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Volume 13 (2021): Issue 1 (December 2021)

Volume 12 (2020): Issue 1 (December 2020)

Volume 11 (2019): Issue 1 (December 2019)

Volume 10 (2018): Issue 1 (December 2018)

Volume 9 (2017): Issue 1 (December 2017)

Volume 8 (2016): Issue 1 (December 2016)

Volume 7 (2015): Issue 1 (December 2015)

Volume 6 (2014): Issue 1 (November 2014)

Volume 5 (2013): Issue 1 (December 2013)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2068-2964
First Published
30 May 2014
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 6 (2014): Issue 1 (November 2014)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2068-2964
First Published
30 May 2014
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

9 Articles
Open Access

In vitro and in vivo effect of poplar bud (Populi gemma) Extracts on late blight (Phytophthora infestans)

Published Online: 20 Nov 2014
Page range: 5 - 12

Abstract

Abstract

The effect of populin extract from black poplar (Populus nigra) on late blight was assessed under laboratory and field conditions. The growth rate of hyphae was found to be significantly lower after 1v/v% populin application, and no hyphae growth was detected under 3 and 6v/v% populin application. Populin also reduced the light blight severity on potato leaves under field conditions. From our results, we have concluded that populin extract can be considered as a new and environmentally-friendly alternative for the control of late blight under field conditions.

Keywords

  • potato
  • late blight
  • poplar bud extract
  • conventional treatment
  • field application
  • organic farming
Open Access

Changes of mycorrhizal colonization along moist gradient in a vineyard of Eger (Hungary)

Published Online: 20 Nov 2014
Page range: 13 - 23

Abstract

Abstract

The role of mycorrhizal fungi has special importance in the case of low soil moisture because the colonization of vine roots by mycorrhiza increases water and nutrient uptake and thus aids the avoidance of biotic and abiotic stresses of grape. Our aim was to investigate in the Eger wine region the changes of mycorrhizal colonization, water potential, and yield quality and quantity of grape roots at three altitudes, along a changing soil moist gradient. Our results show that the degree of mycorrhizal colonization is higher in drier areas, which supports the water and nutrient uptake of the host plant.

Keywords

  • mycorrhiza
  • grapevine
  • drought stress
Open Access

Effect of the soil treated with biochar on the rye-grass in laboratory experiment

Published Online: 20 Nov 2014
Page range: 24 - 32

Abstract

Abstract

The application of biochars to improve soils and to mitigate global climate change is a popular research area all over the world, although it is not a new topic. In our study, wood chips char (BC) and animal bone char (ABC) were applied. The pot experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions. 2 grams of rye-grass (Lolium perenne) were seeded into each pot. The following various soil parameters were measured: pH (KCl), AL-P2O5, AL-K2O, total water soluble salt content and organic matter content. The measured parameters from the plant samples were: total-P, total-K and micronutrients. Results show that the negative or positive effect of pyrolysis solids cannot be determined clearly, further experiments are needed.

Keywords

  • wood chips char
  • animal bone char
  • soil properties
  • nutrient uptake
Open Access

Examination of zinc adsorption capacity of soils treated with different pyrolysis products

Published Online: 20 Nov 2014
Page range: 33 - 38

Abstract

Abstract

Organic matter input into soils is essential regarding agricultural, environmental and soil science aspects as well. However, the application of the pyrolysed forms of biochars and materials with different organic matter content gained more attention in order to decrease the emission of the green house gases (CO2, N2O) from the soil. During pyrolysis, the materials containing high organic matter (biomass-originated organic matter) are heated in oxygen-free (or limited amount of oxygen) environment. As a result, the solid phase, which remains after eliminating the gases and liquid phase, is more stable compared to the original product, it cannot be mineralized easily in the soil and its utilization is more beneficial in terms of climatic aspects. Furthermore, it can improve soil structure and it can retain soil moisture and cations in the topsoil for long periods of time, which is very important for plants. In our experiment, the effects of biochar and bone char were examined on soils by zinc adsorption experiments. Based on our experiments, we concluded that the pyrolysis products can have significant Zn adsorption capacity compared to the soil. Bone ash can adsorb more Zn than the charcoal product. The Zn adsorption capacity of soils treated by pyrolysis products can be described by Langmuir adsorption isotherms. However, based on the amount of pyrolysis products, one or two term Langmuir isotherm fits well on the experiment data, which depends on the time the pyrolysis product has spent in the soil.

Keywords

  • biochar
  • bone char
  • Zn adsorption
Open Access

Monitoring the degradation of partly decomposable plastic foils

Published Online: 20 Nov 2014
Page range: 39 - 44

Abstract

Abstract

We have monitored the behaviour of different polyethylene foils including virgin medium density polyethylene (MDPE), MDPE containing pro-oxydative additives (238, 242) and MDPE with pro-oxydative additives and thermoplastic starch (297) in the soil for a period of one year. A foil based on a blend of polyester and polylactic acid (BASF Ecovio) served as degradable control. The experiment was carried out by weekly measurements of conductivity and capacity of the soil, since the setup was analogous to a condenser, of which the insulating layer was the foil itself. The twelve replications allowed monthly sampling; the specimen taken out from the soil each month were tested visually for thickness, mechanical properties, morphological and structural changes, and molecular mass. Based on the obtained capacity values, we found that among the polyethylene foils, the one that contained thermoplastic starch extenuated the most. This foil had the greatest decrease in tensile strength and elongation at break due to the presence of thermoplastic starch. The starch can completely degrade in the soil; thus, the foil had cracks and pores. The polyethylene foils that contained pro-oxydant additives showed smaller external change compared to the virgin foil, since there was no available UV radiation and oxygen for their degradation. The smallest change occurred in the virgin polyethylene foil. Among the five examined samples, the commercially available BASF foil showed the largest extenuation and external change, and it deteriorated the most in the soil.

Keywords

  • polyethylene foil in soil
  • capacity
  • conductivity
  • tensile strength
  • elongation at break
Open Access

The establishment and significance of district/regional roof cadastres in the utilization of solar energy

Published Online: 20 Nov 2014
Page range: 45 - 51

Abstract

Abstract

After its establishment, the roof cadastre - solar cadastre I wish to introduce in this article will form a database, with the help of which we will be able to analyse solar radiation factors on the local level (street, house), and a map display will also be available. Through the implementation of the appropriate methods, we can establish roof/solar cadastres on the settlement/district/regional level and these can help to increase the rate of utilization of renewable energy sources.

Keywords

  • renewable energy
  • geoinformatics
  • solar energy potential
  • GIS
  • SEAP
Open Access

Assessment of the environmental value of the Zichy Castle Park in Voivodeni, Romania – Brief description

Published Online: 20 Nov 2014
Page range: 52 - 56

Abstract

Abstract

The Zichy Castle from Vajdaszentiväny (Voievodeni) is located in Mure§ County, central Romania, south-west from the town of Reghin. Its constniction in classical baroque style dates back to the beginning of the X\TH Century. The archaeological findings from the area show that Vajdaszentiväny was already populated in the Copper Age. The findings of gray dishes from the III and IV centuries were considered by Dr. Protase as indigenous Daco-Roman relics. The Roman presence here was demonstrated by residues of the hewn-stone road along the Maros River. After the Roman Age, several other populations (Goths, Slavonic peoples. Darghins and Huns) settled down here. The feudal Hungarian state occupied this area around the XI Century. Several streams, terraces and old cemetery ruins demonstrate tliat the Hungarians used the region for protective purposes. The first mitten records of Vajdaszentiväny date back to 1332, when die Papal documents (Sacerdos de Sancto Johanne) mention the settlement for the first time. In 1366. the name of the village was Märton-Szent-Ivän. and dunng the centuries it belonged to several old and noble families and dynasties as szentiväni Szekely. monoszlai Losonczi. Szakäcsi. the Bänffy and Dezsöfi, the Szentiväni, Butkai, Balog, Kecseti, Kerelöi, Szengyeli, Dengelegi, Fodor, vajdaszentivänyi Földväri, Koka, Piski, Järai or Järai Felsöjärai Abafäja. During the first half of the 19* Century, among former Hungarians noble owners of the village, the following can be mentioned: Count Sämuel Kemeny, Albert Horvath, Budai, Szocs (Käroly es Mihäly) and Duke Löwenthäl. Later on, the village of Vajdaszentiväny became famous because of its castle, later named the “Zichy Castle,” but also because of its citizens as preservers of folk music, folk dance and folk tales.

Keywords

  • cultural value
  • castles
  • historical value
  • rehabilitation
Open Access

Landscape ecological and visual significance of dendrological gardens in the Carpathian Basin

Published Online: 20 Nov 2014
Page range: 57 - 68

Abstract

Abstract

This article presents and summarizes our observations based on historical research and site visits of 130 dendrological gardens in Hungary and 36 sites in Transylvania. The results favourably demonstrate the outstanding ecological and landscape values of these dendrological gardens in the Carpathian Basin. The research identifies the most typical exotic woody species that can be still found in those dendrological gardens that were developed in the Carpathian Basin during the era of creating landscape gardens, which is the 19th century in our region. We have defined about twenty exotic tree species, located in the researched dendrological gardens, of which presence highly affects the architectural and botanical composition, just as the landscape appearance or atmosphere of these gardens. Beyond all these effects, the article also highlights two other important points of the dendrological gardens: firstly, these gardens were breeding and acclimatization centres for spreading the new woody species, while, on the other hand, representatives of the spontaneous flora remained as veteran trees in these protected gardens, representing - mainly due to their age - outstanding ecological, dendrological and cultural values.

Keywords

  • landscape ecology
  • historical garden
  • dendrological garden
  • exotic tree
  • arboretum
  • Carpathian Basin
  • Transylvania
Open Access

Improving the urban green system and green network through the rehabilitation of railway rust areas

Published Online: 20 Nov 2014
Page range: 69 - 88

Abstract

Abstract

The Industrial Revolution had a negative impact on both the city and the environment. By the second half of the 19th century, the urban erosion of industrial cities cried for direct intervention and curing. The methods developed either along an urban or an anti-urban philosophy: they resulted in the new models of green belt systems aimed at solving all the main urban problems with restructuring the urban fabric, controlling the urban spread into the rural landscape, the lack of green areas and open spaces for recreation and social life, and the lack of green spaces for ventilation. Nowadays, the major cities and capitals around the globe are competing for titles such as healthier, more liveable or even greener city. Given the unfortunate attributes of the urban structure in the historical cities, the development of new transportation sites or green areas is an extremely difficult issue. On the other hand, in the big cities, the brownfield sites are considered as reserve areas for sustainable urban development. Reusing the brownfields and rust areas is already a land saving urban development approach and in case of a complex and ecological urban rehabilitation it can underlie the development of an efficient urban green system and green network.

Keywords

  • brownfield development
  • urban green system
  • green network
  • railway rust belt rehabilitation
9 Articles
Open Access

In vitro and in vivo effect of poplar bud (Populi gemma) Extracts on late blight (Phytophthora infestans)

Published Online: 20 Nov 2014
Page range: 5 - 12

Abstract

Abstract

The effect of populin extract from black poplar (Populus nigra) on late blight was assessed under laboratory and field conditions. The growth rate of hyphae was found to be significantly lower after 1v/v% populin application, and no hyphae growth was detected under 3 and 6v/v% populin application. Populin also reduced the light blight severity on potato leaves under field conditions. From our results, we have concluded that populin extract can be considered as a new and environmentally-friendly alternative for the control of late blight under field conditions.

Keywords

  • potato
  • late blight
  • poplar bud extract
  • conventional treatment
  • field application
  • organic farming
Open Access

Changes of mycorrhizal colonization along moist gradient in a vineyard of Eger (Hungary)

Published Online: 20 Nov 2014
Page range: 13 - 23

Abstract

Abstract

The role of mycorrhizal fungi has special importance in the case of low soil moisture because the colonization of vine roots by mycorrhiza increases water and nutrient uptake and thus aids the avoidance of biotic and abiotic stresses of grape. Our aim was to investigate in the Eger wine region the changes of mycorrhizal colonization, water potential, and yield quality and quantity of grape roots at three altitudes, along a changing soil moist gradient. Our results show that the degree of mycorrhizal colonization is higher in drier areas, which supports the water and nutrient uptake of the host plant.

Keywords

  • mycorrhiza
  • grapevine
  • drought stress
Open Access

Effect of the soil treated with biochar on the rye-grass in laboratory experiment

Published Online: 20 Nov 2014
Page range: 24 - 32

Abstract

Abstract

The application of biochars to improve soils and to mitigate global climate change is a popular research area all over the world, although it is not a new topic. In our study, wood chips char (BC) and animal bone char (ABC) were applied. The pot experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions. 2 grams of rye-grass (Lolium perenne) were seeded into each pot. The following various soil parameters were measured: pH (KCl), AL-P2O5, AL-K2O, total water soluble salt content and organic matter content. The measured parameters from the plant samples were: total-P, total-K and micronutrients. Results show that the negative or positive effect of pyrolysis solids cannot be determined clearly, further experiments are needed.

Keywords

  • wood chips char
  • animal bone char
  • soil properties
  • nutrient uptake
Open Access

Examination of zinc adsorption capacity of soils treated with different pyrolysis products

Published Online: 20 Nov 2014
Page range: 33 - 38

Abstract

Abstract

Organic matter input into soils is essential regarding agricultural, environmental and soil science aspects as well. However, the application of the pyrolysed forms of biochars and materials with different organic matter content gained more attention in order to decrease the emission of the green house gases (CO2, N2O) from the soil. During pyrolysis, the materials containing high organic matter (biomass-originated organic matter) are heated in oxygen-free (or limited amount of oxygen) environment. As a result, the solid phase, which remains after eliminating the gases and liquid phase, is more stable compared to the original product, it cannot be mineralized easily in the soil and its utilization is more beneficial in terms of climatic aspects. Furthermore, it can improve soil structure and it can retain soil moisture and cations in the topsoil for long periods of time, which is very important for plants. In our experiment, the effects of biochar and bone char were examined on soils by zinc adsorption experiments. Based on our experiments, we concluded that the pyrolysis products can have significant Zn adsorption capacity compared to the soil. Bone ash can adsorb more Zn than the charcoal product. The Zn adsorption capacity of soils treated by pyrolysis products can be described by Langmuir adsorption isotherms. However, based on the amount of pyrolysis products, one or two term Langmuir isotherm fits well on the experiment data, which depends on the time the pyrolysis product has spent in the soil.

Keywords

  • biochar
  • bone char
  • Zn adsorption
Open Access

Monitoring the degradation of partly decomposable plastic foils

Published Online: 20 Nov 2014
Page range: 39 - 44

Abstract

Abstract

We have monitored the behaviour of different polyethylene foils including virgin medium density polyethylene (MDPE), MDPE containing pro-oxydative additives (238, 242) and MDPE with pro-oxydative additives and thermoplastic starch (297) in the soil for a period of one year. A foil based on a blend of polyester and polylactic acid (BASF Ecovio) served as degradable control. The experiment was carried out by weekly measurements of conductivity and capacity of the soil, since the setup was analogous to a condenser, of which the insulating layer was the foil itself. The twelve replications allowed monthly sampling; the specimen taken out from the soil each month were tested visually for thickness, mechanical properties, morphological and structural changes, and molecular mass. Based on the obtained capacity values, we found that among the polyethylene foils, the one that contained thermoplastic starch extenuated the most. This foil had the greatest decrease in tensile strength and elongation at break due to the presence of thermoplastic starch. The starch can completely degrade in the soil; thus, the foil had cracks and pores. The polyethylene foils that contained pro-oxydant additives showed smaller external change compared to the virgin foil, since there was no available UV radiation and oxygen for their degradation. The smallest change occurred in the virgin polyethylene foil. Among the five examined samples, the commercially available BASF foil showed the largest extenuation and external change, and it deteriorated the most in the soil.

Keywords

  • polyethylene foil in soil
  • capacity
  • conductivity
  • tensile strength
  • elongation at break
Open Access

The establishment and significance of district/regional roof cadastres in the utilization of solar energy

Published Online: 20 Nov 2014
Page range: 45 - 51

Abstract

Abstract

After its establishment, the roof cadastre - solar cadastre I wish to introduce in this article will form a database, with the help of which we will be able to analyse solar radiation factors on the local level (street, house), and a map display will also be available. Through the implementation of the appropriate methods, we can establish roof/solar cadastres on the settlement/district/regional level and these can help to increase the rate of utilization of renewable energy sources.

Keywords

  • renewable energy
  • geoinformatics
  • solar energy potential
  • GIS
  • SEAP
Open Access

Assessment of the environmental value of the Zichy Castle Park in Voivodeni, Romania – Brief description

Published Online: 20 Nov 2014
Page range: 52 - 56

Abstract

Abstract

The Zichy Castle from Vajdaszentiväny (Voievodeni) is located in Mure§ County, central Romania, south-west from the town of Reghin. Its constniction in classical baroque style dates back to the beginning of the X\TH Century. The archaeological findings from the area show that Vajdaszentiväny was already populated in the Copper Age. The findings of gray dishes from the III and IV centuries were considered by Dr. Protase as indigenous Daco-Roman relics. The Roman presence here was demonstrated by residues of the hewn-stone road along the Maros River. After the Roman Age, several other populations (Goths, Slavonic peoples. Darghins and Huns) settled down here. The feudal Hungarian state occupied this area around the XI Century. Several streams, terraces and old cemetery ruins demonstrate tliat the Hungarians used the region for protective purposes. The first mitten records of Vajdaszentiväny date back to 1332, when die Papal documents (Sacerdos de Sancto Johanne) mention the settlement for the first time. In 1366. the name of the village was Märton-Szent-Ivän. and dunng the centuries it belonged to several old and noble families and dynasties as szentiväni Szekely. monoszlai Losonczi. Szakäcsi. the Bänffy and Dezsöfi, the Szentiväni, Butkai, Balog, Kecseti, Kerelöi, Szengyeli, Dengelegi, Fodor, vajdaszentivänyi Földväri, Koka, Piski, Järai or Järai Felsöjärai Abafäja. During the first half of the 19* Century, among former Hungarians noble owners of the village, the following can be mentioned: Count Sämuel Kemeny, Albert Horvath, Budai, Szocs (Käroly es Mihäly) and Duke Löwenthäl. Later on, the village of Vajdaszentiväny became famous because of its castle, later named the “Zichy Castle,” but also because of its citizens as preservers of folk music, folk dance and folk tales.

Keywords

  • cultural value
  • castles
  • historical value
  • rehabilitation
Open Access

Landscape ecological and visual significance of dendrological gardens in the Carpathian Basin

Published Online: 20 Nov 2014
Page range: 57 - 68

Abstract

Abstract

This article presents and summarizes our observations based on historical research and site visits of 130 dendrological gardens in Hungary and 36 sites in Transylvania. The results favourably demonstrate the outstanding ecological and landscape values of these dendrological gardens in the Carpathian Basin. The research identifies the most typical exotic woody species that can be still found in those dendrological gardens that were developed in the Carpathian Basin during the era of creating landscape gardens, which is the 19th century in our region. We have defined about twenty exotic tree species, located in the researched dendrological gardens, of which presence highly affects the architectural and botanical composition, just as the landscape appearance or atmosphere of these gardens. Beyond all these effects, the article also highlights two other important points of the dendrological gardens: firstly, these gardens were breeding and acclimatization centres for spreading the new woody species, while, on the other hand, representatives of the spontaneous flora remained as veteran trees in these protected gardens, representing - mainly due to their age - outstanding ecological, dendrological and cultural values.

Keywords

  • landscape ecology
  • historical garden
  • dendrological garden
  • exotic tree
  • arboretum
  • Carpathian Basin
  • Transylvania
Open Access

Improving the urban green system and green network through the rehabilitation of railway rust areas

Published Online: 20 Nov 2014
Page range: 69 - 88

Abstract

Abstract

The Industrial Revolution had a negative impact on both the city and the environment. By the second half of the 19th century, the urban erosion of industrial cities cried for direct intervention and curing. The methods developed either along an urban or an anti-urban philosophy: they resulted in the new models of green belt systems aimed at solving all the main urban problems with restructuring the urban fabric, controlling the urban spread into the rural landscape, the lack of green areas and open spaces for recreation and social life, and the lack of green spaces for ventilation. Nowadays, the major cities and capitals around the globe are competing for titles such as healthier, more liveable or even greener city. Given the unfortunate attributes of the urban structure in the historical cities, the development of new transportation sites or green areas is an extremely difficult issue. On the other hand, in the big cities, the brownfield sites are considered as reserve areas for sustainable urban development. Reusing the brownfields and rust areas is already a land saving urban development approach and in case of a complex and ecological urban rehabilitation it can underlie the development of an efficient urban green system and green network.

Keywords

  • brownfield development
  • urban green system
  • green network
  • railway rust belt rehabilitation

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