.

Results: The research carried out in Poland makes it possible to assess the size of the implemented venture capital investments, i.e. VC and PE funds, over the years 2012-2019. The presented data indicate that the share of funds in financing Polish enterprises has a variable tendency. The percentage share of VC and PE investors in Europe in 2017-2018 is also variable.

Conclusions: The Polish economic market is an attractive investment area in terms of cash allocation needs by venture capital funds. Increasing awareness of enterprise managers about the benefits of using these capitals to subsidize the activities of entrepreneurs allows them to discount VC and PE funds in innovative startups and in other processes, the implementation of which takes place in further phases of the company’s operations. The studies conducted so far cover the entire territory of Poland and are of an overview nature. The VC and PE funds, which are a new financial instrument, allow Polish enterprises to implement innovative projects.

Keywords

  • enterprise
  • risk capital
  • Venture Capital funds
  • Private Equity funds

JEL Classification

  • G23
  • G24
  • G32
Open Access

Modern Trends in the Functioning of Grain-Product Subcomplex of the Agricultural Sector of Ukraine in the Context of Implementing Its External Economic Potential

Published Online: 30 Sep 2020
Page range: 328 - 341

Abstract

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The main purpose of the article is to research the state of grain-product subcomplex of the agro-industrial complex and identify the main trends in its functioning as a prerequisite for the implementation of the external economic potential of Ukraine.

Materials and methods: The research used methodical tools for analysis, construction of econometric models, as well as open information sources of the State Statistics Service of Ukraine.

Results: A set of factors (independent variables) were determined and the existence of theoretically their relationship with the production profitability of cereals and legumes (dependent variable) was substantiated. The regression equations for the investigated factors dependence were formed. The reliability of the econometric model was proved using Fisher’s criterion and Student’s t-criterion test.

Conclusions: To increase the external economic potential of the grain-product subcomplex of the agro-industrial complex, it is advisable to focus on building rational mechanisms for managing the identified determinants of efficiency ensuring of the latter.

Keywords

  • grain-product subcomplex
  • agro-industrial complex
  • grain and leguminous crops
  • external economic potential

JEL Classification

  • N50
  • O13
Open Access

Savings and Migration Capital of Households: World Experience and Domestic Realities

Published Online: 30 Sep 2020
Page range: 342 - 354

Abstract

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The subject of the paper is the formation of household savings in Ukraine and their sources of aggregate household incomes, with particular attention to the Ukrainian labor migration. It is an important source of foreign exchange earnings in the form of remittances, which help improve the welfare of population and ensure economic growth in the country.

The purpose of the paper is to research and determine major trends of the development of households’ financial resources, to examine the foreign experience of forming and use of residents’ savings and to determine the ways it can be applied in Ukraine, and to analyze the main trends of state policy in the regulation of labor migrants’ remittances.

Materials and methods: The author of this paper analyzed the literature on the subject and performed desk research using data from reports and studies published by EU statistics (Euro stat Statistics) and GUS (Statistics Poland), statistical yearbooks of Europe; WDR reports (Global Financial Development Report 2019/2020) and NBU (Official website of the National Bank of Ukraine).

Results: The author’s research has shown that the process of saving is quite popular for European people is quite popular. Accordingly, in 2019, the residents of Poland, Hungary and Romania were the most frugal – 82%, 84% and 85%. Further attitudes towards savings are the following: Turks (77%), Ukrainians (76%), Croats (75%), Serbs (72%), Germans (73%), while savings are slightly less important for Austrians (70%), Slovaks (67%), Czechs (66%), and Montenegrins (59%). This savings situation has clearly demonstrated the power of effective household decisions for overall political and economic activity in Europe. Finally, the migration capital of Ukraine has a “shadow character” due to, first of all, the desire to minimize the costs of transferring funds home through official channels, as well as distrust of the banking sector in Ukraine.

Conclusions: To increase the efficiency of the formation and use of household savings in Ukraine, it is necessary to increase the interest of citizens in savings by partially or completely exempting from taxation the income directed to accumulation and create the conditions necessary for the implementation of new banking, insurance, and other types of financial services.

Keywords

  • households
  • expenditures
  • remittances
  • migration capital
  • total resources

JEL Classification

  • D10
Open Access

Labour Migration of Poles

Published Online: 30 Sep 2020
Page range: 355 - 362

Abstract

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The contemporary labour market in Poland is characterised by a large scale of migration of people, caused by the desire to find a good job. This situation is facilitated by the possibility of free movement within the European Union. The purpose of this study is to present the concept of migration, its types, causes and effects. Statistics related to the labour migration of Poles are also presented. The subject of the study is the migration activity of Poles abroad. The obtained data are presented using the descriptive method and graphical methods.

Materials and methods: National literature and statistical data were used during the work on the research problem.

Results: Statistics showing the scale of the migration phenomenon in Poland are presented. The research period covered the years 2013-2018.

Conclusions: Over the period under consideration, the number of Poles travelling abroad for work purposes decreased. This may be due to the decreasing number of unemployed people and the lower unemployment rate in Poland. At the same time, an increasing number of job offers in the national labour market can be observed.

Keywords

  • unemployment
  • immigration
  • migration
  • work
  • travel

JEL Classification

  • F22
Open Access

Review of the Monograph “Unconditional Basic Income. A Revolutionary Reform of the 21st Century Society” By Maciej Szlinder, Pwn, Warsaw, 2018, P. 310

Published Online: 30 Sep 2020
Page range: 363 - 374

Abstract

Summary

The economic forum currently sees the postulate of a multi-dimensional analysis of economic issues, as exemplified by behavioural and institutional economics, cliometrics, wikinomics and others – taking into consideration of the achievements of cultural anthropology, sociology, ethics, philosophy, the history of economics, as well as selected exact sciences, such as mathematics and physics. The redistribution economics, the relationship between capital and labour, the issues of the precariat, guaranteed minimum income for each citizen – both conditional and unconditional, which is a new idea for economy and the society – become more and more apparent in the aforementioned areas. The idea stems from the criticism of neoliberalism, and it interferes with the system of values shaped under capitalism, the role of the welfare state, the welfare system from the perspective of institutions and beneficiaries, who would replace their current privileges with inalienable rights. The author recommends unconditional minimum income upon providing a characteristic of a wide scope of postulated solutions, implemented on an experimental scale and applied in the practice of social policy. The monograph, while constituting the author’s moderate manifesto, provides a wide – in terms of time, authors and trends in economy – review of the standpoints on the participation in the national income.

Keywords

  • income
  • taxes
  • basic income
  • minimum wages

JEL Classification

  • E02
  • E6
  • H2

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