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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2080-2234
First Published
06 Apr 2009
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 8 (2016): Issue 1 (January 2016)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2080-2234
First Published
06 Apr 2009
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

24 Articles
Open Access

Sauna-induced body mass loss in physically inactive young women and men

Published Online: 22 Feb 2016
Page range: 1 - 9

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between basic somatic features (body mass and height) and body mass loss in physically inactive young women and men exposed to thermal stress in a dry sauna.

Materials and methods: The research was conducted in 2015 on 685 first-year full-time students (333 women, 352 men), aged 19–20 years old. Nude body mass was measured after the students dried off before and after using the sauna.

Results: An analysis of regression equations indicated that an increase in the body mass of women and men leads to a significant increase in sauna-induced body mass loss. On the other hand, body mass loss decreased with an increase in height in women and men, but to a smaller extent. From among the tested somatic features, body height and body mass, body mass had a decisive influence on body mass loss. Body height had a minimal and statistically non-significant impact on body mass loss.

Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that heavier individuals have an increased risk of dehydration and hyperthermia. Therefore, they should pay close attention to replenishing fluids lost in the sauna. The determination of body mass loss values after a visit to a dry sauna has practical significance because it supports the estimation of the fluid volume required for the maintenance of correct water balance.

Keywords

  • Dry sauna
  • Thermal stress
  • Body mass loss
  • Somatic features
  • Physically inactive people
Open Access

Could hatha yoga be a health-related physical activity?

Published Online: 22 Feb 2016
Page range: 10 - 16

Abstract

Summary

The objectives of this review paper are (I) the analysis based on previous studies of whether hatha yoga exercises fulfil the recommendation for the level of physical activity recommended by the WHO and ACSM; (II) the recommendation for how to arrange weekly hatha yoga practice, which can be considered a health-related physical activity; and (III) the analysis of the benefits of a regular hatha yoga workout in view of scientific studies, in particular regard to the prevention of diseases of civilization and improvement in health-related physical fitness.

Based on previous studies, only dynamic Sun Salutations of yoga exercises (Suryanamaskar) are moderate-intensity physical activity, and therefore must be performed at least 5 days a week in 30 min duration or 150 min per week meet the recommendation. Hatha yoga meets the recommendations regarding types of exercise, because it includes poses improving muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, and balance. Dynamic sequences of Sun Salutation can be regarded as aerobic exercises. Regular hatha yoga training may be an intervention for the primary and secondary prevention of diseases of civilization. Yoga exercises were found to produce reductions in diastolic blood pressure; to improve cardiorespiratory system and metabolic parameters; to correct posture; to reduce back pain; to prevent obesity; to lower blood glucose level; to be beneficial for stress and depression; to relieve perceived pain; and to improve functional fitness and perceived quality of life. Hatha yoga also improves physical fitness, especially in regards to health-related fitness.

In the context of the recommendation and reported benefits, hatha yoga is the health-related physical activity.

Keywords

  • Hatha yoga
  • Physical fitness
  • Diseases of civilization
  • Benefits of yoga
  • Health-related physical activity
Open Access

Cross-cultural adaptation of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ’07) for the population of Polish children

Published Online: 18 Feb 2016
Page range: 17 - 23

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: The purpose of this article is to present the cultural adaptation of the DCDQ’07 (Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire) as one of the popular and most frequently-used diagnostic instruments for diagnosing DCD in school-age children.

Material and method: The procedure for translating and evaluating the selected psychometric parameters of the DCDQ has been conducted in compliance with the guidelines for the procedure [4]. The study involved 152 parents of school-age children; the control group included 32 children. Additionally, a group of 75 children was tested with the KTK test. To assess the test–retest reliability, the group of 50 parents was tested twice with the DCDQ at an interval of 14 days.

Results: The study proved that the DCDQ is an accurate and reliable instrument for screening DCD in Polish children. The high value of all of the analysed psychometric parameters is evidenced by the following: a sensitivity of 0.75, a specificity of 0.63 and a test-retest reliability of 0.93. Internal consistency is also satisfactory and amounts to 0.92. The study also determined that the score of the DCDQ depends on the gender of the tested child, and not on his/her age.

Conclusions: According to the research, DCDQ is a useful instrument that allows for the screening of DCD in school-age children. The Polish version of the questionnaire is definitely going to fill in the gap among diagnostic instruments and will allow for further development of research on the epidemiology of DCD.

Keywords

  • Developmental Coordination Disorder
  • Screening
  • Cross-cultural translation
  • Questionnaire
Open Access

Influence of a nine-day alpine ski training programme on the postural stability of people with different levels of skills

Published Online: 07 Mar 2016
Page range: 24 - 31

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: In alpine skiing, balance is one of the key elements that determine the effectiveness of the ride. Because of ski boots, the foot and ankle joint complex is excluded from the process of maintaining the stability of the body. The aim of the study was to determine to what extent a few days of skiing activities and the level of technical skills affect the skiers’ level of postural stability.

Material and methods: The study involved 10 beginner (20.7 ± 1.1 years, 76.4 ± 8.7 kg, 184.4 ± 6.1 cm) and 10 advanced (20.5 ± 0.5 years, 80.5 ± 13.7 kg, 184.5 ± 9.5 cm) skiers, who participated in a nine-day ski training camp. Measurements of the postural stability were taken on the first and last days of the camp, on an AccuSway (AMTI, USA) stabilometric platform.

Results: In both groups, a significant (p < 0.05) improvement in stability was observed after the training camp only while standing in ski boots. While standing on two feet, the participants were more stable barefoot (p < 0.05), and when standing on one foot they were more stable in the ski boot trial (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Skiing had a positive effect on the postural stability only in measurement conditions that were similar to those in which this stability was practiced, i.e. in measurements involving ski boots. The restriction of mobility within the ankle joint significantly influenced the training-induced changes in the postural stability of both beginner and advanced alpine skiers.

Keywords

  • Ski boots
  • Balance
  • Ankle joint
  • Biomechanics
Open Access

Blood ammonia and lactate responses to incremental exercise in highly-trained male sprinters and triathletes

Published Online: 23 Mar 2016
Page range: 32 - 38

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: To compare the blood ammonia and lactate concentrations in sprinters and triathletes during an incremental treadmill exercise test and in the 30 minutes of recovery. Material and methods: The study included 10 male sprinters and 14 male triathletes who compete at the national and international level. A treadmill test until exhaustion was administered. Blood samples for ammonia and lactate were obtained when the athletes were at rest, during and immediately after exercise, and between 5 and 30 min after exercise.

Results: The ammonia concentration and time course were similar in the sprinters and triathletes (F = 1.81, p ≥ 0.05, η2 = 0.08). An exercise-related increase in blood ammonia was almost linear, regardless of the exercise intensity. In the case of lactate, the interactions between the concentrations measured in the sprinters and triathletes were statistically significant (F = 5.78, p ≤ 0.001, η2 = 0.21). Post-hoc tests revealed that the lactate concentrations differed significantly between the sprinters and triathletes in the 18th min (p ≤ 0.01) and the 21st min (p ≤ 0.001) of the exercise test. The blood lactate increased in a nonlinear manner (slowly at lower intensities and rapidly at higher intensities). During the 30 min recovery period, both the ammonia and lactate levels decreased linearly. However, in the sprinters, the peak values were maintained in the first stage of recovery (5 min post-exercise).

Conclusions: The study showed that the blood ammonia concentration may be a useful marker of exercise-related metabolic responses in sprint-trained as well as in endurance-trained competitive athletes. Blood ammonia levels were more intensity-sensitive across the whole intensity range during the incremental exercise when compared to the blood lactate levels.

Keywords

  • Blood ammonia
  • Blood lactate
  • Treadmill test
  • Sprinters
  • Triathletes
Open Access

Leg stiffness and potential energy in the countermovement phase and the CMJ jump height

Published Online: 05 Apr 2016
Page range: 39 - 44

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: The elastic potential energy accumulated in the musculotendinous units during the countermovement phase of a jump adds up to the energy supplied by the contracting muscles used in the take-off phase. Consequently, the total mechanical energy used during the jump may reach higher values. Stiffness represents a quantitative measure of a body’s elastic properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the relationship between leg stiffness and the countermovement jump height.

Material and methods: 24 basketball players from the II Division participated in the study. The measurements employed a Kistler force plate and a BTS SMART system for the motion analysis. Each study participant performed three countermovement jumps with arm swings. Leg stiffness in the countermovement phase was determined from the slope of the ground reaction forces curve, with respect to the coexisting height of the greater trochanter of the femur. The decline in the gravitational potential energy of the centre of mass during the countermovement phase is partially accumulated in the form of potential elastic energy through the stretched musculotendinous units, and consequently contributes to the jump height.

Results: We found a statistically significant relationship between leg stiffness and a decline in the potential energy during the countermovement phase. The relationship between leg stiffness and the jump height was not statistically significant.

Conclusions: The distribution of measurements may suggest the presence of local maximums, with their locations representing a value of leg stiffness that allows for high values of changes in the potential energy and the jump height to be obtained. Therefore, the presence of a specific value for leg stiffness that would be the most favourable for the accumulation of potential elastic energy is likely. However, this study cannot unequivocally confirm this fact, and the confirmation of the above statement will require further experimentation.

Keywords

  • Elastic energy
  • Elasticity
  • Quasi-stiffness
  • Stretch-shortening cycle
Open Access

Strategies of coping with stress and the sport results of alpine skiers and tennis players

Published Online: 20 Apr 2016
Page range: 44 - 50

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between strategies of coping with stress caused by participating in sport competitions and the results of those competitions, as well as to differentiate the applied coping strategies according to the practiced sport discipline (tennis and alpine skiing).

Material and methods: The study encompassed 83 university students (39 women and 44 men) who were participating in the Polish University Championships in tennis (n = 32) and alpine skiing (n = 51). The research was based on the Coping Inventory for Competitive Sports (CICS) questionnaire and was adapted to Polish conditions by the authors of this study. The results achieved during the competition were also recorded during the study.

Results: Possibly due to the nature of their sport, the tennis players used coping actions to a greater extent than the alpine skiers, regardless of the nature of the action. The application of task-focused strategies and the lower use of emotion-focused and avoidance strategies allowed the athletes to achieve higher results during the competition.

Conclusions: Task-focused strategies should be developed in order to improve the competitive results of athletes. Taking the situational nature of the coping strategies into consideration, coping strategies can be designed and modified to improve the achieved results.

Keywords

  • Stress
  • Coping
  • Coping strategies
  • Alpine skiing
  • Tennis
Open Access

The contribution of paraoxonase 1 and myeloperoxidase to HDL-cholesterol functionality

Published Online: 05 May 2016
Page range: 51 - 57

Abstract

Summary

The purpose of this study was to analyse the scientific evidence concerning the effects of two enzymes – paraoxonase 1 and myeloperoxidase – on the functions of HDL-cholesterol. It is well documented that disturbed circulating lipoproteins (a high total and high LDL-cholesterol, and low HDL-cholesterol) bring about atherosclerosis and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) which is recognised as the main cause of death all around the world. In consequence, numerous studies have focused on procedures which will improve the plasma lipoproteins profile by decreasing the total cholesterol and the LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and increasing the HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C). However, the anti-atherogenic role of HDL-C has been challenged in studies showing that genetically elevated HDL-cholesterol does not offer protection against CVD. Moreover, it has been found that raising the circulating HDL-cholesterol fails to reduce atherosclerosis. The doubts concerning the protective role of HDL-C have been supported by in vitro studies which indicate that the HDL-C from patients with atherosclerosis does not have a protective action, but does stimulate inflammation and free radical synthesis. The above data suggests that HDL-C, commonly recognised as protective against atherosclerosis, in some circumstances becomes pro-atherogenic, and is thus dysfunctional. Our review focuses on two enzymes – paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) – which markedly affect the properties of HDL-C and contribute to its anti – or pro-atherogenic activity. Moreover, the effects of the diet and physical activity on PON1 and MPO are summarised with respect to the HDL-C functionality.

Keywords

  • HDL-cholesterol functionality
  • Paraoxonase 1
  • Myeloperoxidase
Open Access

Effect of the recovery duration of a repeated sprint exercise on the power output, jumping performance and lactate concentration in pre-pubescent soccer players

Published Online: 10 May 2016
Page range: 58 - 64

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of two different recovery durations (2 min versus 5 min) on the physiological responses (power output, stretch-shortening cycle and lactate concentration) to a 5×6 s repeated cycling sprint exercise protocol in pre-pubescent soccer players.

Materials and methods: Twelve male soccer players (age 12.23 ± 0.55 yrs, body mass 43.6 ± 5.5 kg and height 156.1 ± 5.8 cm) performed 5 × 6 s sprints on a cycle ergometer (Ergomedic 874E, Monark, Sweden) against 0.075 times their body mass resistance on two occasions within a week. In one session there was a 2 min recovery and in the other there was a 5 min recovery in a counterbalanced order. A squat jump (SJ) and a countermovement jump (CMJ) were tested before and after each trial, and the eccentric utilisation ratio (EUR) was calculated as CMJ/SJ.

Results: No significant trial × recovery interaction was observed in the participants’ peak power (p = 0.891, η2 = 0.118), mean power (p = 0.910, η2 = 0.106), SJ (p = 0.144, η2 = 0.630), CMJ (p = 0.616, η2 = 0.347) and EUR (p = 0.712, η2 = 0.295). However, a main effect of the trial on the CMJ of a large magnitude (p = 0.006, η2 = 0.862) was found, in which a higher score was recorded in the third trial than in the first trial (23.3 versus 21.8 cm). No differences were found in the lactate concentrations examined 5 min after the end of the protocol between the two recovery conditions (6.7 ± 1.8 vs. 6.0 ± 1.6 mmol · L–1, in the 2 and 5 min recovery, respectively, Cohen’s d = 0.4).

Conclusions: The duration of the passive recovery time (2 min vs. 5 min) in trials of repeated sprints did not induce important changes either to the indices of the jumping performance or to the power output in pre-pubescent participants.

Keywords

  • Anaerobic metabolism
  • Countermovement jump
  • Maximal exercise
  • Recovery
  • Squat jump
Open Access

Impact of a social media exercise service on individuals and employees

Published Online: 11 May 2016
Page range: 65 - 71

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of a social media exercise platform (HeiaHeia, Helsinki, Finland) on the level of physical activity, physical fitness, wellbeing and body weight of the service users. Material and methods: The subject group consisted of 2862 individuals who voluntarily participated in a web survey. Their age, gender, body mass index, physical fitness level and activity information were self-reported.

Results: Most of the service users (78.1%) exercised more than three times a week. About 75% of the users reported that they were in good or excellent physical fitness, while about 50% were overweight. More than half (64.6%) of the service users reported that they had perceived an increase in their level of physical activity; and 46.4% of them reported that they had perceived an advance in their physical fitness after using the social media service. In addition, 54.0% of the users perceived an increase in their wellbeing. Every fifth (21.3%) user reported a decreased body weight after using the service. Those users with lower levels of physical fitness, lower physical activity and who were overweight were more likely to report that the use of the present service was beneficial. In total, about 75% of the service users reported at least one benefit after using the service.

Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that the use of the social media exercise service can lead to an enhanced perceived level of physical activity, fitness and wellbeing. It also impacts positively on the users’ body weight. Thus, the present social media service can be recommended for use, especially for overweight, unfit and sedentary customers.

Keywords

  • Physical activity
  • Fitness
  • Overweight
Open Access

The development of anterior-posterior spinal curvature in children aged 7–12 years

Published Online: 20 May 2016
Page range: 72 - 82

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: Body posture changes depend on numerous factors. The purpose of this study was to assess the changes in posture in the sagittal plane of children aged 7–12 years.

Material and methods: Postural changes were determined by assessing the postural parameters in the sagittal plane. The measurements were recorded in children attending selected primary schools. In total, 562 subjects were included in the study, including 278 boys and 284 girls. The body posture was assessed photogrammetrically based on the moiré effect, whereby 5 postural parameters were integrated within the measurement methodology.

Results: The results indicated a naturalistic tendency in postural development – the postural parameters changed with age in a dynamic fashion; and the postural measurements for boys and girls differed in terms of their range.

Conclusions: The study findings can be used for the accurate mapping of normal postural development and, inter alia, for the detection and diagnosis of an emerging abnormal posture. Importantly, a correct postural assessment algorithm for children should include the subject’s age and sex.

Keywords

  • Body defect
  • Body posture
  • Children
  • Photogrammetric method
Open Access

Female athletes and health

Published Online: 28 Jun 2016
Page range: 83 - 87

Abstract

Summary

It is well documented that regular physical activity has a beneficial effect on human health by affecting the metabolic processes that are of fundamental importance in the body’s functions, such as insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal, as well as lipid and lipoprotein turnover. On the other hand, there is a wealth of studies which indicate that strenuous, regular physical activity, such as that performed by high performance athletes, may be detrimental for the athletes’ health especially in women. This review focuses on the factors that contribute to health problems in female athletes, named the female athlete triad, which includes excessive dieting, menstrual dysfunctions (anovulatory menstrual cycles, oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea) and a low bone mineral density (BMD). As a result of these factors, women who participate in sports, especially those focused on leanness, need special attention and education from health professionals, coaches and the athletes themselves to prevent the detrimental effects of an inadequate energy supply against high energy demands.

Keywords

  • Female athlete
  • Menstrual dysfunction
  • Energy deficit
  • Health risk
Open Access

Evaluation of the effectiveness of kinesiotaping in reducing delayed onset muscle soreness of the biceps brachii

Published Online: 20 Jul 2016
Page range: 88 - 94

Abstract

Summary

biological regeneration in athletes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the application of lymphatic kinesiotaping in reducing delayed onset muscle soreness of biceps brachii.

Material and methods: The study included 34 women, aged 18–27. In the test group of patients (n = 17) a lymphatic KT application was used. All of the women performed the arm strength trial (with IPFT) and arm muscle training (with a repeat of the trial 5 times 60–80% max). Other study tools used were an sEMG, VAS (pain assessment) and the Borg scale (subjective assessment of the intensity of effort). The measurements (arm muscles strength, sEMG, pain intensity, exercise intensity) were repeated at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after performing the exercise.

Results: The weakest results for the arm strength test were recorded in the second measurement in the test group, and in the third measurement in the control group. The pain level declared in the first measurement was similar in both groups. In the third measurement (48 hours after the exercise), the level of pain in the test group was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than in the control group.

Discussion: The kinesiotaping method can assist in reducing delayed muscle soreness, which was confirmed by the results of the tests. However, there is no evidence about the impact of specific types of KT applications on the reduction of the DOMS symptoms.

Keywords

  • Kinesiotaping
  • Elastic taping
  • DOMS
  • Biceps
  • Electromyography
  • Post-exercise recovery
Open Access

Body composition and the level of fitness in 10 to 14-year-old girls in western Hungary: the impact of the new PE curriculum

Published Online: 20 Jul 2016
Page range: 95 - 102

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: Over the last two decades, the body fat mass has been increasing and the level of physical fitness has been decreasing in school-aged children. Due to the health-related concerns that have arisen regarding school-aged children, the Hungarian government introduced everyday physical education in 2012. Since girls are more disposed to higher body fat and low fitness levels, the aim of our study was to characterise the physique, body composition and aerobic capacity of 10 to 14-year-old girls three years after the introduction of the new curriculum with daily PE lessons.

Material and methods: All of the primary schools that were selected to participate in this study serve as partnership schools in the University of West Hungary’s teacher training programme (N = 8). The sample included only those upper primary school girls (10 to 14 years of age) who participated in the everyday physical education lesson (N = 543). Standard anthropometric techniques and a 20m shuttle run test were selected for the analysis.

Results: An important result of this study was the finding that differences in the body composition features were consistently significant among the age groups. However, there were no differences among the age groups in the results of the 20 m multi-stage fitness test, nor in the girls’ relative aerobic capacity.

Conclusions: It can be presumed that an unfavourable body composition and poor fitness occur primarily in the prepuberty years. Everyday physical education serves as a good opportunity for shaping the girls’ fitness level and body composition, and also for encouraging healthy active living.

Keywords

  • Body composition
  • 20 m multi-stage fitness test
  • Daily PE
  • Aerobic capacity
  • Girls
  • Uupper primary school
Open Access

Reference values for the sprint performance in male football players aged from 9–35 years

Published Online: 20 Jul 2016
Page range: 103 - 112

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: The aim of the present study was twofold: firstly, to examine the effect of age on a 20 m sprint performance; and secondly, to establish normative data for the 20 m sprint performance by age in football players.

Material and methods: The anthropometric characteristics of 474 football players (aged 16.81 ± 5.35 yrs, range 9.02–35.41 yrs) were examined and their 20 m sprint performance (with 0–10 and 10–20 m splits) was monitored by a photocell system (Brower Timing Systems, Utah, USA).

Results: A one-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences between the yearly age groups with regards to the sprint time (p < 0.001, η2 = 0.584), as well as the 0–10 m (p < 0.001, η2 = 0.361) and 10–20 m split times (p < 0.001, η2 = 0.635). The older groups scored better than the younger groups. The time attained in the 20 m sprint, and the 0–10 m and 10–20 m splits correlated moderately to largely with the athlete’s age (r = –0.53, –0.40 and –0.57, respectively, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: In summary, the speed ability of the football players improved with age until 15 years old, where it reached its peak. On the other hand, the other age groups U16 to U35 revealed no major differences in the speed over a 20 m sprint. The reference values presented in this study might help football coaches and fitness trainers in monitoring training and in the selection of players. Moreover, since this is the first study of this kind to compare adult age groups, sport scientists focusing on relevant topics might use it as a reference in future studies.

Keywords

  • Acceleration
  • Age groups
  • Norms
  • Performance
  • Soccer
  • Speed
  • Velocity
Open Access

Effects of hatha yoga exercises on spine flexibility in young adults

Published Online: 11 Aug 2016
Page range: 113 - 116

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: To assess the effects of yoga exercises on the flexibility of the spine in male and female students aged 19–22 years old.

Material and methods: The study comprised 59 male and female first-year students, aged 19–22 years old (mean 19.6 ± 0.9), studying Sport and Tourism Management at the Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education in Katowice. The participants took part in an obligatory yoga class, of 90 minutes duration, once a week over a 13-week period. The ranges of motion of the spine in the sagittal, frontal and transverse planes were measured using the Rippstein Plurimeter-V.

Results: The study indicated a statistically significant increase of the spine flexibility in forward and lateral bending before and after the yoga classes in the entire studied group. In the men, a significant increase of the range of motion in backward bending was also noted. In the women, and in all of the participants (women and men together), a significant increase of the range of motion in the torsion was noted.

Conclusions: Regular yoga exercises could increase the flexibility of the spine and the hamstring muscles. Hatha yoga training may be a good intervention for improving flexibility, but for better results it should be performed more often than once a week.

Keywords

  • Yoga training
  • Range of motion
  • Spinal flexibility
  • Students
  • Fitness
Open Access

Physical fitness and aerobic capacity of Polish military fighter aircraft pilots

Published Online: 07 Oct 2016
Page range: 117 - 123

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: To determine the level of physical fitness and aerobic capacity of Polish military fighter aircraft pilots.

Material and methods: The study was conducted on a group of 120 Polish military fighter aircraft pilots (men). The average age of subject was 37.13 ± 5.42 years. For further analysis, the pilots were divided into three age groups: under 29, aged 30–39, and 40–49. Age criteria were adopted according to the classification used by the American Heart Association. A physical fitness test (seven skills) was used to determine the level of physical fitness of pilots. The Åstrand-Ryhming test and a MONARK cycling ergometer were used to determine the level of aerobic capacity.

Results: The pilots obtained the following average results during the physical fitness test: push-ups on a bench – 37.7 reps; shuttle run 10 × 10 m – 30.3 s; pull-ups – 9.1 reps; sit-ups – 54 reps; standing long jump – 228.5 cm; zigzag pattern run – 25.8 s; 50 m swimming – 49.2 s. The physical fitness of military pilots decreases with age. The average level of aerobic capacity of military pilots was estimated at 33.73 ± 5.62 VO2max (ml/kg/min).

Conclusions: Polish military fighter aircraft pilots are characterized by a medium level of physical fitness and a medium level of aerobic capacity. The level of aerobic capacity is lower currently than 30 years ago. It is a perturbing and negative phenomenon.

Keywords

  • Military pilots
  • Physical fitness
  • Aerobic capacity
Open Access

Lower limb loading during knee up in step aerobics: a pilot study

Published Online: 03 Nov 2016
Page range: 124 - 130

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: Step aerobics is a form of aerobic power distinguished from other types of aerobic exercise by its use of an elevated platform. The purpose of this study was to examine how the aerobic exercise “knee up” affects kinematic and kinetic parameters and, above all, the length of the muscle contractions.

Material and methods: The study analysed ten female fitness instructors with at least six years of experience. The task consisted in the knee up move performed using a 15 cm step and music with the beat frequency of 148 BPM. Kinematic and kinetic parameters were recorded using the Vicon system synchronized with two Kistler force plates. OpenSim software was used for calculation of the length of involved muscles.

Results: Ranges in angles and torques suggest that the location that is the most prone to injuries and overtraining is the knee joint, followed by the hip and ankle joints. Greater values of the vertical component of ground reaction forces were observed during stepping down, which suggests greater load to the joints. The greatest work in the move analysed in this study was performed by the sartorius muscle and the tensor fasciae latae muscle.

Conclusions: Despite the benefits that have been demonstrated when step classes are structured correctly and adapted to the participants, further research is needed concerning biomechanical load, exercise prescription, and injury prevention.

Keywords

  • Force platform
  • Torque
  • Muscle length
Open Access

Determining the level of physical activity estimated by the Canada Fitness Survey questionnaire using criteria of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire

Published Online: 09 Nov 2016
Page range: 131 - 136

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: The aim of the study was to determine the weekly energy expenditure measuring MET/min/week based on data collected through the Canada Fitness Survey (CFS), according to the classification used in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and to verify the adopted method to assess the level of physical activity in students of physical education.

Material and methods: The study involved 116 female students (21.1 ± 1.6) and 276 male students (21.2 ± 1.7), studying Physical Education at Kazimierz Wielki University. Physical activity (PA) of respondents assessed using the Canada Fitness Survey was converted to energy expenditure in MET/min/week using the criteria established in the IPAQ. Body composition was assessed according to bioelectrical impedance.

Results: A significantly smaller fat fraction was observed in the group of students with high physical activity (PA) (p < 0.01). In women, there was a significant relation between FAT% and all analysed characteristics of physical activity: total physical activity (TPA) – 0.274, vigorous intensity (VI) – 0.216, number of days spent on physical activity (DTPA) – 0.199 and number of days spent on vigorous intensity (DVI) – 0.202 (p < 0.05). In men, a significant relation was found between all the analysed tissue components and the adopted variables of PA (FAT% vs. TPA – 0.145, VI – 0.203, DTPA – 0.187; FATkg vs. TPA – 0.123, VI – 0.186, DTPA – 0.178; FATkg vs. DVI – 0.131). BMI significantly correlated with VI (–0.162) and DVI (–0.140), p < 0.05.

Conclusions: Based on data collected using the CFS on the type and frequency of PA during a week, we can determine the level of activity in a measurable way, using the IPAQ classification. There is a significant relationship between thus determined physical activity levels and body composition in both women and men, which proves the accuracy of the adopted method of converting weekly energy expenditure to MET/min/week.

Keywords

  • Physical activity
  • International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)
  • Canada Fitness Survey (CFS)
  • Body composition
  • Students
Open Access

Is static balance affected by using shoes of different height?

Published Online: 16 Nov 2016
Page range: 137 - 144

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: to investigate the impact of heels of different height on static balance of teenagers and young women not accustomed to high heels.

Material and methods: The study involved 71 young women aged 21.09 ± 2.91 years. We used a stabilometric platform to take measurements barefoot and with heels: of 4 cm and of 10 cm. Two types of measurements were taken: with eyes open and with eyes closed.

Results: Statistical analysis revealed a significant increase in values of the measured stabilographic parameters with 4 cm and 10 cm heels, in comparison to measurements taken with bare feet. Measurements with eyes closed revealed significantly greater distortions to static balance than measurements with eyes open. A comparison of measurements – both with eyes open and with eyes closed – barefoot, with 4 cm heels and with 10 cm heels revealed statistically significant differences.

Conclusions: High heels in the population of young women significantly worsen static balance. Heel height and the exclusion of visual control are important factors diminishing static balance.

Keywords

  • Heel height
  • Static balance
  • Stability
Open Access

Simulating heart rate kinetics during incremental and interval training

Published Online: 05 Feb 2016
Page range: 144 - 152

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: To apply a recently proposed dynamical systems model to simulate, for the first time, the heart rate (HR) response to exercise of time-dependent intensity.

Material and methods: The applied model is expressed in the form of two coupled ordinary differential equations, one giving the rate of change of HR and the other providing the time dependency of exercise intensity. According to the model, the HR is assumed to depend on time, velocity, lactate accumulation and the subject’s overall cardiovascular condition. For the purposes of the present work, training sessions were simulated, consisting of exponentially and step-wise increasing intensities, as well as interval training.

Results: Training sessions of exponentially and step-wise increasing velocity, as well as an interval training session, have been simulated. Successful simulations of the corresponding HR response were achieved.

Conclusions: The present work successfully demonstrates the model’s excellent performance in simulating the HR response to exercises of time-dependent intensity. The applied model has been shown to correctly simulate the heart rate response also during exercises of complicated intensity patterns, such as the interval training session. The study confirms the ability of the implemented mathematical model not only to simulate and predict heart rate kinetics for any given exercise intensities but also to provide important information regarding an individual’s cardiovascular condition. This is of vast importance, not only in the area of fitness and sport, where it can serve as a fundamental tool for the design of efficient training sessions, but also in the areas of cardiovascular health, prediction and rehabilitation.

Keywords

  • Modelling
  • Simulation
  • Exercise physiology
Open Access

Determination and comparison of time under tension required to perform 8, 10 and 12-RM loads in the bench press exercise

Published Online: 05 Dec 2016
Page range: 153 - 158

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: To determine and compare the time under tension (TUT) required to perform 8, 10 and 12 repetition maximum (RM) loads in the bench press exercise.

Material and methods: Twenty men (24.17 ± 4.69 years) were selected intentionally and properly. We included in the study physically active individuals, with a weekly frequency of physical activity of at least two days for six months, and excluded individuals with injury or pain that could interfere with the correct execution of the exercise and individuals with positive PAR-Q. The 10-RM test consisted in performing ten consecutive repetitions with maximum overload and the highest speed in bench press exercise on the Smith machine. After 48 h, 10-RM sets were performed with the load obtained in the 10-RM load testing. The TUT in 10-RM was verified through kinematics using the timing technique of the Kinovea software.

Results: The RM loads and TUT obtained during the retest session showed normal distribution between subjects. However, no significant differences were found between the loads 8, 10 and 12-RM within and between subjects (p < 0.05). The verified TUT showed a difference from 8 to 10-RM and from 8 to 12-RM, but no significant difference was found between TUT protocols for 10 and 12-RM (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: The study results enable evaluation of TUT in bench press exercise on the Smith machine for the study sample, allowing, for this group, the prediction and control of training intensity through the TUT.

Keywords

  • Resistance training
  • Time under tension
  • 10-RM
  • Bench press
Open Access

Interdependence of marital status and clinical characteristics of morbidity with health-related quality of life among low back pain patients

Published Online: 06 Dec 2016
Page range: 159 - 164

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: This study investigated the relationship of clinical characteristics of morbidity (CCM) and marital status with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with low back pain (LBP).

Material and methods: A total of 100 subjects with LBP of mechanical origin participated in this study. HRQoL of the participants was measured with the short form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire and CCM were categorized based on duration of onset of LBP in weeks into acute (<6 weeks), sub-acute (6–12 weeks) and chronic (>12 weeks). The relationship of CCM and marital status with HRQoL was analysed using Pearson’s product moment coefficient of correlation.

Results: The outcome of this study showed that CCM correlated poorly and inversely with all domains of HRQoL except mental health, though that was insignificant (p > 0.05). Also, a proportionate but insignificant relationship was found between marital status and domains of HRQoL except physical functioning and role limitations due to physical health problems.

Conclusion: It was therefore concluded that CCM and marital status cannot determine or predict HRQoL among LBP patients, and it might not be necessary to take them into consideration during rehabilitation of these individuals.

Keywords

  • Duration of LBP onset
  • Marital status
  • Quality of life
  • Low back pain
Open Access

Injuries and training variables in Filipino judo athletes

Published Online: 07 Dec 2016
Page range: 165 - 172

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: The aim of this study was twofold: first, to compare the incidence of injuries between male and female athletes in the junior and youth divisions during competition, as well as to identify body parts commonly injured and the types of injury frequently incurred; second, to assess overall incidence of injuries in relation to the frequency and duration of training as well as supplemental training.

Material and methods: Subjects were Filipino judokas (n = 192) competing in 4 major divisions at a national competition in Manila in 2009. Injury rates are expressed per 1,000 athlete-exposures, and the confidence intervals around the rates were computed.

Results: There was no difference in injury rate between boys (84.03/1,000 athlete-exposures (A-E), 95% CI: 47.20–120.86) and girls (37.04/1,000 A-E, 95% CI: –14.29–88.37). Although the boys were at a higher risk than the girls, the difference was not significant (OR = 3.13, 95% CI: 0.62–15.76). The junior women were at a higher risk than the girls (OR = 6.30, 95% CI: 1.26–31.66). Neither training frequencies of ≤2, 3, and ≥4 sessions per week nor training durations of ≤2 and >2 hours were significant predictors of injury. Supplemental training was not found to be related to the occurrence of injuries.

Conclusion: Judo is a relatively safe physical activity for young adults and children. Training variables, such as frequency and duration, and supplemental training do not influence the occurence of injury.

Keywords

  • Judo
  • Injuries
  • Epidemiology
  • Training
  • Athletes
24 Articles
Open Access

Sauna-induced body mass loss in physically inactive young women and men

Published Online: 22 Feb 2016
Page range: 1 - 9

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between basic somatic features (body mass and height) and body mass loss in physically inactive young women and men exposed to thermal stress in a dry sauna.

Materials and methods: The research was conducted in 2015 on 685 first-year full-time students (333 women, 352 men), aged 19–20 years old. Nude body mass was measured after the students dried off before and after using the sauna.

Results: An analysis of regression equations indicated that an increase in the body mass of women and men leads to a significant increase in sauna-induced body mass loss. On the other hand, body mass loss decreased with an increase in height in women and men, but to a smaller extent. From among the tested somatic features, body height and body mass, body mass had a decisive influence on body mass loss. Body height had a minimal and statistically non-significant impact on body mass loss.

Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that heavier individuals have an increased risk of dehydration and hyperthermia. Therefore, they should pay close attention to replenishing fluids lost in the sauna. The determination of body mass loss values after a visit to a dry sauna has practical significance because it supports the estimation of the fluid volume required for the maintenance of correct water balance.

Keywords

  • Dry sauna
  • Thermal stress
  • Body mass loss
  • Somatic features
  • Physically inactive people
Open Access

Could hatha yoga be a health-related physical activity?

Published Online: 22 Feb 2016
Page range: 10 - 16

Abstract

Summary

The objectives of this review paper are (I) the analysis based on previous studies of whether hatha yoga exercises fulfil the recommendation for the level of physical activity recommended by the WHO and ACSM; (II) the recommendation for how to arrange weekly hatha yoga practice, which can be considered a health-related physical activity; and (III) the analysis of the benefits of a regular hatha yoga workout in view of scientific studies, in particular regard to the prevention of diseases of civilization and improvement in health-related physical fitness.

Based on previous studies, only dynamic Sun Salutations of yoga exercises (Suryanamaskar) are moderate-intensity physical activity, and therefore must be performed at least 5 days a week in 30 min duration or 150 min per week meet the recommendation. Hatha yoga meets the recommendations regarding types of exercise, because it includes poses improving muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, and balance. Dynamic sequences of Sun Salutation can be regarded as aerobic exercises. Regular hatha yoga training may be an intervention for the primary and secondary prevention of diseases of civilization. Yoga exercises were found to produce reductions in diastolic blood pressure; to improve cardiorespiratory system and metabolic parameters; to correct posture; to reduce back pain; to prevent obesity; to lower blood glucose level; to be beneficial for stress and depression; to relieve perceived pain; and to improve functional fitness and perceived quality of life. Hatha yoga also improves physical fitness, especially in regards to health-related fitness.

In the context of the recommendation and reported benefits, hatha yoga is the health-related physical activity.

Keywords

  • Hatha yoga
  • Physical fitness
  • Diseases of civilization
  • Benefits of yoga
  • Health-related physical activity
Open Access

Cross-cultural adaptation of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ’07) for the population of Polish children

Published Online: 18 Feb 2016
Page range: 17 - 23

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: The purpose of this article is to present the cultural adaptation of the DCDQ’07 (Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire) as one of the popular and most frequently-used diagnostic instruments for diagnosing DCD in school-age children.

Material and method: The procedure for translating and evaluating the selected psychometric parameters of the DCDQ has been conducted in compliance with the guidelines for the procedure [4]. The study involved 152 parents of school-age children; the control group included 32 children. Additionally, a group of 75 children was tested with the KTK test. To assess the test–retest reliability, the group of 50 parents was tested twice with the DCDQ at an interval of 14 days.

Results: The study proved that the DCDQ is an accurate and reliable instrument for screening DCD in Polish children. The high value of all of the analysed psychometric parameters is evidenced by the following: a sensitivity of 0.75, a specificity of 0.63 and a test-retest reliability of 0.93. Internal consistency is also satisfactory and amounts to 0.92. The study also determined that the score of the DCDQ depends on the gender of the tested child, and not on his/her age.

Conclusions: According to the research, DCDQ is a useful instrument that allows for the screening of DCD in school-age children. The Polish version of the questionnaire is definitely going to fill in the gap among diagnostic instruments and will allow for further development of research on the epidemiology of DCD.

Keywords

  • Developmental Coordination Disorder
  • Screening
  • Cross-cultural translation
  • Questionnaire
Open Access

Influence of a nine-day alpine ski training programme on the postural stability of people with different levels of skills

Published Online: 07 Mar 2016
Page range: 24 - 31

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: In alpine skiing, balance is one of the key elements that determine the effectiveness of the ride. Because of ski boots, the foot and ankle joint complex is excluded from the process of maintaining the stability of the body. The aim of the study was to determine to what extent a few days of skiing activities and the level of technical skills affect the skiers’ level of postural stability.

Material and methods: The study involved 10 beginner (20.7 ± 1.1 years, 76.4 ± 8.7 kg, 184.4 ± 6.1 cm) and 10 advanced (20.5 ± 0.5 years, 80.5 ± 13.7 kg, 184.5 ± 9.5 cm) skiers, who participated in a nine-day ski training camp. Measurements of the postural stability were taken on the first and last days of the camp, on an AccuSway (AMTI, USA) stabilometric platform.

Results: In both groups, a significant (p < 0.05) improvement in stability was observed after the training camp only while standing in ski boots. While standing on two feet, the participants were more stable barefoot (p < 0.05), and when standing on one foot they were more stable in the ski boot trial (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Skiing had a positive effect on the postural stability only in measurement conditions that were similar to those in which this stability was practiced, i.e. in measurements involving ski boots. The restriction of mobility within the ankle joint significantly influenced the training-induced changes in the postural stability of both beginner and advanced alpine skiers.

Keywords

  • Ski boots
  • Balance
  • Ankle joint
  • Biomechanics
Open Access

Blood ammonia and lactate responses to incremental exercise in highly-trained male sprinters and triathletes

Published Online: 23 Mar 2016
Page range: 32 - 38

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: To compare the blood ammonia and lactate concentrations in sprinters and triathletes during an incremental treadmill exercise test and in the 30 minutes of recovery. Material and methods: The study included 10 male sprinters and 14 male triathletes who compete at the national and international level. A treadmill test until exhaustion was administered. Blood samples for ammonia and lactate were obtained when the athletes were at rest, during and immediately after exercise, and between 5 and 30 min after exercise.

Results: The ammonia concentration and time course were similar in the sprinters and triathletes (F = 1.81, p ≥ 0.05, η2 = 0.08). An exercise-related increase in blood ammonia was almost linear, regardless of the exercise intensity. In the case of lactate, the interactions between the concentrations measured in the sprinters and triathletes were statistically significant (F = 5.78, p ≤ 0.001, η2 = 0.21). Post-hoc tests revealed that the lactate concentrations differed significantly between the sprinters and triathletes in the 18th min (p ≤ 0.01) and the 21st min (p ≤ 0.001) of the exercise test. The blood lactate increased in a nonlinear manner (slowly at lower intensities and rapidly at higher intensities). During the 30 min recovery period, both the ammonia and lactate levels decreased linearly. However, in the sprinters, the peak values were maintained in the first stage of recovery (5 min post-exercise).

Conclusions: The study showed that the blood ammonia concentration may be a useful marker of exercise-related metabolic responses in sprint-trained as well as in endurance-trained competitive athletes. Blood ammonia levels were more intensity-sensitive across the whole intensity range during the incremental exercise when compared to the blood lactate levels.

Keywords

  • Blood ammonia
  • Blood lactate
  • Treadmill test
  • Sprinters
  • Triathletes
Open Access

Leg stiffness and potential energy in the countermovement phase and the CMJ jump height

Published Online: 05 Apr 2016
Page range: 39 - 44

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: The elastic potential energy accumulated in the musculotendinous units during the countermovement phase of a jump adds up to the energy supplied by the contracting muscles used in the take-off phase. Consequently, the total mechanical energy used during the jump may reach higher values. Stiffness represents a quantitative measure of a body’s elastic properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the relationship between leg stiffness and the countermovement jump height.

Material and methods: 24 basketball players from the II Division participated in the study. The measurements employed a Kistler force plate and a BTS SMART system for the motion analysis. Each study participant performed three countermovement jumps with arm swings. Leg stiffness in the countermovement phase was determined from the slope of the ground reaction forces curve, with respect to the coexisting height of the greater trochanter of the femur. The decline in the gravitational potential energy of the centre of mass during the countermovement phase is partially accumulated in the form of potential elastic energy through the stretched musculotendinous units, and consequently contributes to the jump height.

Results: We found a statistically significant relationship between leg stiffness and a decline in the potential energy during the countermovement phase. The relationship between leg stiffness and the jump height was not statistically significant.

Conclusions: The distribution of measurements may suggest the presence of local maximums, with their locations representing a value of leg stiffness that allows for high values of changes in the potential energy and the jump height to be obtained. Therefore, the presence of a specific value for leg stiffness that would be the most favourable for the accumulation of potential elastic energy is likely. However, this study cannot unequivocally confirm this fact, and the confirmation of the above statement will require further experimentation.

Keywords

  • Elastic energy
  • Elasticity
  • Quasi-stiffness
  • Stretch-shortening cycle
Open Access

Strategies of coping with stress and the sport results of alpine skiers and tennis players

Published Online: 20 Apr 2016
Page range: 44 - 50

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between strategies of coping with stress caused by participating in sport competitions and the results of those competitions, as well as to differentiate the applied coping strategies according to the practiced sport discipline (tennis and alpine skiing).

Material and methods: The study encompassed 83 university students (39 women and 44 men) who were participating in the Polish University Championships in tennis (n = 32) and alpine skiing (n = 51). The research was based on the Coping Inventory for Competitive Sports (CICS) questionnaire and was adapted to Polish conditions by the authors of this study. The results achieved during the competition were also recorded during the study.

Results: Possibly due to the nature of their sport, the tennis players used coping actions to a greater extent than the alpine skiers, regardless of the nature of the action. The application of task-focused strategies and the lower use of emotion-focused and avoidance strategies allowed the athletes to achieve higher results during the competition.

Conclusions: Task-focused strategies should be developed in order to improve the competitive results of athletes. Taking the situational nature of the coping strategies into consideration, coping strategies can be designed and modified to improve the achieved results.

Keywords

  • Stress
  • Coping
  • Coping strategies
  • Alpine skiing
  • Tennis
Open Access

The contribution of paraoxonase 1 and myeloperoxidase to HDL-cholesterol functionality

Published Online: 05 May 2016
Page range: 51 - 57

Abstract

Summary

The purpose of this study was to analyse the scientific evidence concerning the effects of two enzymes – paraoxonase 1 and myeloperoxidase – on the functions of HDL-cholesterol. It is well documented that disturbed circulating lipoproteins (a high total and high LDL-cholesterol, and low HDL-cholesterol) bring about atherosclerosis and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) which is recognised as the main cause of death all around the world. In consequence, numerous studies have focused on procedures which will improve the plasma lipoproteins profile by decreasing the total cholesterol and the LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and increasing the HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C). However, the anti-atherogenic role of HDL-C has been challenged in studies showing that genetically elevated HDL-cholesterol does not offer protection against CVD. Moreover, it has been found that raising the circulating HDL-cholesterol fails to reduce atherosclerosis. The doubts concerning the protective role of HDL-C have been supported by in vitro studies which indicate that the HDL-C from patients with atherosclerosis does not have a protective action, but does stimulate inflammation and free radical synthesis. The above data suggests that HDL-C, commonly recognised as protective against atherosclerosis, in some circumstances becomes pro-atherogenic, and is thus dysfunctional. Our review focuses on two enzymes – paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) – which markedly affect the properties of HDL-C and contribute to its anti – or pro-atherogenic activity. Moreover, the effects of the diet and physical activity on PON1 and MPO are summarised with respect to the HDL-C functionality.

Keywords

  • HDL-cholesterol functionality
  • Paraoxonase 1
  • Myeloperoxidase
Open Access

Effect of the recovery duration of a repeated sprint exercise on the power output, jumping performance and lactate concentration in pre-pubescent soccer players

Published Online: 10 May 2016
Page range: 58 - 64

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of two different recovery durations (2 min versus 5 min) on the physiological responses (power output, stretch-shortening cycle and lactate concentration) to a 5×6 s repeated cycling sprint exercise protocol in pre-pubescent soccer players.

Materials and methods: Twelve male soccer players (age 12.23 ± 0.55 yrs, body mass 43.6 ± 5.5 kg and height 156.1 ± 5.8 cm) performed 5 × 6 s sprints on a cycle ergometer (Ergomedic 874E, Monark, Sweden) against 0.075 times their body mass resistance on two occasions within a week. In one session there was a 2 min recovery and in the other there was a 5 min recovery in a counterbalanced order. A squat jump (SJ) and a countermovement jump (CMJ) were tested before and after each trial, and the eccentric utilisation ratio (EUR) was calculated as CMJ/SJ.

Results: No significant trial × recovery interaction was observed in the participants’ peak power (p = 0.891, η2 = 0.118), mean power (p = 0.910, η2 = 0.106), SJ (p = 0.144, η2 = 0.630), CMJ (p = 0.616, η2 = 0.347) and EUR (p = 0.712, η2 = 0.295). However, a main effect of the trial on the CMJ of a large magnitude (p = 0.006, η2 = 0.862) was found, in which a higher score was recorded in the third trial than in the first trial (23.3 versus 21.8 cm). No differences were found in the lactate concentrations examined 5 min after the end of the protocol between the two recovery conditions (6.7 ± 1.8 vs. 6.0 ± 1.6 mmol · L–1, in the 2 and 5 min recovery, respectively, Cohen’s d = 0.4).

Conclusions: The duration of the passive recovery time (2 min vs. 5 min) in trials of repeated sprints did not induce important changes either to the indices of the jumping performance or to the power output in pre-pubescent participants.

Keywords

  • Anaerobic metabolism
  • Countermovement jump
  • Maximal exercise
  • Recovery
  • Squat jump
Open Access

Impact of a social media exercise service on individuals and employees

Published Online: 11 May 2016
Page range: 65 - 71

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of a social media exercise platform (HeiaHeia, Helsinki, Finland) on the level of physical activity, physical fitness, wellbeing and body weight of the service users. Material and methods: The subject group consisted of 2862 individuals who voluntarily participated in a web survey. Their age, gender, body mass index, physical fitness level and activity information were self-reported.

Results: Most of the service users (78.1%) exercised more than three times a week. About 75% of the users reported that they were in good or excellent physical fitness, while about 50% were overweight. More than half (64.6%) of the service users reported that they had perceived an increase in their level of physical activity; and 46.4% of them reported that they had perceived an advance in their physical fitness after using the social media service. In addition, 54.0% of the users perceived an increase in their wellbeing. Every fifth (21.3%) user reported a decreased body weight after using the service. Those users with lower levels of physical fitness, lower physical activity and who were overweight were more likely to report that the use of the present service was beneficial. In total, about 75% of the service users reported at least one benefit after using the service.

Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that the use of the social media exercise service can lead to an enhanced perceived level of physical activity, fitness and wellbeing. It also impacts positively on the users’ body weight. Thus, the present social media service can be recommended for use, especially for overweight, unfit and sedentary customers.

Keywords

  • Physical activity
  • Fitness
  • Overweight
Open Access

The development of anterior-posterior spinal curvature in children aged 7–12 years

Published Online: 20 May 2016
Page range: 72 - 82

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: Body posture changes depend on numerous factors. The purpose of this study was to assess the changes in posture in the sagittal plane of children aged 7–12 years.

Material and methods: Postural changes were determined by assessing the postural parameters in the sagittal plane. The measurements were recorded in children attending selected primary schools. In total, 562 subjects were included in the study, including 278 boys and 284 girls. The body posture was assessed photogrammetrically based on the moiré effect, whereby 5 postural parameters were integrated within the measurement methodology.

Results: The results indicated a naturalistic tendency in postural development – the postural parameters changed with age in a dynamic fashion; and the postural measurements for boys and girls differed in terms of their range.

Conclusions: The study findings can be used for the accurate mapping of normal postural development and, inter alia, for the detection and diagnosis of an emerging abnormal posture. Importantly, a correct postural assessment algorithm for children should include the subject’s age and sex.

Keywords

  • Body defect
  • Body posture
  • Children
  • Photogrammetric method
Open Access

Female athletes and health

Published Online: 28 Jun 2016
Page range: 83 - 87

Abstract

Summary

It is well documented that regular physical activity has a beneficial effect on human health by affecting the metabolic processes that are of fundamental importance in the body’s functions, such as insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal, as well as lipid and lipoprotein turnover. On the other hand, there is a wealth of studies which indicate that strenuous, regular physical activity, such as that performed by high performance athletes, may be detrimental for the athletes’ health especially in women. This review focuses on the factors that contribute to health problems in female athletes, named the female athlete triad, which includes excessive dieting, menstrual dysfunctions (anovulatory menstrual cycles, oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea) and a low bone mineral density (BMD). As a result of these factors, women who participate in sports, especially those focused on leanness, need special attention and education from health professionals, coaches and the athletes themselves to prevent the detrimental effects of an inadequate energy supply against high energy demands.

Keywords

  • Female athlete
  • Menstrual dysfunction
  • Energy deficit
  • Health risk
Open Access

Evaluation of the effectiveness of kinesiotaping in reducing delayed onset muscle soreness of the biceps brachii

Published Online: 20 Jul 2016
Page range: 88 - 94

Abstract

Summary

biological regeneration in athletes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the application of lymphatic kinesiotaping in reducing delayed onset muscle soreness of biceps brachii.

Material and methods: The study included 34 women, aged 18–27. In the test group of patients (n = 17) a lymphatic KT application was used. All of the women performed the arm strength trial (with IPFT) and arm muscle training (with a repeat of the trial 5 times 60–80% max). Other study tools used were an sEMG, VAS (pain assessment) and the Borg scale (subjective assessment of the intensity of effort). The measurements (arm muscles strength, sEMG, pain intensity, exercise intensity) were repeated at 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after performing the exercise.

Results: The weakest results for the arm strength test were recorded in the second measurement in the test group, and in the third measurement in the control group. The pain level declared in the first measurement was similar in both groups. In the third measurement (48 hours after the exercise), the level of pain in the test group was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than in the control group.

Discussion: The kinesiotaping method can assist in reducing delayed muscle soreness, which was confirmed by the results of the tests. However, there is no evidence about the impact of specific types of KT applications on the reduction of the DOMS symptoms.

Keywords

  • Kinesiotaping
  • Elastic taping
  • DOMS
  • Biceps
  • Electromyography
  • Post-exercise recovery
Open Access

Body composition and the level of fitness in 10 to 14-year-old girls in western Hungary: the impact of the new PE curriculum

Published Online: 20 Jul 2016
Page range: 95 - 102

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: Over the last two decades, the body fat mass has been increasing and the level of physical fitness has been decreasing in school-aged children. Due to the health-related concerns that have arisen regarding school-aged children, the Hungarian government introduced everyday physical education in 2012. Since girls are more disposed to higher body fat and low fitness levels, the aim of our study was to characterise the physique, body composition and aerobic capacity of 10 to 14-year-old girls three years after the introduction of the new curriculum with daily PE lessons.

Material and methods: All of the primary schools that were selected to participate in this study serve as partnership schools in the University of West Hungary’s teacher training programme (N = 8). The sample included only those upper primary school girls (10 to 14 years of age) who participated in the everyday physical education lesson (N = 543). Standard anthropometric techniques and a 20m shuttle run test were selected for the analysis.

Results: An important result of this study was the finding that differences in the body composition features were consistently significant among the age groups. However, there were no differences among the age groups in the results of the 20 m multi-stage fitness test, nor in the girls’ relative aerobic capacity.

Conclusions: It can be presumed that an unfavourable body composition and poor fitness occur primarily in the prepuberty years. Everyday physical education serves as a good opportunity for shaping the girls’ fitness level and body composition, and also for encouraging healthy active living.

Keywords

  • Body composition
  • 20 m multi-stage fitness test
  • Daily PE
  • Aerobic capacity
  • Girls
  • Uupper primary school
Open Access

Reference values for the sprint performance in male football players aged from 9–35 years

Published Online: 20 Jul 2016
Page range: 103 - 112

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: The aim of the present study was twofold: firstly, to examine the effect of age on a 20 m sprint performance; and secondly, to establish normative data for the 20 m sprint performance by age in football players.

Material and methods: The anthropometric characteristics of 474 football players (aged 16.81 ± 5.35 yrs, range 9.02–35.41 yrs) were examined and their 20 m sprint performance (with 0–10 and 10–20 m splits) was monitored by a photocell system (Brower Timing Systems, Utah, USA).

Results: A one-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences between the yearly age groups with regards to the sprint time (p < 0.001, η2 = 0.584), as well as the 0–10 m (p < 0.001, η2 = 0.361) and 10–20 m split times (p < 0.001, η2 = 0.635). The older groups scored better than the younger groups. The time attained in the 20 m sprint, and the 0–10 m and 10–20 m splits correlated moderately to largely with the athlete’s age (r = –0.53, –0.40 and –0.57, respectively, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: In summary, the speed ability of the football players improved with age until 15 years old, where it reached its peak. On the other hand, the other age groups U16 to U35 revealed no major differences in the speed over a 20 m sprint. The reference values presented in this study might help football coaches and fitness trainers in monitoring training and in the selection of players. Moreover, since this is the first study of this kind to compare adult age groups, sport scientists focusing on relevant topics might use it as a reference in future studies.

Keywords

  • Acceleration
  • Age groups
  • Norms
  • Performance
  • Soccer
  • Speed
  • Velocity
Open Access

Effects of hatha yoga exercises on spine flexibility in young adults

Published Online: 11 Aug 2016
Page range: 113 - 116

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: To assess the effects of yoga exercises on the flexibility of the spine in male and female students aged 19–22 years old.

Material and methods: The study comprised 59 male and female first-year students, aged 19–22 years old (mean 19.6 ± 0.9), studying Sport and Tourism Management at the Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education in Katowice. The participants took part in an obligatory yoga class, of 90 minutes duration, once a week over a 13-week period. The ranges of motion of the spine in the sagittal, frontal and transverse planes were measured using the Rippstein Plurimeter-V.

Results: The study indicated a statistically significant increase of the spine flexibility in forward and lateral bending before and after the yoga classes in the entire studied group. In the men, a significant increase of the range of motion in backward bending was also noted. In the women, and in all of the participants (women and men together), a significant increase of the range of motion in the torsion was noted.

Conclusions: Regular yoga exercises could increase the flexibility of the spine and the hamstring muscles. Hatha yoga training may be a good intervention for improving flexibility, but for better results it should be performed more often than once a week.

Keywords

  • Yoga training
  • Range of motion
  • Spinal flexibility
  • Students
  • Fitness
Open Access

Physical fitness and aerobic capacity of Polish military fighter aircraft pilots

Published Online: 07 Oct 2016
Page range: 117 - 123

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: To determine the level of physical fitness and aerobic capacity of Polish military fighter aircraft pilots.

Material and methods: The study was conducted on a group of 120 Polish military fighter aircraft pilots (men). The average age of subject was 37.13 ± 5.42 years. For further analysis, the pilots were divided into three age groups: under 29, aged 30–39, and 40–49. Age criteria were adopted according to the classification used by the American Heart Association. A physical fitness test (seven skills) was used to determine the level of physical fitness of pilots. The Åstrand-Ryhming test and a MONARK cycling ergometer were used to determine the level of aerobic capacity.

Results: The pilots obtained the following average results during the physical fitness test: push-ups on a bench – 37.7 reps; shuttle run 10 × 10 m – 30.3 s; pull-ups – 9.1 reps; sit-ups – 54 reps; standing long jump – 228.5 cm; zigzag pattern run – 25.8 s; 50 m swimming – 49.2 s. The physical fitness of military pilots decreases with age. The average level of aerobic capacity of military pilots was estimated at 33.73 ± 5.62 VO2max (ml/kg/min).

Conclusions: Polish military fighter aircraft pilots are characterized by a medium level of physical fitness and a medium level of aerobic capacity. The level of aerobic capacity is lower currently than 30 years ago. It is a perturbing and negative phenomenon.

Keywords

  • Military pilots
  • Physical fitness
  • Aerobic capacity
Open Access

Lower limb loading during knee up in step aerobics: a pilot study

Published Online: 03 Nov 2016
Page range: 124 - 130

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: Step aerobics is a form of aerobic power distinguished from other types of aerobic exercise by its use of an elevated platform. The purpose of this study was to examine how the aerobic exercise “knee up” affects kinematic and kinetic parameters and, above all, the length of the muscle contractions.

Material and methods: The study analysed ten female fitness instructors with at least six years of experience. The task consisted in the knee up move performed using a 15 cm step and music with the beat frequency of 148 BPM. Kinematic and kinetic parameters were recorded using the Vicon system synchronized with two Kistler force plates. OpenSim software was used for calculation of the length of involved muscles.

Results: Ranges in angles and torques suggest that the location that is the most prone to injuries and overtraining is the knee joint, followed by the hip and ankle joints. Greater values of the vertical component of ground reaction forces were observed during stepping down, which suggests greater load to the joints. The greatest work in the move analysed in this study was performed by the sartorius muscle and the tensor fasciae latae muscle.

Conclusions: Despite the benefits that have been demonstrated when step classes are structured correctly and adapted to the participants, further research is needed concerning biomechanical load, exercise prescription, and injury prevention.

Keywords

  • Force platform
  • Torque
  • Muscle length
Open Access

Determining the level of physical activity estimated by the Canada Fitness Survey questionnaire using criteria of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire

Published Online: 09 Nov 2016
Page range: 131 - 136

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: The aim of the study was to determine the weekly energy expenditure measuring MET/min/week based on data collected through the Canada Fitness Survey (CFS), according to the classification used in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and to verify the adopted method to assess the level of physical activity in students of physical education.

Material and methods: The study involved 116 female students (21.1 ± 1.6) and 276 male students (21.2 ± 1.7), studying Physical Education at Kazimierz Wielki University. Physical activity (PA) of respondents assessed using the Canada Fitness Survey was converted to energy expenditure in MET/min/week using the criteria established in the IPAQ. Body composition was assessed according to bioelectrical impedance.

Results: A significantly smaller fat fraction was observed in the group of students with high physical activity (PA) (p < 0.01). In women, there was a significant relation between FAT% and all analysed characteristics of physical activity: total physical activity (TPA) – 0.274, vigorous intensity (VI) – 0.216, number of days spent on physical activity (DTPA) – 0.199 and number of days spent on vigorous intensity (DVI) – 0.202 (p < 0.05). In men, a significant relation was found between all the analysed tissue components and the adopted variables of PA (FAT% vs. TPA – 0.145, VI – 0.203, DTPA – 0.187; FATkg vs. TPA – 0.123, VI – 0.186, DTPA – 0.178; FATkg vs. DVI – 0.131). BMI significantly correlated with VI (–0.162) and DVI (–0.140), p < 0.05.

Conclusions: Based on data collected using the CFS on the type and frequency of PA during a week, we can determine the level of activity in a measurable way, using the IPAQ classification. There is a significant relationship between thus determined physical activity levels and body composition in both women and men, which proves the accuracy of the adopted method of converting weekly energy expenditure to MET/min/week.

Keywords

  • Physical activity
  • International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)
  • Canada Fitness Survey (CFS)
  • Body composition
  • Students
Open Access

Is static balance affected by using shoes of different height?

Published Online: 16 Nov 2016
Page range: 137 - 144

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: to investigate the impact of heels of different height on static balance of teenagers and young women not accustomed to high heels.

Material and methods: The study involved 71 young women aged 21.09 ± 2.91 years. We used a stabilometric platform to take measurements barefoot and with heels: of 4 cm and of 10 cm. Two types of measurements were taken: with eyes open and with eyes closed.

Results: Statistical analysis revealed a significant increase in values of the measured stabilographic parameters with 4 cm and 10 cm heels, in comparison to measurements taken with bare feet. Measurements with eyes closed revealed significantly greater distortions to static balance than measurements with eyes open. A comparison of measurements – both with eyes open and with eyes closed – barefoot, with 4 cm heels and with 10 cm heels revealed statistically significant differences.

Conclusions: High heels in the population of young women significantly worsen static balance. Heel height and the exclusion of visual control are important factors diminishing static balance.

Keywords

  • Heel height
  • Static balance
  • Stability
Open Access

Simulating heart rate kinetics during incremental and interval training

Published Online: 05 Feb 2016
Page range: 144 - 152

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: To apply a recently proposed dynamical systems model to simulate, for the first time, the heart rate (HR) response to exercise of time-dependent intensity.

Material and methods: The applied model is expressed in the form of two coupled ordinary differential equations, one giving the rate of change of HR and the other providing the time dependency of exercise intensity. According to the model, the HR is assumed to depend on time, velocity, lactate accumulation and the subject’s overall cardiovascular condition. For the purposes of the present work, training sessions were simulated, consisting of exponentially and step-wise increasing intensities, as well as interval training.

Results: Training sessions of exponentially and step-wise increasing velocity, as well as an interval training session, have been simulated. Successful simulations of the corresponding HR response were achieved.

Conclusions: The present work successfully demonstrates the model’s excellent performance in simulating the HR response to exercises of time-dependent intensity. The applied model has been shown to correctly simulate the heart rate response also during exercises of complicated intensity patterns, such as the interval training session. The study confirms the ability of the implemented mathematical model not only to simulate and predict heart rate kinetics for any given exercise intensities but also to provide important information regarding an individual’s cardiovascular condition. This is of vast importance, not only in the area of fitness and sport, where it can serve as a fundamental tool for the design of efficient training sessions, but also in the areas of cardiovascular health, prediction and rehabilitation.

Keywords

  • Modelling
  • Simulation
  • Exercise physiology
Open Access

Determination and comparison of time under tension required to perform 8, 10 and 12-RM loads in the bench press exercise

Published Online: 05 Dec 2016
Page range: 153 - 158

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: To determine and compare the time under tension (TUT) required to perform 8, 10 and 12 repetition maximum (RM) loads in the bench press exercise.

Material and methods: Twenty men (24.17 ± 4.69 years) were selected intentionally and properly. We included in the study physically active individuals, with a weekly frequency of physical activity of at least two days for six months, and excluded individuals with injury or pain that could interfere with the correct execution of the exercise and individuals with positive PAR-Q. The 10-RM test consisted in performing ten consecutive repetitions with maximum overload and the highest speed in bench press exercise on the Smith machine. After 48 h, 10-RM sets were performed with the load obtained in the 10-RM load testing. The TUT in 10-RM was verified through kinematics using the timing technique of the Kinovea software.

Results: The RM loads and TUT obtained during the retest session showed normal distribution between subjects. However, no significant differences were found between the loads 8, 10 and 12-RM within and between subjects (p < 0.05). The verified TUT showed a difference from 8 to 10-RM and from 8 to 12-RM, but no significant difference was found between TUT protocols for 10 and 12-RM (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: The study results enable evaluation of TUT in bench press exercise on the Smith machine for the study sample, allowing, for this group, the prediction and control of training intensity through the TUT.

Keywords

  • Resistance training
  • Time under tension
  • 10-RM
  • Bench press
Open Access

Interdependence of marital status and clinical characteristics of morbidity with health-related quality of life among low back pain patients

Published Online: 06 Dec 2016
Page range: 159 - 164

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: This study investigated the relationship of clinical characteristics of morbidity (CCM) and marital status with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among patients with low back pain (LBP).

Material and methods: A total of 100 subjects with LBP of mechanical origin participated in this study. HRQoL of the participants was measured with the short form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire and CCM were categorized based on duration of onset of LBP in weeks into acute (<6 weeks), sub-acute (6–12 weeks) and chronic (>12 weeks). The relationship of CCM and marital status with HRQoL was analysed using Pearson’s product moment coefficient of correlation.

Results: The outcome of this study showed that CCM correlated poorly and inversely with all domains of HRQoL except mental health, though that was insignificant (p > 0.05). Also, a proportionate but insignificant relationship was found between marital status and domains of HRQoL except physical functioning and role limitations due to physical health problems.

Conclusion: It was therefore concluded that CCM and marital status cannot determine or predict HRQoL among LBP patients, and it might not be necessary to take them into consideration during rehabilitation of these individuals.

Keywords

  • Duration of LBP onset
  • Marital status
  • Quality of life
  • Low back pain
Open Access

Injuries and training variables in Filipino judo athletes

Published Online: 07 Dec 2016
Page range: 165 - 172

Abstract

Summary

Study aim: The aim of this study was twofold: first, to compare the incidence of injuries between male and female athletes in the junior and youth divisions during competition, as well as to identify body parts commonly injured and the types of injury frequently incurred; second, to assess overall incidence of injuries in relation to the frequency and duration of training as well as supplemental training.

Material and methods: Subjects were Filipino judokas (n = 192) competing in 4 major divisions at a national competition in Manila in 2009. Injury rates are expressed per 1,000 athlete-exposures, and the confidence intervals around the rates were computed.

Results: There was no difference in injury rate between boys (84.03/1,000 athlete-exposures (A-E), 95% CI: 47.20–120.86) and girls (37.04/1,000 A-E, 95% CI: –14.29–88.37). Although the boys were at a higher risk than the girls, the difference was not significant (OR = 3.13, 95% CI: 0.62–15.76). The junior women were at a higher risk than the girls (OR = 6.30, 95% CI: 1.26–31.66). Neither training frequencies of ≤2, 3, and ≥4 sessions per week nor training durations of ≤2 and >2 hours were significant predictors of injury. Supplemental training was not found to be related to the occurrence of injuries.

Conclusion: Judo is a relatively safe physical activity for young adults and children. Training variables, such as frequency and duration, and supplemental training do not influence the occurence of injury.

Keywords

  • Judo
  • Injuries
  • Epidemiology
  • Training
  • Athletes

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