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Technical Transactions

Détails du magazine
Accès libre
Première publication
20 May 2020
1 fois par an
Sujets du magazine
Architecture and Design, Architecture, Architects, Buildings, Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Mechanics, Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Materials Sciences, other

The Technical Transactions is an international scientific journal that publishes high quality research results of employees of scientific institutions. The journal was launched by the Lviv Polytechnic in 1883. Since 1946, the publishing tradition of the journal has been continued by the Cracow University of Technology.

From 2013 onwards, Technical Transactions is only published in English. All articles are published in open access. The overall focus is on original and rigorous scientific research results which have international significance.

The aim of Technical Transactions is primarily to enable scientific employees to disseminate original, scientific, theoretical or applied research and to present and promote their achievements on the international stage. Academic research spearheads the development of engineering science and technology. To better lead this development and to provide a high-level international platform for engineering exchanges, Technical Transactions works with world-renowned experts and scholars. The high scientific level of the articles is the responsibility of the Scientific Council, which consists of outstanding specialists. Each text is reviewed by two independent reviewers from outside the author's home institution, including one with foreign affiliation. The content of each article is additionally language-checked by a native speaker.

We publish articles in the field of technical and exact sciences, so we focus upon aspects of: architecture and urban planning, automation and robotics, biomedical engineering, construction and operation of machinery, construction, electronics and electrical engineering, energy, physics, computer science, chemical engineering, material engineering, engineering environment, mathematics, mechanics, chemical technology and transport.


Sciendo archives the contents of this journal in Portico - digital long-term preservation service of scholarly books, journals and collections.

Plagiarism Policy

The editorial board is participating in a growing community of Similarity Check System's users in order to ensure that the content published is original and trustworthy. Similarity Check is a medium that allows for comprehensive manuscripts screening, aimed to eliminate plagiarism and provide a high standard and quality peer-review process.

Jacek Pietraszek, Cracow University of Technology, Poland

Managing Editor
Tomasz Kapecki, Cracow University of Technology, Poland

Editorial Advisory Board
Prof. PhD. Jan Błachut – University of Liverpool (Great Britain)
Prof. PhD. Eng. Tadeusz Burczyński – Silesian University of Technology (Poland)
Prof. PhD. Leszek Demkowicz – The University of Texas at Austin (USA)
Prof. PhD. Joseph El Hayek – University of Applied Sciences (Western Switzerland)
Prof. PhD. Zbigniew Florjańczyk – Warsaw University of Technology (Poland)
Prof. PhD. Eng. Józef Gawlik – Cracow University of Technology (Poland)
Prof. PhD. Eng. Marian Giżejowski – Warsaw University of Technology (Poland)
Prof. PhD. Eng. Arch. Sławomir Gzell – Warsaw University of Technology (Poland)
Prof. PhD. Allan N. Hayhurst – University of Cambridge (Great Britain)
Prof. PhD. Eng. Maria Kusnierova – Slovak Academy of Sciences/Slovenská Akadémia Vied (Slovakia)
Prof. PhD. Eng. Krzysztof Magnucki– Poznan University of Technology (Poland)
Prof. PhD. Eng. Herbert Mang, dr h.c. - Vienna University of Technology (Austria)
Prof. PhD. Arthur E. McGarity – Swarthmore College (USA)
Prof. Ivor Samuels - University of Birmingham, UK
Prof. PhD. Eng. Günter Wozny – Technical University in Berlin/Technische Universität Berlin (Germany)
Prof. PhD. Eng. Roman Zarzycki – Lodz University of Technology (Poland)

Dariusz Borkowski, Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Mateusz Gyurkovich, Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Radomir Jasiński, Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Stanisław Kuciel, Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Stanisław Młynarski, Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Paweł Pławiak, Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej Winnicki, Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Michał Zielina, Cracow University of Technology, Poland

Language Editors
Timothy Churcher, Big Picture, United Kindgdom
Mairead Coyle, Ireland
Robin Gill, United Kingdom

Technical Editors
Dorota Sapek, Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Aleksandra Urzędowska, Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Małgorzata Sikora, Cracow University of Technology, Poland

De Gruyter Poland
Bogumiła Zuga 32A Str.
01-811 Warsaw, Poland

Technical Transactions is covered by the following services:

  • Baidu Scholar
  • BazTech
  • Bibliografia Geografii Polskiej
  • CNKI Scholar (China National Knowledge Infrastructure)
  • CNPIEC - cnpLINKer
  • Dimensions
  • ExLibris
  • Google Scholar
  • Index Copernicus
  • J-Gate
  • JournalTOCs
  • KESLI-NDSL (Korean National Discovery for Science Leaders)
  • MyScienceWork
  • Naver Academic
  • Naviga (Softweco)
  • ReadCube
  • Semantic Scholar
  • TDOne (TDNet)
  • Ulrich's Periodicals Directory/ulrichsweb
  • WanFang Data
  • WorldCat (OCLC)
  • X-MOL

Instructions for Authors


Open Access Statement

The journal is an Open Access journal that allows a free unlimited access to all its contents without any restrictions upon publication to all users.

Before submitting the article to the Technical Transactions, you must download the Statement. After accepting the content of the statement, it should be printed, signed and sent a scan to the Editor (together with the article file). Only articles with a signed declaration will be subject to further processing. The signed Statement is also a consent to the publication of the article licensed under Creative Commons CC BY-SA 4.0 (Open Access). Articles should be sent in an electronic version (in Word files) to the Editors at the e-mail address:

We would like to inform you that about the fee of PLN 950 (250 euro) for each paper. You will receive an invoice for publishing an article after obtaining positive editorial reviews. Please save the text file in .rtf or .doc, or .docx. format. Please do not write papers in .pdf format.

On the first page of the article the following should be specified in the order:

  • the title of the article in English,
  • the abstract in English,
  • key words in English,
  • the annotation specifying the author’s/authors’ first name(s), surname(s), the name of the institute, faculty, university/institution (in English),author’s/authors’ ORCID number(s), corresponding e-mail address(es).

Please prepare the abstract in a way that it could be located on the first page (each abstract should have 600-1000 characters).

The introduction should provide a clear statement of the study, the relevant literature on the study subject and the proposed approach or solution.

It is recommended to put tables and figures within the text. Each table or figure should be titled and captioned. The title of the table should be written above the table.

Figures are other illustrations such as graphs, charts, maps, drawings, photographs etc. Export charts or graphs as image file (.JPG, .PNG, .TIFF). Every figure should have at least 300 dpi. Please give the information of source of the figure. If the source is own, it is possible to use a label “[own study]”. The figures and graphs should be placed within the text, not collected at the end of the document. In addition, please send all illustrations in separate files.

Please use abbreviation “Fig.” in describing the figures (e.g. Fig. 1) (not Il. or any other).

We are able to open and process files saved in the following programs: Adobe InDesign 6.0, Adobe Page Maker 6.5, Adobe Photoshop 7.0, Corel Draw 9.0, Adobe Illustrator 9.0, MS Word 2002 / XP


Please, do not send us graphic files downloaded from the Internet because the picture resolution of such files is very small (72 dpi), which makes it impossible to print them properly (the required resolution is 300 dpi).

Tables are numerical values or text displayed in rows and columns. Units of quantities are in round brackets. Please submit tables as editable text and not as images.

Please use full term “Table” in describing the tables (e.g. Table 1)

In numbers please use a decimal dot as decimal separator. English uses the comma to separate thousands and millions, e.g.:

  • 1,000 = one thousand
  • 1,000,563 = one million and five hundred and sixty three
  • 1,000.563 = one thousand point five six three
  • 1.25E+06 = 1,250,000
  • 1.25E-06 = 0.00000125

Italics should be used for:

  • letters symbolizing numbers, variable and constant quantities as well as geometrical points;
  • symbols for functions, e.g. f(x);
  • letter symbols and letter abbreviations appearing in subscripts and superscripts (with the exception of two- or three-letter abbreviations, e.g. ikr , Xwe , Xwy , formed from the first letters of one word);
  • symbol of the partial differential ∂, which can also be written in upright type.
Upright type (Roman type) should be used for:

  • Arabic and Roman letters, also in subscripts and superscripts, e.g. x1;
  • Greek letters, also in mathematical writing, e.g. α;
  • symbols and abbreviations of measuring units, e.g. m, g;
  • abbreviations consisting of two or more letters, e.g. Re (Reynold’s number);
  • constant symbols of functions, such as: ar, arc, arccos, arcosh, arcsin, arctg, arctgh, arg, arsinh, artgh, clg, const, cos, cosec, cosech, cosh, cov, ctg, ctgh, det, diag, div, exp, grad, Im, inf, lg, lim inf, lim sup, ln, log, max, min, mod, non, Re, rot, sec, sech, sgn, sin, sinh, sup, tg, tgh;
  • symbol of the differential d, it can also be written in italics;
  • special numbers: π and e (base of a natural logarithm);
  • probability P(A), expected value E(x), random variable variance D2(X), symbol of change (growth) Δ (delta).

Bold upright type is used to distinguish matrices (e.g. A, I, E), and bold italics are used for vectors.

The paper must contain conclusion. The conclusion should summarize the findings and explain the implications of the paper. Conclusion contains no new data or findings.

If needed, this section includes acknowledgment of people, grant details, funds, etc.

Within the text, references should be cited in APA format. Author’s name, year and possibly the page number in brackets (Nowak, 2012: 34–55). Additinal information, supplementary for text, can be provided in footnotes at the bottom of the page. Law files should be cited in text as (Dz.U. 2004 nr 229 poz. 2313).

In references data should be written in the language of the cited document. Please, do not translate Polish (or any other) publication titles in the bibliography into English – unless they are English or bilingual editions. We use the original entry in the bibliography. A reference that is not written in Latin script should be transliterated (e.g. Cyrillic) or transcript (e.g. Chinese characters).

Range of auto citations in references should be max. 25% including co-authors.

Each reference must end with a dot (except for web addresses or DOI numbers - there is no dot at the end). References should be given in alphabetic order.

Examples of citing common types documents:

  • Books (1-4 authors):

Matthews, J.R., Matthews, R. (2008). Successful Scientific Writing: A Step-by-Step Guide for the Biological and Medical Sciences. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Books (more than 4 authors):

Bobowski, K. et al. (2001). Potoczne teorie dotyczące emocji. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo XYZ.

  • A book chapter:

McKenzie, H., Boughton, M. (2008). Explaining the complexities and value of nursing practice and knowledge. In I. Morley, M. Crouch (Eds.), Knowledge as value: Illumination through critical prisms (pp. 209-224). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Rodopi.

  • A book with no author:

Leitch, M.G., & Rushton, C.J. (Eds.). (2019). A new companion to Malory. D.S. Brewer.

  • A journal article:

Li, S., Seale, C. (2007). Learning to do qualitative data analysis: An observational study of doctoral work. Qualitative Health Research, 17(10), 1442-1452.

  • Webpage with author:

Cain, K. (2012). The Negative effects of Facebook on communication. Social Media Today RSS. Retrieved from (date of access: 2020/01/15).

  • Webpage with no author:

$250m funding boost for malaria vaccine. (2003). Retrieved from (date of access: 2020/01/15).

  • Conference paper:

Muntin, A. (2014). FEM modeling and experimental research of through-thickness strain distribution during hot plate rolling. In METAL 2014: 23rd International Conference on Metallurgy and Materials (pp. 377–382). Ostrava: TANGER. Patents: Nowak, A. (2019b).

  • Patent:

Lamel modułu fotowoltaicznego. P.012345.

  • Law files:

Rozporządzenie Ministra Środowiska z dnia 21 lipca 2004 r. w sprawie obszarów specjalnej ochrony ptaków Natura 2000 (Dz.U. 2004 nr 229 poz. 2313).

If you want, you can add: tittle, abstract and keyword in your national language at the end of the paper.


  • scientific goal and contribution of the paper is not clearly defined in the introduction of the paper,
  • absence of citations of the tables and figures in the text with relevant commentary,
  • absence of the conclusion,
  • lack of sufficient number of citations to the current foreign literature, especially journals,
  • missing bibliographic references in the text,
  • wrong format of cited references and in endnotes.
Guidelines for Reviewers

Each articles is reviewed by two reviewers outside the author’s workplace, one affiliated to a foreign institution.

The review is in writing and concludes with an explicit statement whether the article is appropriate to be published in Technical Transactions or not. The reviewers’ names are not disclosed, the double-blind review process is used. The list of names of all reviewers is published in the last issue of Technical Transactions for that year (the layout is going to be changed).

Editorial Policy

Publication ethics and publication malpractice statement.

The following are the standards of expected ethical behavior for all parties involved in publishing in the Technical Transactions the author, the journal editor and editorial board, the peer reviewers and the publisher.

All the articles submitted for publication in Technical Transactions are peer reviewed for authenticity, ethical issues and usefulness.  


Monitoring the ethical standards: Editorial board is monitoring the ethical standards of scientific publications and takes all possible measures against any publication malpractices.  

Fair play: Submitted manuscripts are evaluated for their intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious beliefs, citizenship, or political ideology.

Publication decisions: The editor is responsible for deciding which of the submitted articles should or should not be published. The decision to accept or reject a paper for publication is based on its importance, originality, clarity, and its relevance to the scope of the journal.

Confidentiality: The editor and the members of the editorial board must ensure that all materials submitted to the journal remain confidential while under review. They must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the authors, reviewers, potential reviewers, othe editorial advisers, and the publisher.

Disclosure and conflict of interest: Unpublished materials disclosed in the submitted manuscript must not be used by the editor and the editorial board in their own research without written consent of authors. Editors always precludes business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards.

Maintain the integrity of the academic record: The editors will guard the integrity of the published academic record by issuing corrections and retractions when needed and pursuing suspected or alleged research and publication misconduct. Plagiarism and fraudulent data is not acceptable.

Editorial board always be willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions and apologies when needed.

Retractions of the articles: Journals editors will consider retracting a publication if:

  • they have a clear evidence that the findings are unreliable, either as a result of misconduct (e.g. data fabrication) or honest error (e.g. miscalculation or experimental error)
  • the findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper cross-referencing, permission or justification (cases of redundant publication)
  • it constitutes plagiarism or reports unethical research.

Notice of the retraction should be linked to the retracted article (by including the title and authors in the retraction heading), clearly identify the retracted article and state who is retracting the article. Retraction notices should always mention the reason(s) for retraction to distinguish honest error from misconduct.

Retracted articles will not be removed from printed copies of the journal nor from electronic archives but their retracted status will be indicated as clearly as possible.


Reporting standards: Authors of reports of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the paper. The paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. The fabrication of results and making of fraudulent or inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and may cause rejection or retraction of a manuscript or a published article.

Originality and plagiarism: Authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others they need to be cited or quoted. Plagiarism and fraudulent data is not acceptable.

Data access retention: Authors may be asked to provide the raw data for editorial review, should be prepared to provide public access to such data, and should be prepared to retain such data for a reasonable time after publication of their paper.

Multiple or concurrent publication: Authors should not in general publish a manuscript describing essentially th same research in more than one journal. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable.

Authorship of the manuscript: Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the report study. All those who have made contributions should be listed as co-authors.

The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors and no inappropriate co-authors are included in the paper, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.

Acknowledgement of sources: The proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given. The authors should cite publications that have been influential in determining the scope of the reported work.

Fundamental errors in published works: When the author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper.


Contribution to editorial decisions: Peer reviews assist the editor in making editorial decisions and may also help authors to improve their manuscript.

Promptness: Any selected referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its timely review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself/herself from the review process.

Confidentiality: All manuscript received for review must be treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except those authorized by the editor.

Standards of objectivity: Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inappropriate. Referees should express their views clearly with appropriate supporting arguments.

Acknowledgement of sources: Reviewers should identify the relevant published work that has not been cited by authors. Any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper should be reported to the editor.

Disclosure and conflict of Interest: Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should not consider evaluating manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relations with any of the authors, companies, or institutions involved in writing a paper.

Détails du magazine
Accès libre
Première publication
20 May 2020
1 fois par an
Sujets du magazine
Architecture and Design, Architecture, Architects, Buildings, Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Mechanics, Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering, Materials Sciences, other