Journal & Issues

Volume 7 (2023): Issue 1 (January 2023)

Volume 6 (2022): Issue 1 (January 2022)

Volume 5 (2021): Issue 1 (January 2021)

Volume 4 (2020): Issue 1 (January 2020)

Volume 3 (2019): Issue 1 (April 2019)

Volume 2 (2018): Issue 1 (April 2018)

Volume 1 (2017): Issue 1 (July 2017)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2543-8050
First Published
16 Jun 2017
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 6 (2022): Issue 1 (January 2022)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2543-8050
First Published
16 Jun 2017
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

6 Articles
Open Access

Isolation and Study of the Nutritional Variability of Peripheral Layers of Barley Grains During Development

Published Online: 07 Mar 2022
Page range: 1 - 11

Abstract

Abstract

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the grain cereals widely cultivated for human and animal consumption. The objective of this study was to determine the components of the peripheral layer (PL) of 4 stages of development of barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L.) (Saida 183) by manual isolation, as follows, Mg, Mn, and Ca content shows a progressive decrease through the development cycle from (1.888; 0.0645; 8.345) mg/l DM in ripening stage respectively, while Fe and Zn are increased in maturation stage (0.663; 0.360) mg/l of DM. The K content presented an important increase from 7.7 mg/ml in the maturity with a value of 30 mg/ml. The average values of crude fiber content varied from 8.4 to 16.6. These values increase significantly with the development of the barley in different stages. The phytic acid content in the fourth stage (maturation) was 8.96±0.56 mg/g DM, and the proline content was very low in the first stage with a value of (2.474 ± 0.069) mg/ml DM and in the maturation stage the value was high with a value of (7.148 ± 0.248) mg/ml DM. The optical observation of the different microstructures and progressive changes that were undergone from the first filling stage of the mid-milk stage, soft dough stage, physiological stage, and ripening stage were studied. By optical observation, there is the formation of the first protective envelope of the grain, so all the tissues of the external pericarp that is grouped with the testa. The aleurone layer was structured in three rows with an important condensation of the cells of the albumen sub-structures that are involved in the storage.

Keywords

  • L
  • peripheral layer
  • histological
  • grain development
Open Access

Prevalence and Antibiogram of Bacterial Species in Litter of Selected Poultry Farms in Idi-Ayunre Community, Oyo State, Nigeria

Published Online: 15 Aug 2022
Page range: 12 - 18

Abstract

Abstract

The misuse and overuse of antibiotics within poultry sector of the animal agriculture threatens public health due to its aftermath effect arising from the release of resistant pathogens to the environment. This study investigated the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility status of bacterial species isolated from litter of selected poultry farms within Idi Ayunre, a poultry-dense community in Oyo State. Poultry droppings (5 g) was collected each from six (6) randomly selected farms and bacteria isolated using Brain Heart Infusion agar (BHI), MacConkey agar (MCA), Eosin methylene blue agar (EMB) and Salmonella Shigella agar (SSA) media respectively via pour plate technique. Bacterial isolates were identified via morphological and biochemical tests and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern determined via Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method using multi-disc antibiotics. Farm A had highest Total Heterotrophic Count (THC, 8.43 Log10CFU/mL) and Total Enterobacteriaceae Count (TEC, 6.32 Log10CFU/mL). However, Farm C had lowest THC and TEC (7.18 Log10CFU/mL and 4.48 Log10CFU/mL respectively), while Farm B had lowest Total Coliform Count (TCC, 4.70 Log10CFU/mL) with the highest being Farm D (6.08 Log10CFU/mL). Also Farm D had the highest (8.15 Log10CFU/mL) Salmonella-Shigella Count (SSC) with Farm E having the lowest (4.85 Log10CFU/mL). Isolates obtained were identified as Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus sp., Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp, Klebsiella sp., Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Salmonella sp., Enterobacter sp. and Shigella sp. Across the farms, S. aureus, Bacillus sp. and E. coli were isolated, while Shigella sp. was isolated only from Farm D. The bacteria isolates were found to be multidrug resistant towards the tested antibiotics, showing susceptibility only to gentamicin and ofloxacin. This study therefore showed that birds’ droppings from poultry farms in Idi Ayunre community serve as carrier of multidrug resistant pathogens. Hence, the need for a cautious use of antibiotics among Idi Ayunre poultry farmers.

Keywords

  • Animal droppings
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • prevalence
  • antimicrobial susceptibility pattern
Open Access

Effects of Different Cryoprotectants, Cryoprotectant Concentrations and Extenders for Short Term Cryopreservation of African Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Milt

Published Online: 19 Sep 2022
Page range: 19 - 26

Abstract

Abstract

Aquaculture of Clarias gariepinus is on the increase in Africa. Among the challenges to its production is the scarcity and high cost of broodstocks and sacrifice of the male during induced breeding. Cryopreservation of the milt of the species is a solution to this challenge. However, cryopreservation success depends on right extender, cryoprotectant and concentration. Phosphate buffered solution (PBS) and freshwater ringer solution (extenders), Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), glycerol and glucose (cryoprotectants) at 5% and 10% concentrations were used to investigate the best cryoprotectants, cryoprotectant concentrations and extenders for short term cryopreservation of Clarias gariepinus milt. Control using fresh milt was also set up. Fifteen each of matured male and female broodstocks of C. gariepinus, weighing between 1.1 – 2.0kg were used for the experiment. analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by comparison of means using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Percentage data were calculated prior to analysis. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software (Version 16.0, 2005). Dimethyl sulphoxide + phosphate buffered solution (DP) had the highest fertilization rate of 65% and 78% for 5 and 10% cryoprotectant concentrations respectively. Lowest fertilization rate was in glucose + freshwater ringer solution (GF) with 5 and 10% concentration giving 5% and 8% fertilization. Fertilization in control was 88%. Hatching and survival followed fertilization trend with DP 10% > DP 5% > DF 10% > GLP 10% > DF 5% > GLP 5 % > GLF 10% > GLF 5% > GP 10% > GP 5% > GF 10% > GF 5%. Good quality sperm used, non-toxicity and high permeability of DMSO, osmolality effect of PBS on milt were some of the factors responsible for the success of the cryopreservation. 10% DMSO and PBS are the best cryoprotectant and extender for short term cryopreservation of African catfish milt for at least 5 days.

Keywords

  • Cryopreservation
  • Fertilization
  • Hatching
  • Extender
  • Cryoprotectant
  • DMSO
  • Glycerol
  • Milt
Open Access

Changes in Soil Characteristics of Farmers Participating in Agri-Environment Protection Programmes

Published Online: 11 Oct 2022
Page range: 27 - 32

Abstract

Abstract

Examination of the most important soil properties appears as a mandatory element in agricultural subsidies. The observance of environmental aspects is essential in sustainable farming and the study of the properties of the soil, and especially the level of the main nutrients. The aim of our study was to follow changes in the soil characteristics of farmers participating in agri-environment and area-based support schemes in recent support cycles. Based on the data, we tried to conclude, mainly on the basis of the examination of the areas of south-eastern Hungary, about the tendencies of the changes in soil physical and chemical properties. We experienced a significant fall in soil soluble salt and nitrate levels and tendencies of pH neutralization and potassium elevation in 2021 compared to 2016.

Keywords

  • Environment protection
  • Nitrate
  • Soil properties
  • Farming
  • South-eastern Hungary
Open Access

Bioinformatic Characterization of a Kappa-Carrageenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens

Published Online: 22 Oct 2022
Page range: 33 - 39

Abstract

Abstract

Kappa-carrageenase (EC 3.2.1.83) is a glycoside hydrolase family 16 (GH16) member that could specifically hydrolyse kappa-carrageenans to kappa-carrageenan oligosaccharides. Kappa-carrageenase enzymes have attracted much interest due to their numerous potential applications in biomedical and physiological fields, bioethanol production, and textile industry. In the present study, physicochemical, secondary structure, structural properties including homology modeling, refinement, and model quality validation, and functional analyses of the kappacarrageenanse from Pseudomonas fluorescens using various bioinformatic tools were conducted. The protein was found to be stable and acidic in nature. Secondary structure prediction revealed that the presence of random coil is more dominated in the protein sequence followed by extended strand, α-helix, and β-turn. Protein-protein interaction prediction revealed ten potential functional partners. This bioinformatic characterization provides for the first time insights into fundamental characteristics of the predicted Kappa-carrageenase of P. fluorescens, which may be useful for elucidating its applications and for further expression and characterization studies.

Keywords

  • Kappa-carrageenase
  • bioinformatic tools
  • homology modeling
  • bioinformatic characterization
Open Access

Evaluation of the Groundwater Quality in Amizour Plain (North Algeria) Through the Application of Heavy Metal Pollution Index

Published Online: 22 Oct 2022
Page range: 40 - 47

Abstract

Abstract

The concentrations of Three metallic elements, cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn), have been evaluated in thirteen groundwater sampling points (from open wells) located near industrial, domestic and agricultural dumps of the Amizour plain (North Algeria). The contamination factor (Fc), the contamination degree (Dc), and heavy metal pollution index (HPI) were the models evaluated in aim to estimate the groundwater quality and the potential sources of trace metallic-elements infection. The concentrations of both Cd and Pb have been found to be below the permissible referred limits of drinking water quality standards, while Zn concentration exceeded the standards in most of the sampling points (eleven wells have Zn level > 15 ppb). The HPI of groundwater has been found to be far below the permissible limit of 100 (HPI = 40.6). Our obtained results give the assumption that the contamination of the studied groundwater is with limited extent, despite the prolific use of fertilizers and the intensive spill of industrial and domestic wastes in the ecosystem. Therefore, the low HPI values, noticed in the study zone, are likely attributed to the impermeability of geological formation preventing thus contaminants reaching the aquifer.

Keywords

  • Heavy metal pollution index
  • groundwater
  • Amizour plain
  • concentration factor
6 Articles
Open Access

Isolation and Study of the Nutritional Variability of Peripheral Layers of Barley Grains During Development

Published Online: 07 Mar 2022
Page range: 1 - 11

Abstract

Abstract

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the grain cereals widely cultivated for human and animal consumption. The objective of this study was to determine the components of the peripheral layer (PL) of 4 stages of development of barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L.) (Saida 183) by manual isolation, as follows, Mg, Mn, and Ca content shows a progressive decrease through the development cycle from (1.888; 0.0645; 8.345) mg/l DM in ripening stage respectively, while Fe and Zn are increased in maturation stage (0.663; 0.360) mg/l of DM. The K content presented an important increase from 7.7 mg/ml in the maturity with a value of 30 mg/ml. The average values of crude fiber content varied from 8.4 to 16.6. These values increase significantly with the development of the barley in different stages. The phytic acid content in the fourth stage (maturation) was 8.96±0.56 mg/g DM, and the proline content was very low in the first stage with a value of (2.474 ± 0.069) mg/ml DM and in the maturation stage the value was high with a value of (7.148 ± 0.248) mg/ml DM. The optical observation of the different microstructures and progressive changes that were undergone from the first filling stage of the mid-milk stage, soft dough stage, physiological stage, and ripening stage were studied. By optical observation, there is the formation of the first protective envelope of the grain, so all the tissues of the external pericarp that is grouped with the testa. The aleurone layer was structured in three rows with an important condensation of the cells of the albumen sub-structures that are involved in the storage.

Keywords

  • L
  • peripheral layer
  • histological
  • grain development
Open Access

Prevalence and Antibiogram of Bacterial Species in Litter of Selected Poultry Farms in Idi-Ayunre Community, Oyo State, Nigeria

Published Online: 15 Aug 2022
Page range: 12 - 18

Abstract

Abstract

The misuse and overuse of antibiotics within poultry sector of the animal agriculture threatens public health due to its aftermath effect arising from the release of resistant pathogens to the environment. This study investigated the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility status of bacterial species isolated from litter of selected poultry farms within Idi Ayunre, a poultry-dense community in Oyo State. Poultry droppings (5 g) was collected each from six (6) randomly selected farms and bacteria isolated using Brain Heart Infusion agar (BHI), MacConkey agar (MCA), Eosin methylene blue agar (EMB) and Salmonella Shigella agar (SSA) media respectively via pour plate technique. Bacterial isolates were identified via morphological and biochemical tests and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern determined via Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method using multi-disc antibiotics. Farm A had highest Total Heterotrophic Count (THC, 8.43 Log10CFU/mL) and Total Enterobacteriaceae Count (TEC, 6.32 Log10CFU/mL). However, Farm C had lowest THC and TEC (7.18 Log10CFU/mL and 4.48 Log10CFU/mL respectively), while Farm B had lowest Total Coliform Count (TCC, 4.70 Log10CFU/mL) with the highest being Farm D (6.08 Log10CFU/mL). Also Farm D had the highest (8.15 Log10CFU/mL) Salmonella-Shigella Count (SSC) with Farm E having the lowest (4.85 Log10CFU/mL). Isolates obtained were identified as Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus sp., Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp, Klebsiella sp., Escherichia coli, Citrobacter sp., Salmonella sp., Enterobacter sp. and Shigella sp. Across the farms, S. aureus, Bacillus sp. and E. coli were isolated, while Shigella sp. was isolated only from Farm D. The bacteria isolates were found to be multidrug resistant towards the tested antibiotics, showing susceptibility only to gentamicin and ofloxacin. This study therefore showed that birds’ droppings from poultry farms in Idi Ayunre community serve as carrier of multidrug resistant pathogens. Hence, the need for a cautious use of antibiotics among Idi Ayunre poultry farmers.

Keywords

  • Animal droppings
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • prevalence
  • antimicrobial susceptibility pattern
Open Access

Effects of Different Cryoprotectants, Cryoprotectant Concentrations and Extenders for Short Term Cryopreservation of African Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) Milt

Published Online: 19 Sep 2022
Page range: 19 - 26

Abstract

Abstract

Aquaculture of Clarias gariepinus is on the increase in Africa. Among the challenges to its production is the scarcity and high cost of broodstocks and sacrifice of the male during induced breeding. Cryopreservation of the milt of the species is a solution to this challenge. However, cryopreservation success depends on right extender, cryoprotectant and concentration. Phosphate buffered solution (PBS) and freshwater ringer solution (extenders), Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), glycerol and glucose (cryoprotectants) at 5% and 10% concentrations were used to investigate the best cryoprotectants, cryoprotectant concentrations and extenders for short term cryopreservation of Clarias gariepinus milt. Control using fresh milt was also set up. Fifteen each of matured male and female broodstocks of C. gariepinus, weighing between 1.1 – 2.0kg were used for the experiment. analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by comparison of means using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Percentage data were calculated prior to analysis. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software (Version 16.0, 2005). Dimethyl sulphoxide + phosphate buffered solution (DP) had the highest fertilization rate of 65% and 78% for 5 and 10% cryoprotectant concentrations respectively. Lowest fertilization rate was in glucose + freshwater ringer solution (GF) with 5 and 10% concentration giving 5% and 8% fertilization. Fertilization in control was 88%. Hatching and survival followed fertilization trend with DP 10% > DP 5% > DF 10% > GLP 10% > DF 5% > GLP 5 % > GLF 10% > GLF 5% > GP 10% > GP 5% > GF 10% > GF 5%. Good quality sperm used, non-toxicity and high permeability of DMSO, osmolality effect of PBS on milt were some of the factors responsible for the success of the cryopreservation. 10% DMSO and PBS are the best cryoprotectant and extender for short term cryopreservation of African catfish milt for at least 5 days.

Keywords

  • Cryopreservation
  • Fertilization
  • Hatching
  • Extender
  • Cryoprotectant
  • DMSO
  • Glycerol
  • Milt
Open Access

Changes in Soil Characteristics of Farmers Participating in Agri-Environment Protection Programmes

Published Online: 11 Oct 2022
Page range: 27 - 32

Abstract

Abstract

Examination of the most important soil properties appears as a mandatory element in agricultural subsidies. The observance of environmental aspects is essential in sustainable farming and the study of the properties of the soil, and especially the level of the main nutrients. The aim of our study was to follow changes in the soil characteristics of farmers participating in agri-environment and area-based support schemes in recent support cycles. Based on the data, we tried to conclude, mainly on the basis of the examination of the areas of south-eastern Hungary, about the tendencies of the changes in soil physical and chemical properties. We experienced a significant fall in soil soluble salt and nitrate levels and tendencies of pH neutralization and potassium elevation in 2021 compared to 2016.

Keywords

  • Environment protection
  • Nitrate
  • Soil properties
  • Farming
  • South-eastern Hungary
Open Access

Bioinformatic Characterization of a Kappa-Carrageenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens

Published Online: 22 Oct 2022
Page range: 33 - 39

Abstract

Abstract

Kappa-carrageenase (EC 3.2.1.83) is a glycoside hydrolase family 16 (GH16) member that could specifically hydrolyse kappa-carrageenans to kappa-carrageenan oligosaccharides. Kappa-carrageenase enzymes have attracted much interest due to their numerous potential applications in biomedical and physiological fields, bioethanol production, and textile industry. In the present study, physicochemical, secondary structure, structural properties including homology modeling, refinement, and model quality validation, and functional analyses of the kappacarrageenanse from Pseudomonas fluorescens using various bioinformatic tools were conducted. The protein was found to be stable and acidic in nature. Secondary structure prediction revealed that the presence of random coil is more dominated in the protein sequence followed by extended strand, α-helix, and β-turn. Protein-protein interaction prediction revealed ten potential functional partners. This bioinformatic characterization provides for the first time insights into fundamental characteristics of the predicted Kappa-carrageenase of P. fluorescens, which may be useful for elucidating its applications and for further expression and characterization studies.

Keywords

  • Kappa-carrageenase
  • bioinformatic tools
  • homology modeling
  • bioinformatic characterization
Open Access

Evaluation of the Groundwater Quality in Amizour Plain (North Algeria) Through the Application of Heavy Metal Pollution Index

Published Online: 22 Oct 2022
Page range: 40 - 47

Abstract

Abstract

The concentrations of Three metallic elements, cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn), have been evaluated in thirteen groundwater sampling points (from open wells) located near industrial, domestic and agricultural dumps of the Amizour plain (North Algeria). The contamination factor (Fc), the contamination degree (Dc), and heavy metal pollution index (HPI) were the models evaluated in aim to estimate the groundwater quality and the potential sources of trace metallic-elements infection. The concentrations of both Cd and Pb have been found to be below the permissible referred limits of drinking water quality standards, while Zn concentration exceeded the standards in most of the sampling points (eleven wells have Zn level > 15 ppb). The HPI of groundwater has been found to be far below the permissible limit of 100 (HPI = 40.6). Our obtained results give the assumption that the contamination of the studied groundwater is with limited extent, despite the prolific use of fertilizers and the intensive spill of industrial and domestic wastes in the ecosystem. Therefore, the low HPI values, noticed in the study zone, are likely attributed to the impermeability of geological formation preventing thus contaminants reaching the aquifer.

Keywords

  • Heavy metal pollution index
  • groundwater
  • Amizour plain
  • concentration factor

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