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Volume 5 (2022): Issue 1 (June 2022)

Volume 4 (2021): Issue 2 (December 2021)

Volume 4 (2021): Issue 1 (June 2021)

Volume 3 (2020): Issue 2 (December 2020)

Volume 3 (2020): Issue 1 (June 2020)

Volume 2 (2019): Issue 2 (December 2019)

Volume 2 (2019): Issue 1 (June 2019)

Volume 1 (2018): Issue 2 (December 2018)

Volume 1 (2018): Issue 1 (June 2018)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2668-5124
First Published
30 Sep 2019
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 3 (2020): Issue 1 (June 2020)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2668-5124
First Published
30 Sep 2019
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

5 Articles
Open Access

In Vitro Effects of Various Probiotic Products on Growth and Biofilm Formation of Clinical UPEC Strains

Published Online: 29 Jun 2020
Page range: 5 - 14

Abstract

Abstract

Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the most prevalent pathogen causing urinary tract infections (UTIs). UPECs have various virulence factors such as adhesins, biofilm forming and toxin producing etc., to survive in urinary tract. Under certain circumstances probiotics are preferred for prevention and treatment of UTIs. In this study, we aimed to investigate the in-vitro effects of four different Lactobacillus spp. cell-free supernatants on growth and biofilm formation inhibition in clinically isolated UPEC strains. Growths of 50 UPEC strains were determined in 96-well microplate and measured in a spectrophotometer after four hours incubation at 37°C. Biofilm formation was detected by crystal violet staining method on three UPEC strains. Statistical analysis of growth and biofilm formation experiments were performed by Kruskal-Wallis and one-way ANOVA Tukey’s multiple-comparison tests, respectively. All tested cell-free supernatans of lactobacilli inhibited growths (p<0. 0001) and biofilm formation (p<0.05) of UPECs. All results were found to be statistically significant. As a conclusion, our findings supported previous studies which reported the high efficiency of these four Lactobacillus spp. in the prevention of UTIs.

Keywords

  • growth
  • biofilm formation
  • UPEC
  • probiotics
Open Access

Leaf and Petiole Micro-Anatomical Diversities in Some Selected Nigerian Species of Combretum Loefl.: the Significance in Species Identification at Vegetative State

Published Online: 29 Jun 2020
Page range: 15 - 29

Abstract

Abstract

Leaf and petiole samples of four Combretum Loefl. species which were identified in the Herbarium (IFE) were investigated anatomically in search of stable taxonomic micro-anatomical attributes to improve our knowledge of identification of members of the genus. Anatomical characters; in particular, upper and lower cuticles and epidermal structures, fibre structures, vascular architectures, petiolar outlines and trichome micro-morphology are good taxonomic tools to identify the taxa. The invariable uniseriate to multiseriate upper and lower epidermis; the absence of trichome in the petiole and the presence of branched trichome in the mid-rib region of C. zenkeri P. Beauv delimit the taxa. Variations in vascular architectures can be used to identify the taxa while some other anatomical features in the genus suggest great taxonomic affinities. However, the artificial key, which was constructed using stable taxonomic characters, is a reliable taxonomic tool for proper identification of the four species and which can as well be employed in separating each of the taxa from their close relatives. A detailed micro-anatomical study of leaf and petiole structures of the Nigerian Combretum species may provide an invaluable tool for determination and identification of the four taxa studied, thereby assisting in promoting quality assurance in the genus.

Keywords

  • Artificial key
  • diagnostic
  • lamina
  • palisade parenchyma
  • petiole
Open Access

COVID-19: A Centennial Pandemic from Origin to Clinical Trials

Published Online: 29 Jun 2020
Page range: 30 - 52

Abstract

Abstract

In December 2019, an unexpected interaction of coronavirus with human’s occurred for the third time in history after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2002-2003 and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2012. Soon the virus was confirmed as SARS-CoV-2, and the severity of its transmission lead the World Health Organization to declare it as World Pandemic. Due to its highly contagious nature, new methods like social distancing, self-hygiene and quarantine were being adopted by many countries to halt the transmission. Due to the dearth in specific therapeutics and/or vaccines against Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19), a significant thrust in drugs and vaccine discovery was ratified by all the nations. The current review comprehensively details about the emergence and molecular pathogenesis with an interesting timeline which notes all the major events during this crisis. Given the potential general readers and health workers, the symptoms and diagnostic approaches were simplified. Emphasis was given to therapeutic approaches and clinical trials section to support the translational research and to cope up with the viral outbreak.

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • Coronavirus
  • Clinical trials
  • Pandemic
  • Infection
Open Access

Development and Validation of an LC-MS/MS Method for Protodioscin Identification and Quantification in Herbal Supplements with Tribulus terrestris L.

Published Online: 29 Jun 2020
Page range: 53 - 61

Abstract

Abstract

Tribulus terrestris L. (TT) became a very popular plant due to its effects in sexual disorders. The pharmacological actions seem to be related with its content in sterolic saponins. Protodioscin has been reported to be the main compound from TT products with anabolic effects. Because of the popularity of the plant, numerous herbal supplements are consumed around the world. Quantification of steroidal saponins through HPLC methods is sometimes difficult. Several methods have been proposed but not all are reproducible. The aim of this study was to validate a LC MS/MS method for quantification of protodioscin in herbal supplements. Two herbal supplements found on the Romanian market have been chosen for this study. The compounds were separated on a C18 column with ammonium acetate buffer and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The ionization was performed in electrospray negative mode and detection of protodioscin was made by monitoring the sum of ions m/z 737.41, m/z 739.42 and m/z 755.42. In one of the herbal supplements, protodioscin was under the limit of quantification. In conclusion a simple and rapid method is proposed for the quantification of protodioscin in herbal supplements.

Keywords

  • protodioscin
  • LC-MS/MS
Open Access

Phytochemical Characterization of Transilvanian Prunella vulgaris

Published Online: 29 Jun 2020
Page range: 62 - 69

Abstract

Abstract

Prunella vulgaris L. grows in spontaneous flora of Romania in wet places, fields, meadows, unpopulated areas, both in the sun and in the shade. The plant is rich in phenolic acids (caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid), pentacyclic triterpenic compounds (ursolic, oleanolic, betulinic acid) and flavonoids (rutoside, quercetin). Prunella vulgaris L. has shown numerous pharmacological actions: antioxidant, anti-allergic, antimicrobial, immunostimulatory activities. The aim of the study was to evaluate the phytochemical and pharmacological profile of the leaves and spike inflorescence of Prunella vulgaris L. collected from Romania. The polyphenol content in leaves was found to be 63.78 ± 2.01 mg GAE/g dry weight in the methanolic extract and 45.73 ± 13.87 mg GAE/g in the aqueous extract. In the spike inflorescence, total polyphenol content was 36.44 ± 6.73 mg GAE/g in the methanolic extract and 26.49 ± 2.97 mg GAE/g in the aqueous extract. The results from the antioxidant assays (DPPH and ABTS) were not significantly different between the two herbal drugs. Further studies are needed in order to quantify the active compounds.

Keywords

  • total polyphenols
  • antioxidant
  • Lamiaceae
5 Articles
Open Access

In Vitro Effects of Various Probiotic Products on Growth and Biofilm Formation of Clinical UPEC Strains

Published Online: 29 Jun 2020
Page range: 5 - 14

Abstract

Abstract

Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the most prevalent pathogen causing urinary tract infections (UTIs). UPECs have various virulence factors such as adhesins, biofilm forming and toxin producing etc., to survive in urinary tract. Under certain circumstances probiotics are preferred for prevention and treatment of UTIs. In this study, we aimed to investigate the in-vitro effects of four different Lactobacillus spp. cell-free supernatants on growth and biofilm formation inhibition in clinically isolated UPEC strains. Growths of 50 UPEC strains were determined in 96-well microplate and measured in a spectrophotometer after four hours incubation at 37°C. Biofilm formation was detected by crystal violet staining method on three UPEC strains. Statistical analysis of growth and biofilm formation experiments were performed by Kruskal-Wallis and one-way ANOVA Tukey’s multiple-comparison tests, respectively. All tested cell-free supernatans of lactobacilli inhibited growths (p<0. 0001) and biofilm formation (p<0.05) of UPECs. All results were found to be statistically significant. As a conclusion, our findings supported previous studies which reported the high efficiency of these four Lactobacillus spp. in the prevention of UTIs.

Keywords

  • growth
  • biofilm formation
  • UPEC
  • probiotics
Open Access

Leaf and Petiole Micro-Anatomical Diversities in Some Selected Nigerian Species of Combretum Loefl.: the Significance in Species Identification at Vegetative State

Published Online: 29 Jun 2020
Page range: 15 - 29

Abstract

Abstract

Leaf and petiole samples of four Combretum Loefl. species which were identified in the Herbarium (IFE) were investigated anatomically in search of stable taxonomic micro-anatomical attributes to improve our knowledge of identification of members of the genus. Anatomical characters; in particular, upper and lower cuticles and epidermal structures, fibre structures, vascular architectures, petiolar outlines and trichome micro-morphology are good taxonomic tools to identify the taxa. The invariable uniseriate to multiseriate upper and lower epidermis; the absence of trichome in the petiole and the presence of branched trichome in the mid-rib region of C. zenkeri P. Beauv delimit the taxa. Variations in vascular architectures can be used to identify the taxa while some other anatomical features in the genus suggest great taxonomic affinities. However, the artificial key, which was constructed using stable taxonomic characters, is a reliable taxonomic tool for proper identification of the four species and which can as well be employed in separating each of the taxa from their close relatives. A detailed micro-anatomical study of leaf and petiole structures of the Nigerian Combretum species may provide an invaluable tool for determination and identification of the four taxa studied, thereby assisting in promoting quality assurance in the genus.

Keywords

  • Artificial key
  • diagnostic
  • lamina
  • palisade parenchyma
  • petiole
Open Access

COVID-19: A Centennial Pandemic from Origin to Clinical Trials

Published Online: 29 Jun 2020
Page range: 30 - 52

Abstract

Abstract

In December 2019, an unexpected interaction of coronavirus with human’s occurred for the third time in history after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2002-2003 and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2012. Soon the virus was confirmed as SARS-CoV-2, and the severity of its transmission lead the World Health Organization to declare it as World Pandemic. Due to its highly contagious nature, new methods like social distancing, self-hygiene and quarantine were being adopted by many countries to halt the transmission. Due to the dearth in specific therapeutics and/or vaccines against Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19), a significant thrust in drugs and vaccine discovery was ratified by all the nations. The current review comprehensively details about the emergence and molecular pathogenesis with an interesting timeline which notes all the major events during this crisis. Given the potential general readers and health workers, the symptoms and diagnostic approaches were simplified. Emphasis was given to therapeutic approaches and clinical trials section to support the translational research and to cope up with the viral outbreak.

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • Coronavirus
  • Clinical trials
  • Pandemic
  • Infection
Open Access

Development and Validation of an LC-MS/MS Method for Protodioscin Identification and Quantification in Herbal Supplements with Tribulus terrestris L.

Published Online: 29 Jun 2020
Page range: 53 - 61

Abstract

Abstract

Tribulus terrestris L. (TT) became a very popular plant due to its effects in sexual disorders. The pharmacological actions seem to be related with its content in sterolic saponins. Protodioscin has been reported to be the main compound from TT products with anabolic effects. Because of the popularity of the plant, numerous herbal supplements are consumed around the world. Quantification of steroidal saponins through HPLC methods is sometimes difficult. Several methods have been proposed but not all are reproducible. The aim of this study was to validate a LC MS/MS method for quantification of protodioscin in herbal supplements. Two herbal supplements found on the Romanian market have been chosen for this study. The compounds were separated on a C18 column with ammonium acetate buffer and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The ionization was performed in electrospray negative mode and detection of protodioscin was made by monitoring the sum of ions m/z 737.41, m/z 739.42 and m/z 755.42. In one of the herbal supplements, protodioscin was under the limit of quantification. In conclusion a simple and rapid method is proposed for the quantification of protodioscin in herbal supplements.

Keywords

  • protodioscin
  • LC-MS/MS
Open Access

Phytochemical Characterization of Transilvanian Prunella vulgaris

Published Online: 29 Jun 2020
Page range: 62 - 69

Abstract

Abstract

Prunella vulgaris L. grows in spontaneous flora of Romania in wet places, fields, meadows, unpopulated areas, both in the sun and in the shade. The plant is rich in phenolic acids (caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid), pentacyclic triterpenic compounds (ursolic, oleanolic, betulinic acid) and flavonoids (rutoside, quercetin). Prunella vulgaris L. has shown numerous pharmacological actions: antioxidant, anti-allergic, antimicrobial, immunostimulatory activities. The aim of the study was to evaluate the phytochemical and pharmacological profile of the leaves and spike inflorescence of Prunella vulgaris L. collected from Romania. The polyphenol content in leaves was found to be 63.78 ± 2.01 mg GAE/g dry weight in the methanolic extract and 45.73 ± 13.87 mg GAE/g in the aqueous extract. In the spike inflorescence, total polyphenol content was 36.44 ± 6.73 mg GAE/g in the methanolic extract and 26.49 ± 2.97 mg GAE/g in the aqueous extract. The results from the antioxidant assays (DPPH and ABTS) were not significantly different between the two herbal drugs. Further studies are needed in order to quantify the active compounds.

Keywords

  • total polyphenols
  • antioxidant
  • Lamiaceae

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