Journal & Issues

Volume 32 (2022): Issue 4 (December 2022)
Big Data and Artificial Intelligence for Cooperative Vehicle-Infrastructure Systems (Special section, pp. 523-599), Baozhen Yao, Shuaian (Hans) Wang and Sobhan (Sean) Asian (Eds.)

Volume 32 (2022): Issue 3 (September 2022)
Recent Advances in Modelling, Analysis and Implementation of Cyber-Physical Systems (Special section, pp. 345-413), Remigiusz Wiśniewski, Luis Gomes and Shaohua Wan (Eds.)

Volume 32 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)
Towards Self-Healing Systems through Diagnostics, Fault-Tolerance and Design (Special section, pp. 171-269), Marcin Witczak and Ralf Stetter (Eds.)

Volume 32 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 31 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)
Advanced Machine Learning Techniques in Data Analysis (special section, pp. 549-611), Maciej Kusy, Rafał Scherer, and Adam Krzyżak (Eds.)

Volume 31 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Volume 31 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 31 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Volume 30 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 30 (2020): Issue 3 (September 2020)
Big Data and Signal Processing (Special section, pp. 399-473), Joanna Kołodziej, Sabri Pllana, Salvatore Vitabile (Eds.)

Volume 30 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 30 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 29 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)
New Perspectives in Nonlinear and Intelligent Control (In Honor of Alexander P. Kurdyukov) (special section, pp. 629-712), Julio B. Clempner, Enso Ikonen, Alexander P. Kurdyukov (Eds.)

Volume 29 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)
Information Technology for Systems Research (special section, pp. 427-515), Piotr Kulczycki, Janusz Kacprzyk, László T. Kóczy, Radko Mesiar (Eds.)

Volume 29 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)
Advances in Complex Cloud and Service Oriented Computing (special section, pp. 213-274), Anna Kobusińska, Ching-Hsien Hsu, Kwei-Jay Lin (Eds.)

Volume 29 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)
Exploring Complex and Big Data (special section, pp. 7-91), Johann Gamper, Robert Wrembel (Eds.)

Volume 28 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)

Volume 28 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)

Volume 28 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)
Advanced Diagnosis and Fault-Tolerant Control Methods (special section, pp. 233-333), Vicenç Puig, Dominique Sauter, Christophe Aubrun, Horst Schulte (Eds.)

Volume 28 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)
Issues in Parameter Identification and Control (special section, pp. 9-122), Abdel Aitouche (Ed.)

Volume 27 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)

Volume 27 (2017): Issue 3 (September 2017)
Systems Analysis: Modeling and Control (special section, pp. 457-499), Vyacheslav Maksimov and Boris Mordukhovich (Eds.)

Volume 27 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 27 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 26 (2016): Issue 4 (December 2016)

Volume 26 (2016): Issue 3 (September 2016)

Volume 26 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 26 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Volume 25 (2015): Issue 4 (December 2015)
Special issue: Complex Problems in High-Performance Computing Systems, Editors: Mauro Iacono, Joanna Kołodziej

Volume 25 (2015): Issue 3 (September 2015)

Volume 25 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 25 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)
Safety, Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerant Control in Aerospace Systems, Silvio Simani, Paolo Castaldi (Eds.)

Volume 24 (2014): Issue 4 (December 2014)

Volume 24 (2014): Issue 3 (September 2014)
Modelling and Simulation of High Performance Information Systems (special section, pp. 453-566), Pavel Abaev, Rostislav Razumchik, Joanna Kołodziej (Eds.)

Volume 24 (2014): Issue 2 (June 2014)
Signals and Systems (special section, pp. 233-312), Ryszard Makowski and Jan Zarzycki (Eds.)

Volume 24 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)
Selected Problems of Biomedical Engineering (special section, pp. 7 - 63), Marek Kowal and Józef Korbicz (Eds.)

Volume 23 (2013): Issue 4 (December 2013)

Volume 23 (2013): Issue 3 (September 2013)

Volume 23 (2013): Issue 2 (June 2013)

Volume 23 (2013): Issue 1 (March 2013)

Volume 22 (2012): Issue 4 (December 2012)
Hybrid and Ensemble Methods in Machine Learning (special section, pp. 787 - 881), Oscar Cordón and Przemysław Kazienko (Eds.)

Volume 22 (2012): Issue 3 (September 2012)

Volume 22 (2012): Issue 2 (June 2012)
Analysis and Control of Spatiotemporal Dynamic Systems (special section, pp. 245 - 326), Dariusz Uciński and Józef Korbicz (Eds.)

Volume 22 (2012): Issue 1 (March 2012)
Advances in Control and Fault-Tolerant Systems (special issue), Józef Korbicz, Didier Maquin and Didier Theilliol (Eds.)

Volume 21 (2011): Issue 4 (December 2011)

Volume 21 (2011): Issue 3 (September 2011)
Issues in Advanced Control and Diagnosis (special section, pp. 423 - 486), Vicenç Puig and Marcin Witczak (Eds.)

Volume 21 (2011): Issue 2 (June 2011)
Efficient Resource Management for Grid-Enabled Applications (special section, pp. 219 - 306), Joanna Kołodziej and Fatos Xhafa (Eds.)

Volume 21 (2011): Issue 1 (March 2011)
Semantic Knowledge Engineering (special section, pp. 9 - 95), Grzegorz J. Nalepa and Antoni Ligęza (Eds.)

Volume 20 (2010): Issue 4 (December 2010)

Volume 20 (2010): Issue 3 (September 2010)

Volume 20 (2010): Issue 2 (June 2010)

Volume 20 (2010): Issue 1 (March 2010)
Computational Intelligence in Modern Control Systems (special section, pp. 7 - 84), Józef Korbicz and Dariusz Uciński (Eds.)

Volume 19 (2009): Issue 4 (December 2009)
Robot Control Theory (special section, pp. 519 - 588), Cezary Zieliński (Ed.)

Volume 19 (2009): Issue 3 (September 2009)
Verified Methods: Applications in Medicine and Engineering (special issue), Andreas Rauh, Ekaterina Auer, Eberhard P. Hofer and Wolfram Luther (Eds.)

Volume 19 (2009): Issue 2 (June 2009)

Volume 19 (2009): Issue 1 (March 2009)

Volume 18 (2008): Issue 4 (December 2008)
Issues in Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerant Control (special issue), Józef Korbicz and Dominique Sauter (Eds.)

Volume 18 (2008): Issue 3 (September 2008)
Selected Problems of Computer Science and Control (special issue), Krzysztof Gałkowski, Eric Rogers and Jan Willems (Eds.)

Volume 18 (2008): Issue 2 (June 2008)
Selected Topics in Biological Cybernetics (special section, pp. 117 - 170), Andrzej Kasiński and Filip Ponulak (Eds.)

Volume 18 (2008): Issue 1 (March 2008)
Applied Image Processing (special issue), Anton Kummert and Ewaryst Rafajłowicz (Eds.)

Volume 17 (2007): Issue 4 (December 2007)

Volume 17 (2007): Issue 3 (September 2007)
Scientific Computation for Fluid Mechanics and Hyperbolic Systems (special issue), Jan Sokołowski and Eric Sonnendrücker (Eds.)

Volume 17 (2007): Issue 2 (June 2007)

Volume 17 (2007): Issue 1 (March 2007)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-8492
ISSN
1641-876X
First Published
05 Apr 2007
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 23 (2013): Issue 3 (September 2013)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2083-8492
ISSN
1641-876X
First Published
05 Apr 2007
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

15 Articles
Open Access

Design of unknown input fractional-order observers for fractional-order systems

Published Online: 30 Sep 2013
Page range: 491 - 500

Abstract

Abstract

This paper considers a method of designing fractional-order observers for continuous-time linear fractional-order systems with unknown inputs. Conditions for the existence of these observers are given. Sufficient conditions for the asymptotical stability of fractional-order observer errors with the fractional order α satisfying 0 < α < 2 are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Two numerical examples are given to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach, where the fractional order α belongs to 1≤α<2 and 0<α≤1, respectively. A stability analysis of the fractional-order error system is made and it is shown that the fractional-order observers are as stable as their integer order counterpart and guarantee better convergence of the estimation error.

Keywords

  • fractional calculus
  • fractional-order systems
  • fractional-order observers
  • existence condition
  • linear matrix inequality
  • unknown input
  • stability
Open Access

Approximation of fractional positive stable continuous-time linear systems by fractional positive stable discrete-time systems

Published Online: 30 Sep 2013
Page range: 501 - 506

Abstract

Abstract

Fractional positive asymptotically stable continuous-time linear systems are approximated by fractional positive asymptotically stable discrete-time systems using a linear Padé-type approximation. It is shown that the approximation preserves the positivity and asymptotic stability of the systems. An optional system approximation is also discussed.

Keywords

  • Padé approximation
  • fractional system
  • linear positive system
Open Access

A simple scheme for semi-recursive identification of Hammerstein system nonlinearity by Haar wavelets

Published Online: 30 Sep 2013
Page range: 507 - 520

Abstract

Abstract

A simple semi-recursive routine for nonlinearity recovery in Hammerstein systems is proposed. The identification scheme is based on the Haar wavelet kernel and possesses a simple and compact form. The convergence of the algorithm is established and the asymptotic rate of convergence (independent of the input density smoothness) is shown for piecewise- Lipschitz nonlinearities. The numerical stability of the algorithm is verified. Simulation experiments for a small and moderate number of input-output data are presented and discussed to illustrate the applicability of the routine.

Keywords

  • Hammerstein system
  • non-parametric recursive identification
  • Haar orthogonal expansion
  • convergence analysis
  • numerical stability
Open Access

Nonparametric instrumental variables for identification of block-oriented systems

Published Online: 30 Sep 2013
Page range: 521 - 537

Abstract

Abstract

A combined, parametric-nonparametric identification algorithm for a special case of NARMAX systems is proposed. The parameters of individual blocks are aggregated in one matrix (including mixed products of parameters). The matrix is estimated by an instrumental variables technique with the instruments generated by a nonparametric kernel method. Finally, the result is decomposed to obtain parameters of the system elements. The consistency of the proposed estimate is proved and the rate of convergence is analyzed. Also, the form of optimal instrumental variables is established and the method of their approximate generation is proposed. The idea of nonparametric generation of instrumental variables guarantees that the I.V. estimate is well defined, improves the behaviour of the least-squares method and allows reducing the estimation error. The method is simple in implementation and robust to the correlated noise.

Keywords

  • system identification
  • instrumental variables
  • NARMAX system
  • Hammerstein system
  • Wiener system
  • Lur’e system
  • nonparametric methods
Open Access

Nonlinear state observers and extended Kalman filters for battery systems

Published Online: 30 Sep 2013
Page range: 539 - 556

Abstract

Abstract

The focus of this paper is to develop reliable observer and filtering techniques for finite-dimensional battery models that adequately describe the charging and discharging behaviors. For this purpose, an experimentally validated battery model taken from the literature is extended by a mathematical description that represents parameter variations caused by aging.

The corresponding disturbance models account for the fact that neither the state of charge, nor the above-mentioned parameter variations are directly accessible by measurements. Moreover, this work provides a comparison of the performance of different observer and filtering techniques as well as a development of estimation procedures that guarantee a reliable detection of large parameter variations. For that reason, different charging and discharging current profiles of batteries are investigated by numerical simulations. The estimation procedures considered in this paper are, firstly, a nonlinear Luenberger-type state observer with an offline calculated gain scheduling approach, secondly, a continuous-time extended Kalman filter and, thirdly, a hybrid extended Kalman filter, where the corresponding filter gains are computed online.

Keywords

  • observers
  • state estimation
  • Riccati equations
  • extended Kalman filters
  • parameter estimation
Open Access

Robust nonlinear observer design for actuator fault detection in diesel engines

Published Online: 30 Sep 2013
Page range: 557 - 569

Abstract

Abstract

This paper is concerned with actuator fault detection in nonlinear systems in the presence of disturbances. A nonlinear unknown input observer is designed and the output estimation error is used as a residual for fault detection. To deal with the problem of high Lipschitz constants, a modified mean-value theorem is used to express the nonlinear error dynamics as a convex combination of known matrices with time-varying coefficients. Moreover, the disturbance attenuation is performed using a modified H criterion. A sufficient condition for the existence of an unknown input observer is obtained using a linear matrix inequality formula, and the observer gains are obtained by solving the corresponding set of inequalities. The advantages of the proposed method are that no a priori assumption on the unknown input is required and that it can be applied to a large class of nonlinear systems. Performances of the proposed approach are shown through the application to a diesel engine model.

Keywords

  • diesel engine
  • fault diagnosis
  • nonlinear unknown input observers
  • LMI
Open Access

A biochemical multi-species quality model of a drinking water distribution system for simulation and design

Published Online: 30 Sep 2013
Page range: 571 - 585

Abstract

Abstract

Drinking Water Distribution Systems (DWDSs) play a key role in sustainable development of modern society. They are classified as critical infrastructure systems. This imposes a large set of highly demanding requirements on the DWDS operation and requires dedicated algorithms for on-line monitoring and control to tackle related problems. Requirements on DWDS availability restrict the usability of the real plant in the design phase. Thus, a proper model is crucial. Within this paper a DWDS multi-species quality model for simulation and design is derived. The model is composed of multiple highly inter-connected modules which are introduced to represent chemical and biological species and (above all) their interactions. The chemical part includes the processes of chloramine decay with additional bromine catalysis and reaction with nitrogen compounds. The biological part consists of both heterotrophic and chemo-autotrophic bacteria species. The heterotrophic bacteria are assumed to consume assimilable organic carbon. Autotrophs are ammonia oxidizing bacteria and nitrite oxidizing bacteria species which are responsible for nitrification processes. Moreover, Disinfection By-Products (DBPs) are also considered. Two numerical examples illustrate the derived model’s behaviour in normal and disturbance operational states.

Keywords

  • multi-species
  • chloramine
  • quality
  • drinking water distribution system
  • critical infrastructure system
Open Access

Controlling a non-homogeneous Timoshenko beam with the aid of the torque

Published Online: 30 Sep 2013
Page range: 587 - 598

Abstract

Abstract

Considered is the control and stabilizability of a slowly rotating non-homogeneous Timoshenko beam with the aid of a torque. It turns out that the beam is (approximately) controllable with the aid of the torque if and only if it is (approximately) controllable. However, the controllability problem appears to be a side-effect while studying the stabilizability. To build a stabilizing control one needs to go through the methods of correcting the operators with functionals so that they have finally the appropriate form and the results on C0-continuous semigroups may be applied.

Keywords

  • Timoshenko beam
  • rotating beam control
  • approximate control
  • stabilizability
Open Access

An adaptive output feedback motion tracking controller for robot manipulators: Uniform global asymptotic stability and experimentation

Published Online: 30 Sep 2013
Page range: 599 - 611

Abstract

Abstract

This paper deals with two important practical problems in motion control of robot manipulators: the measurement of joint velocities, which often results in noisy signals, and the uncertainty of parameters of the dynamic model. Adaptive output feedback controllers have been proposed in the literature in order to deal with these problems. In this paper, we prove for the first time that Uniform Global Asymptotic Stability (UGAS) can be obtained from an adaptive output feedback tracking controller, if the reference trajectory is selected in such a way that the regression matrix is persistently exciting. The new scheme has been experimentally implemented with the aim of confirming the theoretical results.

Keywords

  • adaptive control
  • robot control
  • nonlinear control
  • output feedback
  • Lyapunov UGAS stability
Open Access

A fuzzy approach to option pricing in a Levy process setting

Published Online: 30 Sep 2013
Page range: 613 - 622

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper the problem of European option valuation in a Levy process setting is analysed. In our model the underlying asset follows a geometric Levy process. The jump part of the log-price process, which is a linear combination of Poisson processes, describes upward and downward jumps in price. The proposed pricing method is based on stochastic analysis and the theory of fuzzy sets.We assume that some parameters of the financial instrument cannot be precisely described and therefore they are introduced to the model as fuzzy numbers. Application of fuzzy arithmetic enables us to consider various sources of uncertainty, not only the stochastic one. To obtain the European call option pricing formula we use the minimal entropy martingale measure and Levy characteristics.

Keywords

  • option pricing
  • Levy processes
  • minimal entropy martingale measure
  • fuzzy sets
  • Monte Carlo simulation
Open Access

Epoch-incremental reinforcement learning algorithms

Published Online: 30 Sep 2013
Page range: 623 - 635

Abstract

Abstract

In this article, a new class of the epoch-incremental reinforcement learning algorithm is proposed. In the incremental mode, the fundamental TD(0) or TD(λ) algorithm is performed and an environment model is created. In the epoch mode, on the basis of the environment model, the distances of past-active states to the terminal state are computed. These distances and the reinforcement terminal state signal are used to improve the agent policy.

Keywords

  • reinforcement learning
  • epoch-incremental algorithm
  • grid world
Open Access

Parametric logarithmic type image processing for contrast based auto-focus in extreme lighting conditions

Published Online: 30 Sep 2013
Page range: 637 - 648

Abstract

Abstract

While most of state-of-the-art image processing techniques were built under the so-called classical linear image processing, an alternative that presents superior behavior for specific applications comes in the form of Logarithmic Type Image Processing (LTIP). This refers to mathematical models constructed for the representation and processing of gray tones images. In this paper we describe a general mathematical framework that allows extensions of these models by various means while preserving their mathematical properties. We propose a parametric extension of LTIP models and discuss its similarities with the human visual system. The usability of the proposed extension model is verified for an application of contrast based auto-focus in extreme lighting conditions. The closing property of the named models facilitates superior behavior when compared with state-of-the-art methods.

Keywords

  • logarithmic image processing
  • digital camera
  • auto-focus
Open Access

Pipelined language model construction for Polish speech recognition

Published Online: 30 Sep 2013
Page range: 649 - 668

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of works described in this article is to elaborate and experimentally evaluate a consistent method of Language Model (LM) construction for the sake of Polish speech recognition. In the proposed method we tried to take into account the features and specific problems experienced in practical applications of speech recognition in the Polish language, reach inflection, a loose word order and the tendency for short word deletion. The LM is created in five stages. Each successive stage takes the model prepared at the previous stage and modifies or extends it so as to improve its properties. At the first stage, typical methods of LM smoothing are used to create the initial model. Four most frequently used methods of LM construction are here. At the second stage the model is extended in order to take into account words indirectly co-occurring in the corpus. At the next stage, LM modifications are aimed at reduction of short word deletion errors, which occur frequently in Polish speech recognition. The fourth stage extends the model by insertion of words that were not observed in the corpus. Finally the model is modified so as to assure highly accurate recognition of very important utterances. The performance of the methods applied is tested in four language domains.

Keywords

  • automatic speech recognition
  • hidden Markov model
  • adaptive language model
Open Access

On a matching distance between rooted phylogenetic trees

Published Online: 30 Sep 2013
Page range: 669 - 684

Abstract

Abstract

The Robinson-Foulds (RF) distance is the most popular method of evaluating the dissimilarity between phylogenetic trees. In this paper, we define and explore in detail properties of the Matching Cluster (MC) distance, which can be regarded as a refinement of the RF metric for rooted trees. Similarly to RF, MC operates on clusters of compared trees, but the distance evaluation is more complex. Using the graph theoretic approach based on a minimum-weight perfect matching in bipartite graphs, the values of similarity between clusters are transformed to the final MC-score of the dissimilarity of trees. The analyzed properties give insight into the structure of the metric space generated by MC, its relations with the Matching Split (MS) distance of unrooted trees and asymptotic behavior of the expected distance between binary n-leaf trees selected uniformly in both MC and MS (Θ(n3/2)).

Keywords

  • phylogenetic tree
  • phylogenetic tree metric
  • phylogenetic tree comparison
  • matching cluster distance
  • matching split distance
Open Access

A modified convolution and product theorem for the linear canonical transform derived by representation transformation in quantum mechanics

Published Online: 30 Sep 2013
Page range: 685 - 695

Abstract

Abstract

The Linear Canonical Transform (LCT) is a four parameter class of integral transform which plays an important role in many fields of signal processing. Well-known transforms such as the Fourier Transform (FT), the FRactional Fourier Transform (FRFT), and the FreSnel Transform (FST) can be seen as special cases of the linear canonical transform. Many properties of the LCT are currently known but the extension of FRFTs and FTs still needs more attention. This paper presents a modified convolution and product theorem in the LCT domain derived by a representation transformation in quantum mechanics, which seems a convenient and concise method. It is compared with the existing convolution theorem for the LCT and is found to be a better and befitting proposition. Further, an application of filtering is presented by using the derived results.

Keywords

  • linear canonical transform
  • convolution and product theorem
  • quantum mechanical representation
15 Articles
Open Access

Design of unknown input fractional-order observers for fractional-order systems

Published Online: 30 Sep 2013
Page range: 491 - 500

Abstract

Abstract

This paper considers a method of designing fractional-order observers for continuous-time linear fractional-order systems with unknown inputs. Conditions for the existence of these observers are given. Sufficient conditions for the asymptotical stability of fractional-order observer errors with the fractional order α satisfying 0 < α < 2 are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities. Two numerical examples are given to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach, where the fractional order α belongs to 1≤α<2 and 0<α≤1, respectively. A stability analysis of the fractional-order error system is made and it is shown that the fractional-order observers are as stable as their integer order counterpart and guarantee better convergence of the estimation error.

Keywords

  • fractional calculus
  • fractional-order systems
  • fractional-order observers
  • existence condition
  • linear matrix inequality
  • unknown input
  • stability
Open Access

Approximation of fractional positive stable continuous-time linear systems by fractional positive stable discrete-time systems

Published Online: 30 Sep 2013
Page range: 501 - 506

Abstract

Abstract

Fractional positive asymptotically stable continuous-time linear systems are approximated by fractional positive asymptotically stable discrete-time systems using a linear Padé-type approximation. It is shown that the approximation preserves the positivity and asymptotic stability of the systems. An optional system approximation is also discussed.

Keywords

  • Padé approximation
  • fractional system
  • linear positive system
Open Access

A simple scheme for semi-recursive identification of Hammerstein system nonlinearity by Haar wavelets

Published Online: 30 Sep 2013
Page range: 507 - 520

Abstract

Abstract

A simple semi-recursive routine for nonlinearity recovery in Hammerstein systems is proposed. The identification scheme is based on the Haar wavelet kernel and possesses a simple and compact form. The convergence of the algorithm is established and the asymptotic rate of convergence (independent of the input density smoothness) is shown for piecewise- Lipschitz nonlinearities. The numerical stability of the algorithm is verified. Simulation experiments for a small and moderate number of input-output data are presented and discussed to illustrate the applicability of the routine.

Keywords

  • Hammerstein system
  • non-parametric recursive identification
  • Haar orthogonal expansion
  • convergence analysis
  • numerical stability
Open Access

Nonparametric instrumental variables for identification of block-oriented systems

Published Online: 30 Sep 2013
Page range: 521 - 537

Abstract

Abstract

A combined, parametric-nonparametric identification algorithm for a special case of NARMAX systems is proposed. The parameters of individual blocks are aggregated in one matrix (including mixed products of parameters). The matrix is estimated by an instrumental variables technique with the instruments generated by a nonparametric kernel method. Finally, the result is decomposed to obtain parameters of the system elements. The consistency of the proposed estimate is proved and the rate of convergence is analyzed. Also, the form of optimal instrumental variables is established and the method of their approximate generation is proposed. The idea of nonparametric generation of instrumental variables guarantees that the I.V. estimate is well defined, improves the behaviour of the least-squares method and allows reducing the estimation error. The method is simple in implementation and robust to the correlated noise.

Keywords

  • system identification
  • instrumental variables
  • NARMAX system
  • Hammerstein system
  • Wiener system
  • Lur’e system
  • nonparametric methods
Open Access

Nonlinear state observers and extended Kalman filters for battery systems

Published Online: 30 Sep 2013
Page range: 539 - 556

Abstract

Abstract

The focus of this paper is to develop reliable observer and filtering techniques for finite-dimensional battery models that adequately describe the charging and discharging behaviors. For this purpose, an experimentally validated battery model taken from the literature is extended by a mathematical description that represents parameter variations caused by aging.

The corresponding disturbance models account for the fact that neither the state of charge, nor the above-mentioned parameter variations are directly accessible by measurements. Moreover, this work provides a comparison of the performance of different observer and filtering techniques as well as a development of estimation procedures that guarantee a reliable detection of large parameter variations. For that reason, different charging and discharging current profiles of batteries are investigated by numerical simulations. The estimation procedures considered in this paper are, firstly, a nonlinear Luenberger-type state observer with an offline calculated gain scheduling approach, secondly, a continuous-time extended Kalman filter and, thirdly, a hybrid extended Kalman filter, where the corresponding filter gains are computed online.

Keywords

  • observers
  • state estimation
  • Riccati equations
  • extended Kalman filters
  • parameter estimation
Open Access

Robust nonlinear observer design for actuator fault detection in diesel engines

Published Online: 30 Sep 2013
Page range: 557 - 569

Abstract

Abstract

This paper is concerned with actuator fault detection in nonlinear systems in the presence of disturbances. A nonlinear unknown input observer is designed and the output estimation error is used as a residual for fault detection. To deal with the problem of high Lipschitz constants, a modified mean-value theorem is used to express the nonlinear error dynamics as a convex combination of known matrices with time-varying coefficients. Moreover, the disturbance attenuation is performed using a modified H criterion. A sufficient condition for the existence of an unknown input observer is obtained using a linear matrix inequality formula, and the observer gains are obtained by solving the corresponding set of inequalities. The advantages of the proposed method are that no a priori assumption on the unknown input is required and that it can be applied to a large class of nonlinear systems. Performances of the proposed approach are shown through the application to a diesel engine model.

Keywords

  • diesel engine
  • fault diagnosis
  • nonlinear unknown input observers
  • LMI
Open Access

A biochemical multi-species quality model of a drinking water distribution system for simulation and design

Published Online: 30 Sep 2013
Page range: 571 - 585

Abstract

Abstract

Drinking Water Distribution Systems (DWDSs) play a key role in sustainable development of modern society. They are classified as critical infrastructure systems. This imposes a large set of highly demanding requirements on the DWDS operation and requires dedicated algorithms for on-line monitoring and control to tackle related problems. Requirements on DWDS availability restrict the usability of the real plant in the design phase. Thus, a proper model is crucial. Within this paper a DWDS multi-species quality model for simulation and design is derived. The model is composed of multiple highly inter-connected modules which are introduced to represent chemical and biological species and (above all) their interactions. The chemical part includes the processes of chloramine decay with additional bromine catalysis and reaction with nitrogen compounds. The biological part consists of both heterotrophic and chemo-autotrophic bacteria species. The heterotrophic bacteria are assumed to consume assimilable organic carbon. Autotrophs are ammonia oxidizing bacteria and nitrite oxidizing bacteria species which are responsible for nitrification processes. Moreover, Disinfection By-Products (DBPs) are also considered. Two numerical examples illustrate the derived model’s behaviour in normal and disturbance operational states.

Keywords

  • multi-species
  • chloramine
  • quality
  • drinking water distribution system
  • critical infrastructure system
Open Access

Controlling a non-homogeneous Timoshenko beam with the aid of the torque

Published Online: 30 Sep 2013
Page range: 587 - 598

Abstract

Abstract

Considered is the control and stabilizability of a slowly rotating non-homogeneous Timoshenko beam with the aid of a torque. It turns out that the beam is (approximately) controllable with the aid of the torque if and only if it is (approximately) controllable. However, the controllability problem appears to be a side-effect while studying the stabilizability. To build a stabilizing control one needs to go through the methods of correcting the operators with functionals so that they have finally the appropriate form and the results on C0-continuous semigroups may be applied.

Keywords

  • Timoshenko beam
  • rotating beam control
  • approximate control
  • stabilizability
Open Access

An adaptive output feedback motion tracking controller for robot manipulators: Uniform global asymptotic stability and experimentation

Published Online: 30 Sep 2013
Page range: 599 - 611

Abstract

Abstract

This paper deals with two important practical problems in motion control of robot manipulators: the measurement of joint velocities, which often results in noisy signals, and the uncertainty of parameters of the dynamic model. Adaptive output feedback controllers have been proposed in the literature in order to deal with these problems. In this paper, we prove for the first time that Uniform Global Asymptotic Stability (UGAS) can be obtained from an adaptive output feedback tracking controller, if the reference trajectory is selected in such a way that the regression matrix is persistently exciting. The new scheme has been experimentally implemented with the aim of confirming the theoretical results.

Keywords

  • adaptive control
  • robot control
  • nonlinear control
  • output feedback
  • Lyapunov UGAS stability
Open Access

A fuzzy approach to option pricing in a Levy process setting

Published Online: 30 Sep 2013
Page range: 613 - 622

Abstract

Abstract

In this paper the problem of European option valuation in a Levy process setting is analysed. In our model the underlying asset follows a geometric Levy process. The jump part of the log-price process, which is a linear combination of Poisson processes, describes upward and downward jumps in price. The proposed pricing method is based on stochastic analysis and the theory of fuzzy sets.We assume that some parameters of the financial instrument cannot be precisely described and therefore they are introduced to the model as fuzzy numbers. Application of fuzzy arithmetic enables us to consider various sources of uncertainty, not only the stochastic one. To obtain the European call option pricing formula we use the minimal entropy martingale measure and Levy characteristics.

Keywords

  • option pricing
  • Levy processes
  • minimal entropy martingale measure
  • fuzzy sets
  • Monte Carlo simulation
Open Access

Epoch-incremental reinforcement learning algorithms

Published Online: 30 Sep 2013
Page range: 623 - 635

Abstract

Abstract

In this article, a new class of the epoch-incremental reinforcement learning algorithm is proposed. In the incremental mode, the fundamental TD(0) or TD(λ) algorithm is performed and an environment model is created. In the epoch mode, on the basis of the environment model, the distances of past-active states to the terminal state are computed. These distances and the reinforcement terminal state signal are used to improve the agent policy.

Keywords

  • reinforcement learning
  • epoch-incremental algorithm
  • grid world
Open Access

Parametric logarithmic type image processing for contrast based auto-focus in extreme lighting conditions

Published Online: 30 Sep 2013
Page range: 637 - 648

Abstract

Abstract

While most of state-of-the-art image processing techniques were built under the so-called classical linear image processing, an alternative that presents superior behavior for specific applications comes in the form of Logarithmic Type Image Processing (LTIP). This refers to mathematical models constructed for the representation and processing of gray tones images. In this paper we describe a general mathematical framework that allows extensions of these models by various means while preserving their mathematical properties. We propose a parametric extension of LTIP models and discuss its similarities with the human visual system. The usability of the proposed extension model is verified for an application of contrast based auto-focus in extreme lighting conditions. The closing property of the named models facilitates superior behavior when compared with state-of-the-art methods.

Keywords

  • logarithmic image processing
  • digital camera
  • auto-focus
Open Access

Pipelined language model construction for Polish speech recognition

Published Online: 30 Sep 2013
Page range: 649 - 668

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of works described in this article is to elaborate and experimentally evaluate a consistent method of Language Model (LM) construction for the sake of Polish speech recognition. In the proposed method we tried to take into account the features and specific problems experienced in practical applications of speech recognition in the Polish language, reach inflection, a loose word order and the tendency for short word deletion. The LM is created in five stages. Each successive stage takes the model prepared at the previous stage and modifies or extends it so as to improve its properties. At the first stage, typical methods of LM smoothing are used to create the initial model. Four most frequently used methods of LM construction are here. At the second stage the model is extended in order to take into account words indirectly co-occurring in the corpus. At the next stage, LM modifications are aimed at reduction of short word deletion errors, which occur frequently in Polish speech recognition. The fourth stage extends the model by insertion of words that were not observed in the corpus. Finally the model is modified so as to assure highly accurate recognition of very important utterances. The performance of the methods applied is tested in four language domains.

Keywords

  • automatic speech recognition
  • hidden Markov model
  • adaptive language model
Open Access

On a matching distance between rooted phylogenetic trees

Published Online: 30 Sep 2013
Page range: 669 - 684

Abstract

Abstract

The Robinson-Foulds (RF) distance is the most popular method of evaluating the dissimilarity between phylogenetic trees. In this paper, we define and explore in detail properties of the Matching Cluster (MC) distance, which can be regarded as a refinement of the RF metric for rooted trees. Similarly to RF, MC operates on clusters of compared trees, but the distance evaluation is more complex. Using the graph theoretic approach based on a minimum-weight perfect matching in bipartite graphs, the values of similarity between clusters are transformed to the final MC-score of the dissimilarity of trees. The analyzed properties give insight into the structure of the metric space generated by MC, its relations with the Matching Split (MS) distance of unrooted trees and asymptotic behavior of the expected distance between binary n-leaf trees selected uniformly in both MC and MS (Θ(n3/2)).

Keywords

  • phylogenetic tree
  • phylogenetic tree metric
  • phylogenetic tree comparison
  • matching cluster distance
  • matching split distance
Open Access

A modified convolution and product theorem for the linear canonical transform derived by representation transformation in quantum mechanics

Published Online: 30 Sep 2013
Page range: 685 - 695

Abstract

Abstract

The Linear Canonical Transform (LCT) is a four parameter class of integral transform which plays an important role in many fields of signal processing. Well-known transforms such as the Fourier Transform (FT), the FRactional Fourier Transform (FRFT), and the FreSnel Transform (FST) can be seen as special cases of the linear canonical transform. Many properties of the LCT are currently known but the extension of FRFTs and FTs still needs more attention. This paper presents a modified convolution and product theorem in the LCT domain derived by a representation transformation in quantum mechanics, which seems a convenient and concise method. It is compared with the existing convolution theorem for the LCT and is found to be a better and befitting proposition. Further, an application of filtering is presented by using the derived results.

Keywords

  • linear canonical transform
  • convolution and product theorem
  • quantum mechanical representation

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