Journal & Issues

Volume 13 (2022): Issue 3 (October 2022)

Volume 13 (2022): Issue 2 (December 2022)

Volume 13 (2022): Issue 1 (June 2022)

Volume 12 (2021): Issue 2 (December 2021)

Volume 12 (2021): Issue 1 (May 2021)

Volume 11 (2020): Issue 3 (November 2020)

Volume 11 (2020): Issue 2 (October 2020)

Volume 11 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 10 (2019): Issue 2 (September 2019)

Volume 10 (2019): Issue 1 (April 2019)

Volume 9 (2018): Issue 2 (July 2018)

Volume 9 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 8 (2017): Issue 2 (September 2017)

Volume 8 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 7 (2016): Issue 2 (September 2016)

Volume 7 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Volume 6 (2015): Issue 2 (September 2015)

Volume 6 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)

Volume 5 (2014): Issue 3 (September 2014)
“Novel solutions or novel approaches in Operational Research” co-published with the Slovenian Society INFORMATIKA – Section for Operational Research (SDI-SOR), Issue Editors: Ksenija Dumičić (University of Zagreb), Lidija Zadnik Stirn (University of Ljubljana), and Janez Žerovnik (University of Ljubljana)

Volume 5 (2014): Issue 2 (June 2014)

Volume 5 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)
Special Issue: Embedded Systems Applications: Future Society Applications

Volume 4 (2013): Issue 2 (December 2013)

Volume 4 (2013): Issue 1 (March 2013)

Volume 3 (2012): Issue 2 (September 2012)
"Innovative Approaches to Operations Research Methodology and Its Applications in Business, Economics, Management and Social Sciences" co-published with the Slovenian Society INFORMATIKA - Section for Operational Research (SDI-SOR)

Volume 3 (2012): Issue 1 (June 2012)

Volume 2 (2011): Issue 2 (June 2011)

Volume 2 (2011): Issue 1 (January 2011)

Volume 1 (2010): Issue 1-2 (January 2010)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1847-9375
First Published
19 Sep 2012
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 13 (2022): Issue 2 (December 2022)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1847-9375
First Published
19 Sep 2012
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

8 Articles
Open Access

Digitalization in Teaching Economic Disciplines: Past, Current and Future Perspectives

Published Online: 23 Nov 2022
Page range: 1 - 7

Abstract

Abstract

This special issue of Business Systems Research (SI of the BSR) highlights the past, current and future perspectives of digitalization in teaching economic disciplines. The emphasis has been put on digital competencies, the quality of e-learning, e-exams, digital tools, gamification, and digital and mobile technologies used in the teaching process in the field of economics. The main focus groups of the research are teachers and students from the economic field of education at both university and secondary school levels. Seven papers selected for this SI of the BSR present the digitalization era’s impact on teaching economic disciplines. The conducted research and publication of the papers are funded under the project “Challenges and practices of teaching economic disciplines in era of digitalization” (project no. 2020-1-HR01-KA202-077771), which is co-funded by the Erasmus+ Programme of the European Union.

Keywords

  • digitalization of teaching process
  • digital tools
  • gamification
  • e-learning
  • e-exams
  • digital competencies
  • teachers
  • students
  • higher education
  • secondary school education
  • economic disciplines

JEL Classification

  • I23
  • O33
Open Access

Landscape of e-Learning during Covid-19: Case Study of Economic Disciplines in Croatia

Published Online: 23 Nov 2022
Page range: 8 - 27

Abstract

Abstract

Background: The Covid-19 pandemic has changed the digitalisation level of education. Many institutions had some knowledge and practical background in delivering lectures online. Some countries apply a top-down digitalisation approach driven by policy or strategy and externally impacted by the government. Some other countries rather initiate digitalisation internally by teachers and universities.

Objectives: The main goal is to investigate the digitalisation level of the higher education system in Croatia, exploring the digitalisation of economic disciplines compared to other scientific fields.

Methods/Approach: We assess the digitalisation level of higher education based on the regulatory framework, applied approach of digitalisation, the agility of transition to online teaching and the existing number of courses and online study programs. Education digitalisation in different countries is compared with the Croatian experience.

Results: Although the satisfactory level of higher education institutions’ agility to switch online exist, there hasn’t been a centralised project led by the government and supported by proper funds to increase digitalisation in Croatia. Even before the pandemic, many e-courses from economics and business had been offered to students, but online study programs were exceptions, covering mainly the economics and business field.

Conclusions: The Covid-19 pandemic has improved the digitalisation process in the Croatian education system. A general framework for the digitalisation of education should be developed containing the detailed administrative processes and appropriate funds to be implemented.

Keywords

  • higher education institutions
  • digitalisation
  • economic disciplines
  • Croatia

JEL Classification

  • A2
  • I23
Open Access

Pros and Cons of e-Learning in Economics and Business in Central and Eastern Europe: Cross-country Empirical Investigation

Published Online: 23 Nov 2022
Page range: 28 - 44

Abstract

Abstract

Background: The ongoing information and technological revolution, as well as the Covid-19 pandemic, accelerated the use of e-learning worldwide.

Objectives: This article aims to present the results of our empirical research among students of economics and business from Central and Eastern Europe on the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning.

Methods/Approach: The article uses a survey, and the research sample included 1647 respondents (students of economics and business) from universities in three countries: Croatia, Poland, and Serbia. We used the multivariate comparative analysis (factor analysis and principal components analysis) by applying Statistica computer software.

Results: The assessment of individual forms of e-learning in the three countries is similar. In e-learning, investigated students appreciated, first of all, the time-saving. At the same time, it is difficult to concentrate and harder to develop the interpersonal skills needed to work in a real environment.

Conclusions: E-learning seems to be a vital instrument complementing traditional learning, as the respondents declared. However, it should not replace traditional face-to-face education; it should only support it.

Keywords

  • e-learning
  • distance learning
  • factor analysis
  • Croatia
  • Poland
  • Serbia

JEL Classification

  • A22
  • A23
  • I23
Open Access

e-Learning in Higher Institutions and Secondary Schools during Covid-19: Crisis Solving and Future Perspectives

Published Online: 23 Nov 2022
Page range: 45 - 71

Abstract

Abstract

Background: The pandemic of Covid-19 brought significant changes to the education system and forcibly accelerated the process of digitizing teaching. Students and educators had to adapt to the new way of education, facing challenges such as technical problems and a lack of technical skills and social contact.

Objectives: The purpose of the paper was to explore the attitudes of the university and high school educators and students towards the pandemic’s impact on digitization in teaching.

Methods/Approach: Data were collected through a questionnaire distributed to university and high school educators and students in Croatia, Poland, Serbia and Germany in the field of accounting, finance, trade, tourism, and other areas of interest, resulting in 2,897 responses. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests.

Results: The research showed that: 1) high school students were less optimistic about the positive impact of the pandemic on applying digital tools in teaching than university students, 2) educators generally prefer traditional exams, while students generally prefer e-exams, 3) a higher proportion of university respondents believe that e-learning should be used as an important addition to traditional teaching when compared to high school respondents.

Conclusions: The pandemic has changed how the teaching process will be performed, but we should learn from experience and address the issues with e-learning.

Keywords

  • e-learning
  • digital tools
  • Covid-19 pandemic
  • e-exams
  • university
  • high school

JEL Classification

  • A20
  • I21
  • I23
  • 033
Open Access

Digital Competencies among Higher Education Professors and High-School Teachers: Does Teaching Experience matter?

Published Online: 23 Nov 2022
Page range: 72 - 95

Abstract

Abstract

Background: To provide high-quality education and remain innovative, thus contributing to sustainable development goals, educational institutions use digital tools and implement ICT in the teaching process. In addition to providing technical resources, it requires the appropriate education of teachers who should have the appropriate knowledge and skills to take full advantage of the opportunities provided by ICT.

Objectives: The main objective of this article is to identify the current state of ICT knowledge and skills of university professors and high school teachers and to establish if there exists a relationship between their digital competencies and teaching experience. We strive to discover areas where digital competencies are already relatively high and ICT knowledge and skills gaps.

Methods/Approach: Survey was conducted on a sample of university and secondary school professors who were asked to estimate their perceived level of knowledge and skills in various ICT domains.

Results: The results of our research show that the total self-assessed level of competence is intermediate, with slightly higher values for ICT knowledge than for ICT skills. The results vary depending on the different subcategories of competencies and the years of respondents’ teaching experience.

Conclusions: Our research findings, which revealed variations and gaps in digital knowledge and skills among professors and teachers, may have significant policy implications for policymakers and educators committed to ensuring quality education.

Keywords

  • digital competencies
  • ICT knowledge
  • ICT skills
  • digitalisation of education
  • university professors
  • high school teachers

JEL Classification

  • J24
  • I20
  • O15
Open Access

Who is more eager to use Gamification in Economic Disciplines? Comparison of Students and Educators

Published Online: 23 Nov 2022
Page range: 96 - 116

Abstract

Abstract

Background: In this paper, the focus is on the application of digital and mobile technologies as supporting tools for the implementation of gamification in the field of education of future economists.

Objectives: The paper’s main objective is to explore whether educators and students are motivated and willing to apply additional technologies as main gamification components in their work and education. Moreover, the paper aims to assess how their more comprehensive application affects the quality of teaching, work flexibility, new learning opportunities, and outcomes.

Methods/Approach: The survey method was used to collect answers from educators and students primarily interested in accounting, finance, trade and tourism from higher and secondary education institutions in Croatia, Poland, Serbia and Germany. Afterwards, the responses were compared using statistical methods.

Results: Research results confirm that educators and students are willing to use gamification in teaching. Still, they also expressed the need for better administrative support in using particular e-learning tools. Surprisingly, educators are more eager to use gamification in their work than students.

Conclusions: The study’s general conclusion is that educators and students are both aware of the advantages of using e-learning tools provided through digital and mobile technologies and are eager to implement more gamification in the teaching process. However, continuous education in applying new digital technologies is needed on both sides.

Keywords

  • Gamification
  • digital technologies
  • mobile technologies
  • teaching process
  • students
  • educators
  • secondary education
  • higher education
  • economic disciplines

JEL Classification

  • A20
  • I21
  • O33
Open Access

Which Digital Tools dominate Secondary and Higher Education in Economics: Google, Microsoft or Zoom?

Published Online: 23 Nov 2022
Page range: 117 - 134

Abstract

Abstract

Background: Due to the Covid 19 pandemic, in many countries, higher, secondary and even primary education experienced the unannounced shift from traditional classroom lessons to distance teaching using different technologies.

Objectives: The main objective of the research was to identify the most important digital tools applied by educators and students during the pandemic and evaluate their satisfaction with applying these tools in four countries; Croatia, Germany, Poland and Serbia.

Methods/Approach: The questionnaires were sent via emails to educators and distributed through the classes to students using digital teaching platforms or emails. The answers were analysed by descriptive statistics.

Results: Research showed that Google tools most commonly used by students and educators are; YouTube, Gmail, Google Translate, Google Maps and Google Drive. Microsoft digital tools most commonly used by educators and students in observed countries are; Word, PowerPoint and Excel. Other digital tools most commonly used by educators are Zoom and Moodle, while students mostly use Zoom and Kahoot. Moreover, this paper identifies the main reasons for educators’ insufficient use of digital tools.

Conclusions: Google, Microsoft and Zoom dominate their specific domains: Google for networks, Microsoft for documents, and Zoom for online meetings.

Keywords

  • digital tools
  • Google
  • Microsoft
  • Zoom
  • education
  • learning
  • students

JEL Classification

  • I20
  • I21
  • M20
  • M21
Open Access

Digital Competencies in Selected European Countries among University and High-School Students: Programming is lagging behind

Published Online: 23 Nov 2022
Page range: 135 - 154

Abstract

Abstract

Background: Constant integration of digital technologies in economic and social life is rapidly and significantly shaping and changing our environment and ourselves. To function in such a world, even in daily routines, it is necessary to possess certain digital competencies.

Objectives: This paper aims to examine how university and high-school students of economic orientations from selected European countries self-assess their digital competencies, and to analyse the identified differences. This will enable further understanding of university and high-school students’ digital competencies that can serve as guidance for improving teaching practices and curricula.

Methods/Approach: A survey was conducted to collect data that were analysed using non-parametric statistic tests (Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis H test) and Spearman Rank-Order Correlation coefficient.

Results: University and high-school students consider to have below intermediate level of digital competencies. High-school students self-assessed digital competencies at a higher level than university students. University students of higher years of study self-assessed digital competencies at a higher level. There is no universal pattern among high-school students of different years of study. University students in the Accounting module and high-school students in the Tourism module assessed their digital competencies at the lowest level in several areas. There is a consistency in self-assessment of digital knowledge and digital skills. Conclusions: The identified below intermediate level of digital competencies and discovered discrepancies indicated the need for educational process improvements to provide university and high-school students with a higher degree of digital competencies. Programming is the most lagging behind in all the observed groups.

Keywords

  • economic education
  • digitalisation
  • digital knowledge
  • digital skills
  • self-perception
  • programming

JEL Classification

  • A21
  • A22
  • C12
  • I20
8 Articles
Open Access

Digitalization in Teaching Economic Disciplines: Past, Current and Future Perspectives

Published Online: 23 Nov 2022
Page range: 1 - 7

Abstract

Abstract

This special issue of Business Systems Research (SI of the BSR) highlights the past, current and future perspectives of digitalization in teaching economic disciplines. The emphasis has been put on digital competencies, the quality of e-learning, e-exams, digital tools, gamification, and digital and mobile technologies used in the teaching process in the field of economics. The main focus groups of the research are teachers and students from the economic field of education at both university and secondary school levels. Seven papers selected for this SI of the BSR present the digitalization era’s impact on teaching economic disciplines. The conducted research and publication of the papers are funded under the project “Challenges and practices of teaching economic disciplines in era of digitalization” (project no. 2020-1-HR01-KA202-077771), which is co-funded by the Erasmus+ Programme of the European Union.

Keywords

  • digitalization of teaching process
  • digital tools
  • gamification
  • e-learning
  • e-exams
  • digital competencies
  • teachers
  • students
  • higher education
  • secondary school education
  • economic disciplines

JEL Classification

  • I23
  • O33
Open Access

Landscape of e-Learning during Covid-19: Case Study of Economic Disciplines in Croatia

Published Online: 23 Nov 2022
Page range: 8 - 27

Abstract

Abstract

Background: The Covid-19 pandemic has changed the digitalisation level of education. Many institutions had some knowledge and practical background in delivering lectures online. Some countries apply a top-down digitalisation approach driven by policy or strategy and externally impacted by the government. Some other countries rather initiate digitalisation internally by teachers and universities.

Objectives: The main goal is to investigate the digitalisation level of the higher education system in Croatia, exploring the digitalisation of economic disciplines compared to other scientific fields.

Methods/Approach: We assess the digitalisation level of higher education based on the regulatory framework, applied approach of digitalisation, the agility of transition to online teaching and the existing number of courses and online study programs. Education digitalisation in different countries is compared with the Croatian experience.

Results: Although the satisfactory level of higher education institutions’ agility to switch online exist, there hasn’t been a centralised project led by the government and supported by proper funds to increase digitalisation in Croatia. Even before the pandemic, many e-courses from economics and business had been offered to students, but online study programs were exceptions, covering mainly the economics and business field.

Conclusions: The Covid-19 pandemic has improved the digitalisation process in the Croatian education system. A general framework for the digitalisation of education should be developed containing the detailed administrative processes and appropriate funds to be implemented.

Keywords

  • higher education institutions
  • digitalisation
  • economic disciplines
  • Croatia

JEL Classification

  • A2
  • I23
Open Access

Pros and Cons of e-Learning in Economics and Business in Central and Eastern Europe: Cross-country Empirical Investigation

Published Online: 23 Nov 2022
Page range: 28 - 44

Abstract

Abstract

Background: The ongoing information and technological revolution, as well as the Covid-19 pandemic, accelerated the use of e-learning worldwide.

Objectives: This article aims to present the results of our empirical research among students of economics and business from Central and Eastern Europe on the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning.

Methods/Approach: The article uses a survey, and the research sample included 1647 respondents (students of economics and business) from universities in three countries: Croatia, Poland, and Serbia. We used the multivariate comparative analysis (factor analysis and principal components analysis) by applying Statistica computer software.

Results: The assessment of individual forms of e-learning in the three countries is similar. In e-learning, investigated students appreciated, first of all, the time-saving. At the same time, it is difficult to concentrate and harder to develop the interpersonal skills needed to work in a real environment.

Conclusions: E-learning seems to be a vital instrument complementing traditional learning, as the respondents declared. However, it should not replace traditional face-to-face education; it should only support it.

Keywords

  • e-learning
  • distance learning
  • factor analysis
  • Croatia
  • Poland
  • Serbia

JEL Classification

  • A22
  • A23
  • I23
Open Access

e-Learning in Higher Institutions and Secondary Schools during Covid-19: Crisis Solving and Future Perspectives

Published Online: 23 Nov 2022
Page range: 45 - 71

Abstract

Abstract

Background: The pandemic of Covid-19 brought significant changes to the education system and forcibly accelerated the process of digitizing teaching. Students and educators had to adapt to the new way of education, facing challenges such as technical problems and a lack of technical skills and social contact.

Objectives: The purpose of the paper was to explore the attitudes of the university and high school educators and students towards the pandemic’s impact on digitization in teaching.

Methods/Approach: Data were collected through a questionnaire distributed to university and high school educators and students in Croatia, Poland, Serbia and Germany in the field of accounting, finance, trade, tourism, and other areas of interest, resulting in 2,897 responses. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests.

Results: The research showed that: 1) high school students were less optimistic about the positive impact of the pandemic on applying digital tools in teaching than university students, 2) educators generally prefer traditional exams, while students generally prefer e-exams, 3) a higher proportion of university respondents believe that e-learning should be used as an important addition to traditional teaching when compared to high school respondents.

Conclusions: The pandemic has changed how the teaching process will be performed, but we should learn from experience and address the issues with e-learning.

Keywords

  • e-learning
  • digital tools
  • Covid-19 pandemic
  • e-exams
  • university
  • high school

JEL Classification

  • A20
  • I21
  • I23
  • 033
Open Access

Digital Competencies among Higher Education Professors and High-School Teachers: Does Teaching Experience matter?

Published Online: 23 Nov 2022
Page range: 72 - 95

Abstract

Abstract

Background: To provide high-quality education and remain innovative, thus contributing to sustainable development goals, educational institutions use digital tools and implement ICT in the teaching process. In addition to providing technical resources, it requires the appropriate education of teachers who should have the appropriate knowledge and skills to take full advantage of the opportunities provided by ICT.

Objectives: The main objective of this article is to identify the current state of ICT knowledge and skills of university professors and high school teachers and to establish if there exists a relationship between their digital competencies and teaching experience. We strive to discover areas where digital competencies are already relatively high and ICT knowledge and skills gaps.

Methods/Approach: Survey was conducted on a sample of university and secondary school professors who were asked to estimate their perceived level of knowledge and skills in various ICT domains.

Results: The results of our research show that the total self-assessed level of competence is intermediate, with slightly higher values for ICT knowledge than for ICT skills. The results vary depending on the different subcategories of competencies and the years of respondents’ teaching experience.

Conclusions: Our research findings, which revealed variations and gaps in digital knowledge and skills among professors and teachers, may have significant policy implications for policymakers and educators committed to ensuring quality education.

Keywords

  • digital competencies
  • ICT knowledge
  • ICT skills
  • digitalisation of education
  • university professors
  • high school teachers

JEL Classification

  • J24
  • I20
  • O15
Open Access

Who is more eager to use Gamification in Economic Disciplines? Comparison of Students and Educators

Published Online: 23 Nov 2022
Page range: 96 - 116

Abstract

Abstract

Background: In this paper, the focus is on the application of digital and mobile technologies as supporting tools for the implementation of gamification in the field of education of future economists.

Objectives: The paper’s main objective is to explore whether educators and students are motivated and willing to apply additional technologies as main gamification components in their work and education. Moreover, the paper aims to assess how their more comprehensive application affects the quality of teaching, work flexibility, new learning opportunities, and outcomes.

Methods/Approach: The survey method was used to collect answers from educators and students primarily interested in accounting, finance, trade and tourism from higher and secondary education institutions in Croatia, Poland, Serbia and Germany. Afterwards, the responses were compared using statistical methods.

Results: Research results confirm that educators and students are willing to use gamification in teaching. Still, they also expressed the need for better administrative support in using particular e-learning tools. Surprisingly, educators are more eager to use gamification in their work than students.

Conclusions: The study’s general conclusion is that educators and students are both aware of the advantages of using e-learning tools provided through digital and mobile technologies and are eager to implement more gamification in the teaching process. However, continuous education in applying new digital technologies is needed on both sides.

Keywords

  • Gamification
  • digital technologies
  • mobile technologies
  • teaching process
  • students
  • educators
  • secondary education
  • higher education
  • economic disciplines

JEL Classification

  • A20
  • I21
  • O33
Open Access

Which Digital Tools dominate Secondary and Higher Education in Economics: Google, Microsoft or Zoom?

Published Online: 23 Nov 2022
Page range: 117 - 134

Abstract

Abstract

Background: Due to the Covid 19 pandemic, in many countries, higher, secondary and even primary education experienced the unannounced shift from traditional classroom lessons to distance teaching using different technologies.

Objectives: The main objective of the research was to identify the most important digital tools applied by educators and students during the pandemic and evaluate their satisfaction with applying these tools in four countries; Croatia, Germany, Poland and Serbia.

Methods/Approach: The questionnaires were sent via emails to educators and distributed through the classes to students using digital teaching platforms or emails. The answers were analysed by descriptive statistics.

Results: Research showed that Google tools most commonly used by students and educators are; YouTube, Gmail, Google Translate, Google Maps and Google Drive. Microsoft digital tools most commonly used by educators and students in observed countries are; Word, PowerPoint and Excel. Other digital tools most commonly used by educators are Zoom and Moodle, while students mostly use Zoom and Kahoot. Moreover, this paper identifies the main reasons for educators’ insufficient use of digital tools.

Conclusions: Google, Microsoft and Zoom dominate their specific domains: Google for networks, Microsoft for documents, and Zoom for online meetings.

Keywords

  • digital tools
  • Google
  • Microsoft
  • Zoom
  • education
  • learning
  • students

JEL Classification

  • I20
  • I21
  • M20
  • M21
Open Access

Digital Competencies in Selected European Countries among University and High-School Students: Programming is lagging behind

Published Online: 23 Nov 2022
Page range: 135 - 154

Abstract

Abstract

Background: Constant integration of digital technologies in economic and social life is rapidly and significantly shaping and changing our environment and ourselves. To function in such a world, even in daily routines, it is necessary to possess certain digital competencies.

Objectives: This paper aims to examine how university and high-school students of economic orientations from selected European countries self-assess their digital competencies, and to analyse the identified differences. This will enable further understanding of university and high-school students’ digital competencies that can serve as guidance for improving teaching practices and curricula.

Methods/Approach: A survey was conducted to collect data that were analysed using non-parametric statistic tests (Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis H test) and Spearman Rank-Order Correlation coefficient.

Results: University and high-school students consider to have below intermediate level of digital competencies. High-school students self-assessed digital competencies at a higher level than university students. University students of higher years of study self-assessed digital competencies at a higher level. There is no universal pattern among high-school students of different years of study. University students in the Accounting module and high-school students in the Tourism module assessed their digital competencies at the lowest level in several areas. There is a consistency in self-assessment of digital knowledge and digital skills. Conclusions: The identified below intermediate level of digital competencies and discovered discrepancies indicated the need for educational process improvements to provide university and high-school students with a higher degree of digital competencies. Programming is the most lagging behind in all the observed groups.

Keywords

  • economic education
  • digitalisation
  • digital knowledge
  • digital skills
  • self-perception
  • programming

JEL Classification

  • A21
  • A22
  • C12
  • I20

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