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Volume 60 (2020): Issue 1 (December 2020)

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Volume 56 (2019): Issue 1 (December 2019)

Volume 55 (2019): Issue 1 (September 2019)

Volume 54 (2019): Issue 1 (June 2019)

Volume 53 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 52 (2018): Issue 1 (December 2018)

Volume 51 (2018): Issue 1 (September 2018)

Volume 50 (2018): Issue 1 (June 2018)

Volume 49 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 48 (2017): Issue 1 (December 2017)

Volume 47 (2017): Issue 1 (September 2017)

Volume 46 (2017): Issue 1 (June 2017)

Volume 45 (2017): Issue 1 (January 2017)

Volume 44 (2016): Issue 1 (December 2016)

Volume 43 (2016): Issue 1 (September 2016)

Volume 41 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Volume 40 (2015): Issue 1 (December 2015)

Volume 39 (2015): Issue 1 (September 2015)

Volume 38 (2015): Issue 1 (June 2015)

Volume 37 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)

Volume 36 (2014): Issue 1 (December 2014)

Volume 35 (2014): Issue 1 (September 2014)

Volume 34 (2014): Issue 1 (June 2014)

Volume 33 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Volume 32 (2013): Issue 1 (December 2013)

Volume 30 (2013): Issue 2013 (June 2013)

Volume 29 (2013): Issue 2013 (March 2013)

Volume 28 (2012): Issue 2012 (December 2012)

Volume 27 (2013): Issue 2012 (February 2013)

Volume 26 (2012): Issue 2012 (November 2012)

Volume 25 (2012): Issue 2012 (November 2012)

Volume 24 (2012): Issue 2011 (September 2012)

Volume 23 (2011): Issue 2011 (January 2011)

Volume 22 (2011): Issue 2011 (January 2011)

Volume 21 (2011): Issue 2011 (January 2011)

Volume 20 (2010): Issue 2010 (January 2010)

Volume 19 (2010): Issue 2010 (January 2010)

Volume 18 (2010): Issue 2010 (January 2010)

Volume 17 (2010): Issue 2010 (January 2010)

Volume 16 (2009): Issue 2009 (January 2009)

Volume 15 (2009): Issue 2009 (January 2009)

Volume 14 (2009): Issue 2009 (January 2009)

Volume 13 (2009): Issue 2009 (January 2009)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2080-945X
First Published
17 May 2010
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 37 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2080-945X
First Published
17 May 2010
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

0 Articles
Open Access

Characterization of morphological traits and RAPD polymorphism in selected forms of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.)

Published Online: 16 Jul 2015
Page range: 1 - 10

Abstract

Abstract

Measurements were taken of seven morphological characteristics of various forms of Poa pratensis, including ecotypes (12), cultivars (4), and breeding lines (2). Statistically significant differences relating to the average number and length of vegetative shoots and the leaf width of the forms studied were determined using Tukey’s HSD test. Evaluation of genetic polymorphism was carried out using the RAPD-PCR method. 18 primers were used for molecular analysis and 473 amplification products were obtained, in which high levels of polymorphism (84.2%) and specificity (63) were discovered. The mean value of Dice’s coefficient, the genetic similarity indicator, was about 0.7. These results indicate a significant genetic similarity between most of the forms of Poa pratensis studied. A correlation was also observed between genetic variation and phenotypic diversity of the studied forms of Poa pratensis. Convergence was found to occur between phenotype and genetic similarity among the forms. Only the dos01 468 ecotype showed discrepancies in the assessment of phenotypic and genomic variability.

Keywords

  • ecotypes
  • genetic polymorphism
  • morphological traits
  • Poa pratensis
  • RAPD analysis
Open Access

Some regularities in the distribution of kenophytes in the Polish Carpathians and their foreland

Published Online: 16 Jul 2015
Page range: 11 - 20

Abstract

Abstract

The Polish Carpathians and their northern foreland are a rewarding object for the kenophyte distribution research. The study, using the cartogram method, showed that the number of kenophyte species decreases with increasing altitude. Only few kenophytes were found in the lower forest zone. This regularity concerns also the species that reach higher altitudes in the mountains of their native lands. A number of species migrated into the Carpathians through rivers and streams. River valleys generate many open habitats, which are easily colonized by kenophytes due to the lack of competition. In the Carpathians, towns used to be founded in the mountain valleys and this was also a favouring factor of kenophyte propagation. The arrangement of mountain ranges in the Polish Carpathians, including their foreland, hindered the migration of some species and allowed to discover the possible migration routes into the area covered by research. Tracing these migration routes was possible only for those species that have not occupied the whole available area yet. Additionally, the study indicated the most dangerous invasive species in the Polish Carpathians and their foreland.

Keywords

  • kenophytes
  • alien species
  • invasive plants
  • Polish Carpathians
  • foreland
  • distribution maps
  • cartogram method
Open Access

Preliminary results of studies on the distribution of invasive alien vascular plant species occurring in semi-natural and natural habitats in NW Poland

Published Online: 16 Jul 2015
Page range: 21 - 35

Abstract

Abstract

In Western Pomerania, as in other areas of Europe, alien species play an increasingly important role. In particular, invasive plants tend to spread rapidly and in large numbers which may reduce diversity of native species, leading to the phenomenon of “trivialisation of flora”, and transform ecosystems. The list of invasive species (32 taxa) includes alien species occurring throughout Western Pomerania, and penetrating natural or semi-natural habitats. The second group consists of potentially invasive species (23 taxa), i.e. those distributed across the area under study and tending to increase the number of their localities in semi-natural and natural habitats, taxa invasive only locally, as well as species with missing data, which does not currently allow including them into the first group. Invasive weeds, as well as some epecophytes and archaeophytes occurring only on anthropogenic sites and tending to spread, were not taken into account. Among hemiagriophytes, the most common and troublesome ones are: Conyza canadensis, Erigeron annuus, Lolium multiflorum, Lupinus polyphyllus, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea. Among holoagriophytes, i.e. the taxa which received the highest naturalisation status, very expansive species, successful in land colonisation, like Acer negundo, Bidens frondosa, B. connata, Clematis vitalba, Elodea canadensis, Epilobium ciliatum, Heracleum sosnowskyi, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Padus serotina, Quercus rubra and Robinia pseudoacacia, should be given particular attention. Among the invasive and potentially invasive species, most taxa penetrate plant communities of the Artemisietea and Molinio-Arrhenatheretea class, followed by Querco-Fagetea, Vaccinio-Piceetea, Stellarietea mediae, Salicetea purpurae and Koelerio-Corynophoretea. The number of invasive species is twice as high when compared to the situation of these species in Poland; on the contrary, the number of species inhabiting anthropogenic, semi-natural and natural habitats is two times lower, while that of holoagriophytes and hemiagriophytes is 56.3% and 43.7%, respectively. It seems that in the case of some invasive and potentially invasive species, a decrease in the number of their locations may be observed from the west to the east (e.g. for Acer negundo, Bromus carinatus, Clematis vitalba, Helianthus tuberosus, Lycium barbarum, Reynoutria japonica, Rosa rugosa, Vicia grandiflora). Distribution patterns for some species (e.g. for Parthenocytisus inserta or Xanthium albinum) are indicative of a likely major role of the Odra River valley in the spreading of invasive species. It should be kept in mind that the area of the North-West Poland is poorly examined in terms of its flora, so the results provided in this paper are tentative. Nevertheless, the maps illustrate colonisation trends and directions and, moreover, have been so far the only attempt to synthesise this problem in NW Poland.

Keywords

  • potentially invasive species
  • hemiagriophytes
  • holoagriophytes
  • apophytes
  • neophytes
  • distribution maps
Open Access

Living on the edge: studies on ecology of plant species and populations at the limits of their geographic range. Tribute to Professor Janusz B. Faliński (1934-2004)

Published Online: 16 Jul 2015
Page range: 37 - 50

Abstract

Abstract

Abies alba and Senecio rivularis - two of 44 mountain species reported from the Roztocze Highlands, SE Poland were objects of the study. Both species reach the north-eastern limits of their occurrence in this region. In case of Abies alba, the extent of its habitat niche and possibility of adaptation to alternative niches at the range limits were investigated in two areas of the Roztocze Highlands - the Roztocze National Park (RNP) and gorge sections of four river valleys (RV) of a mountainous character. In both landscapes, fir prefers mineral soils that are too leachy for deciduous species and even for spruce. In the RV sites, fir seems to have a much broader ecological scale and often colonizes organic soils with wet mixed coniferous forests with spruce, ash-alder, and bog alder forests.

The studies on Senecio rivularis are an example of long-term ecological studies at the population level, conducted in the RNP since 1987, e.g., in terms of changes in the size structure of individuals compared to the changes in the surface area covered by this population. A nearly 3-fold increase in the area inhabited by the population was accompanied by changes in the spatial organisation of the population and individual size structure dynamics, which reflects the intensification of intra- and interspecific competition, and indicates condition changes in the population area.

Keywords

  • edaphic conditions
  • habitat niche
  • individual size structure
  • marginal population
  • mountain species
  • vegetation landscapes
Open Access

The effect of habitat conditions on the abundance of populations and selected individual and floral traits of Impatiens glandulifera Royle

Published Online: 16 Jul 2015
Page range: 51 - 58

Abstract

Abstract

The effect of site conditions on the abundance of populations of I. glandulifera, selected individual features (height and width of stems, number of whorls and side branches, flower production), and floral traits (total length of flowers, length and width of lower sepal, spur length) were investigated in years 2013-14. Observations were conducted on fallow land, at roadsides, along riverbanks and edges of a riparian forest as well as in a willow thicket and a riparian forest inside located in the Vistula River valley in southern Poland. In these stands, taken successively, light availability gradually diminished, while plant canopy height and soil moisture increased. The low abundance of the population on the fallow land may have been caused by low soil humidity triggering seedling mortality, whereas the low abundance in the interior of the riparian forest may have been due to seasonal water stagnation hampering the development of offspring. The increasing values of individual traits from the fallow land to riparian forest edge might be linked to growing lateral shade, whereas the much lower values in the willow thicket and forest interior might be caused by full shade. Individuals growing on the fallow land, at roadsides, and along riverbanksproduced flowers with small total lengths and large lower sepals and spurs, whereas individuals occurring in willow thickets and riparian forests showed opposite tendency. The considerable stem dimensions and substantial production of large flowers may augment chances for successful resource capture and pollinator visits in open sites, while the reduced size of individuals and moderate production of small flowers may be sufficient for the maintenance of populations in closed habitats

Keywords

  • abundance
  • flower
  • individual
  • I. glandulifera
  • population
  • stem
  • traits
Open Access

The association Veronico-Mimuletum guttati Niemann 1965 in Pomerania

Published Online: 16 Jul 2015
Page range: 59 - 68

Abstract

Abstract

Veronico-Mimuletum guttati, a poorly known association of species-rich helophyte beds communities was characterizedbased on 21 phytosociological relevés. Its new 14 localities in Pomerania and floristic differentiation in Central Europe are presented. New subassociations of the Veronico-Mimuletum guttati cardaminetosum amarae have been distinguished on the basis of differing floristic composition. It is further differentiated into two syntaxa: spring variant noted in spring areas and typical variant noted in banks of rivers, ditches and water-logged meadows.

Keywords

  • Mimulus guttatus
  • Sparganio-Glycerion fluitantis
  • new syntaxa
  • ATPOL grid
  • Pomerania
  • Central Europa
Open Access

Disappearing population of Betula humilis Schrk. on the Maliszewskie Lake, NE Poland

Published Online: 16 Jul 2015
Page range: 69 - 73

Abstract

Abstract

Betula humilis Schrk. is an endangered glacial relict inhabiting wet meadows, natural and drained fens. One of its declining populations is located on the Maliszewskie Lake (the Wizna swamp, north-eastern Poland). The goal of the present study was to estimate the number of B. humilis individuals in this locality. In the Maliszewskie Lake population, 59 ramets, grouped into three clusters, were found. Twelve nuclear microsatellite loci were chosen to genotype 52 ramets. The analysis revealed that all the shoots within the single cluster had the same genotypes at the loci considered. This means that each cluster constituted one genetically distinct individual; thus, there were only three individuals of B. humilis in the studied population. The maintenance of the B. humilis population in the Maliszewskie Lake area requires urgent active protection involving removal of the shading vegetation. In fact, the entire Maliszewskie Lake is worthy of protection because of its hitherto unexplained origin and the occurrence of many endangered bird species.

Keywords

  • Betula humilis
  • conservation genetics
  • genet
  • microsatellite
  • ramet
  • wetland conservation
Open Access

Archaeobotanical reconstructions of field habitats and crops: the grange in Pomorzany near Kutno, 18th/19th c.

Published Online: 16 Jul 2015
Page range: 75 - 81

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the results of research of plant macrofossils from the grain deposit deriving from the 18th/19th centuries. The analysed material included 24760 diaspores representing 73 taxa. The majority were cultivated cereal crop species, and there was also abundance of accompanying segetal weed species. About 95% of the gathered crop material was Secale cereale. Another important crop was Hordeum vulgare and there were also some remains of Avena sativa, Triticum aestivum, Fagopyrum esculentum. Cannabis sativa and Linum usitatissimum were found as well. Weeds competing with these crops were, among others, the following species: Agrostemma githago, Raphanus raphanistrum, Apera spica-venti, Bromus secalinus, Centaurea cyanus, Spergula arvensis, Thlaspi arvense, Viola arvensis/tricolor, Fallopia convolvulus, Polygonum persicaria, Mentha arvensis, Anthemis arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Rumex acetosella, Scleranthus annuus, Aphanes arvensis, Setaria pumila, Setaria viridis/verticilata. Extremely large presence of wild plant diaspores in the material allowed conducting economic and environmental interpretations. Reconstruction methods applied, used primarily in the case of macroremains from granaries, were fully applicable to the analysed plant residues. Weed species composition in the analysed material showed that they were mostly typical for the main winter crop. Some amount of species typical for other habitats were also found and they probably came from the near-by rye field. The presence of perennial diaspores indicated that the field was probably set aside

Keywords

  • plant macrofossils
  • archaeobotany
  • rye
  • crop weeds
0 Articles
Open Access

Characterization of morphological traits and RAPD polymorphism in selected forms of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.)

Published Online: 16 Jul 2015
Page range: 1 - 10

Abstract

Abstract

Measurements were taken of seven morphological characteristics of various forms of Poa pratensis, including ecotypes (12), cultivars (4), and breeding lines (2). Statistically significant differences relating to the average number and length of vegetative shoots and the leaf width of the forms studied were determined using Tukey’s HSD test. Evaluation of genetic polymorphism was carried out using the RAPD-PCR method. 18 primers were used for molecular analysis and 473 amplification products were obtained, in which high levels of polymorphism (84.2%) and specificity (63) were discovered. The mean value of Dice’s coefficient, the genetic similarity indicator, was about 0.7. These results indicate a significant genetic similarity between most of the forms of Poa pratensis studied. A correlation was also observed between genetic variation and phenotypic diversity of the studied forms of Poa pratensis. Convergence was found to occur between phenotype and genetic similarity among the forms. Only the dos01 468 ecotype showed discrepancies in the assessment of phenotypic and genomic variability.

Keywords

  • ecotypes
  • genetic polymorphism
  • morphological traits
  • Poa pratensis
  • RAPD analysis
Open Access

Some regularities in the distribution of kenophytes in the Polish Carpathians and their foreland

Published Online: 16 Jul 2015
Page range: 11 - 20

Abstract

Abstract

The Polish Carpathians and their northern foreland are a rewarding object for the kenophyte distribution research. The study, using the cartogram method, showed that the number of kenophyte species decreases with increasing altitude. Only few kenophytes were found in the lower forest zone. This regularity concerns also the species that reach higher altitudes in the mountains of their native lands. A number of species migrated into the Carpathians through rivers and streams. River valleys generate many open habitats, which are easily colonized by kenophytes due to the lack of competition. In the Carpathians, towns used to be founded in the mountain valleys and this was also a favouring factor of kenophyte propagation. The arrangement of mountain ranges in the Polish Carpathians, including their foreland, hindered the migration of some species and allowed to discover the possible migration routes into the area covered by research. Tracing these migration routes was possible only for those species that have not occupied the whole available area yet. Additionally, the study indicated the most dangerous invasive species in the Polish Carpathians and their foreland.

Keywords

  • kenophytes
  • alien species
  • invasive plants
  • Polish Carpathians
  • foreland
  • distribution maps
  • cartogram method
Open Access

Preliminary results of studies on the distribution of invasive alien vascular plant species occurring in semi-natural and natural habitats in NW Poland

Published Online: 16 Jul 2015
Page range: 21 - 35

Abstract

Abstract

In Western Pomerania, as in other areas of Europe, alien species play an increasingly important role. In particular, invasive plants tend to spread rapidly and in large numbers which may reduce diversity of native species, leading to the phenomenon of “trivialisation of flora”, and transform ecosystems. The list of invasive species (32 taxa) includes alien species occurring throughout Western Pomerania, and penetrating natural or semi-natural habitats. The second group consists of potentially invasive species (23 taxa), i.e. those distributed across the area under study and tending to increase the number of their localities in semi-natural and natural habitats, taxa invasive only locally, as well as species with missing data, which does not currently allow including them into the first group. Invasive weeds, as well as some epecophytes and archaeophytes occurring only on anthropogenic sites and tending to spread, were not taken into account. Among hemiagriophytes, the most common and troublesome ones are: Conyza canadensis, Erigeron annuus, Lolium multiflorum, Lupinus polyphyllus, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea. Among holoagriophytes, i.e. the taxa which received the highest naturalisation status, very expansive species, successful in land colonisation, like Acer negundo, Bidens frondosa, B. connata, Clematis vitalba, Elodea canadensis, Epilobium ciliatum, Heracleum sosnowskyi, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Padus serotina, Quercus rubra and Robinia pseudoacacia, should be given particular attention. Among the invasive and potentially invasive species, most taxa penetrate plant communities of the Artemisietea and Molinio-Arrhenatheretea class, followed by Querco-Fagetea, Vaccinio-Piceetea, Stellarietea mediae, Salicetea purpurae and Koelerio-Corynophoretea. The number of invasive species is twice as high when compared to the situation of these species in Poland; on the contrary, the number of species inhabiting anthropogenic, semi-natural and natural habitats is two times lower, while that of holoagriophytes and hemiagriophytes is 56.3% and 43.7%, respectively. It seems that in the case of some invasive and potentially invasive species, a decrease in the number of their locations may be observed from the west to the east (e.g. for Acer negundo, Bromus carinatus, Clematis vitalba, Helianthus tuberosus, Lycium barbarum, Reynoutria japonica, Rosa rugosa, Vicia grandiflora). Distribution patterns for some species (e.g. for Parthenocytisus inserta or Xanthium albinum) are indicative of a likely major role of the Odra River valley in the spreading of invasive species. It should be kept in mind that the area of the North-West Poland is poorly examined in terms of its flora, so the results provided in this paper are tentative. Nevertheless, the maps illustrate colonisation trends and directions and, moreover, have been so far the only attempt to synthesise this problem in NW Poland.

Keywords

  • potentially invasive species
  • hemiagriophytes
  • holoagriophytes
  • apophytes
  • neophytes
  • distribution maps
Open Access

Living on the edge: studies on ecology of plant species and populations at the limits of their geographic range. Tribute to Professor Janusz B. Faliński (1934-2004)

Published Online: 16 Jul 2015
Page range: 37 - 50

Abstract

Abstract

Abies alba and Senecio rivularis - two of 44 mountain species reported from the Roztocze Highlands, SE Poland were objects of the study. Both species reach the north-eastern limits of their occurrence in this region. In case of Abies alba, the extent of its habitat niche and possibility of adaptation to alternative niches at the range limits were investigated in two areas of the Roztocze Highlands - the Roztocze National Park (RNP) and gorge sections of four river valleys (RV) of a mountainous character. In both landscapes, fir prefers mineral soils that are too leachy for deciduous species and even for spruce. In the RV sites, fir seems to have a much broader ecological scale and often colonizes organic soils with wet mixed coniferous forests with spruce, ash-alder, and bog alder forests.

The studies on Senecio rivularis are an example of long-term ecological studies at the population level, conducted in the RNP since 1987, e.g., in terms of changes in the size structure of individuals compared to the changes in the surface area covered by this population. A nearly 3-fold increase in the area inhabited by the population was accompanied by changes in the spatial organisation of the population and individual size structure dynamics, which reflects the intensification of intra- and interspecific competition, and indicates condition changes in the population area.

Keywords

  • edaphic conditions
  • habitat niche
  • individual size structure
  • marginal population
  • mountain species
  • vegetation landscapes
Open Access

The effect of habitat conditions on the abundance of populations and selected individual and floral traits of Impatiens glandulifera Royle

Published Online: 16 Jul 2015
Page range: 51 - 58

Abstract

Abstract

The effect of site conditions on the abundance of populations of I. glandulifera, selected individual features (height and width of stems, number of whorls and side branches, flower production), and floral traits (total length of flowers, length and width of lower sepal, spur length) were investigated in years 2013-14. Observations were conducted on fallow land, at roadsides, along riverbanks and edges of a riparian forest as well as in a willow thicket and a riparian forest inside located in the Vistula River valley in southern Poland. In these stands, taken successively, light availability gradually diminished, while plant canopy height and soil moisture increased. The low abundance of the population on the fallow land may have been caused by low soil humidity triggering seedling mortality, whereas the low abundance in the interior of the riparian forest may have been due to seasonal water stagnation hampering the development of offspring. The increasing values of individual traits from the fallow land to riparian forest edge might be linked to growing lateral shade, whereas the much lower values in the willow thicket and forest interior might be caused by full shade. Individuals growing on the fallow land, at roadsides, and along riverbanksproduced flowers with small total lengths and large lower sepals and spurs, whereas individuals occurring in willow thickets and riparian forests showed opposite tendency. The considerable stem dimensions and substantial production of large flowers may augment chances for successful resource capture and pollinator visits in open sites, while the reduced size of individuals and moderate production of small flowers may be sufficient for the maintenance of populations in closed habitats

Keywords

  • abundance
  • flower
  • individual
  • I. glandulifera
  • population
  • stem
  • traits
Open Access

The association Veronico-Mimuletum guttati Niemann 1965 in Pomerania

Published Online: 16 Jul 2015
Page range: 59 - 68

Abstract

Abstract

Veronico-Mimuletum guttati, a poorly known association of species-rich helophyte beds communities was characterizedbased on 21 phytosociological relevés. Its new 14 localities in Pomerania and floristic differentiation in Central Europe are presented. New subassociations of the Veronico-Mimuletum guttati cardaminetosum amarae have been distinguished on the basis of differing floristic composition. It is further differentiated into two syntaxa: spring variant noted in spring areas and typical variant noted in banks of rivers, ditches and water-logged meadows.

Keywords

  • Mimulus guttatus
  • Sparganio-Glycerion fluitantis
  • new syntaxa
  • ATPOL grid
  • Pomerania
  • Central Europa
Open Access

Disappearing population of Betula humilis Schrk. on the Maliszewskie Lake, NE Poland

Published Online: 16 Jul 2015
Page range: 69 - 73

Abstract

Abstract

Betula humilis Schrk. is an endangered glacial relict inhabiting wet meadows, natural and drained fens. One of its declining populations is located on the Maliszewskie Lake (the Wizna swamp, north-eastern Poland). The goal of the present study was to estimate the number of B. humilis individuals in this locality. In the Maliszewskie Lake population, 59 ramets, grouped into three clusters, were found. Twelve nuclear microsatellite loci were chosen to genotype 52 ramets. The analysis revealed that all the shoots within the single cluster had the same genotypes at the loci considered. This means that each cluster constituted one genetically distinct individual; thus, there were only three individuals of B. humilis in the studied population. The maintenance of the B. humilis population in the Maliszewskie Lake area requires urgent active protection involving removal of the shading vegetation. In fact, the entire Maliszewskie Lake is worthy of protection because of its hitherto unexplained origin and the occurrence of many endangered bird species.

Keywords

  • Betula humilis
  • conservation genetics
  • genet
  • microsatellite
  • ramet
  • wetland conservation
Open Access

Archaeobotanical reconstructions of field habitats and crops: the grange in Pomorzany near Kutno, 18th/19th c.

Published Online: 16 Jul 2015
Page range: 75 - 81

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the results of research of plant macrofossils from the grain deposit deriving from the 18th/19th centuries. The analysed material included 24760 diaspores representing 73 taxa. The majority were cultivated cereal crop species, and there was also abundance of accompanying segetal weed species. About 95% of the gathered crop material was Secale cereale. Another important crop was Hordeum vulgare and there were also some remains of Avena sativa, Triticum aestivum, Fagopyrum esculentum. Cannabis sativa and Linum usitatissimum were found as well. Weeds competing with these crops were, among others, the following species: Agrostemma githago, Raphanus raphanistrum, Apera spica-venti, Bromus secalinus, Centaurea cyanus, Spergula arvensis, Thlaspi arvense, Viola arvensis/tricolor, Fallopia convolvulus, Polygonum persicaria, Mentha arvensis, Anthemis arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Rumex acetosella, Scleranthus annuus, Aphanes arvensis, Setaria pumila, Setaria viridis/verticilata. Extremely large presence of wild plant diaspores in the material allowed conducting economic and environmental interpretations. Reconstruction methods applied, used primarily in the case of macroremains from granaries, were fully applicable to the analysed plant residues. Weed species composition in the analysed material showed that they were mostly typical for the main winter crop. Some amount of species typical for other habitats were also found and they probably came from the near-by rye field. The presence of perennial diaspores indicated that the field was probably set aside

Keywords

  • plant macrofossils
  • archaeobotany
  • rye
  • crop weeds