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Volume 16 (2015): Edition 4 (December 2015)

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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1407-6179
Première publication
20 Mar 2000
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 22 (2021): Edition 3 (June 2021)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1407-6179
Première publication
20 Mar 2000
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

10 Articles
Accès libre

Time and Space Discretization in the Digital Twin of the Airport Transport Network

Publié en ligne: 22 Jun 2021
Pages: 257 - 265

Résumé

Abstract

The paper describes the concept of a Digital Twin (DT) creation, which could be used as part of a centralized ground traffic control system in the airport’s apron area. The work is focused on the automatic control systems expected in the future, which will completely replace the ground traffic controllers that solve the centralized control’s tasks in our days. It is assumed that the developed DT can be used both at the stage of training the control system and at the stage of its use. A special feature of the proposed DT concept is the clearly formulated principles of the observed process’ time discretization and the space in which the movement of ground vehicles and aircraft occurs. The experimental verification of the developed concept was carried out using a special simulation model designed to generate data streams on the airport’s transport network’s traffic participants’ location.

Mots clés

  • airport
  • ground traffic
  • centralized control
  • digital twin
  • simulation
Accès libre

Analysis and Prediction of Vehicles Speed in Free-Flow Traffic

Publié en ligne: 22 Jun 2021
Pages: 266 - 277

Résumé

Abstract

Speed is a crucial factor in the frequency and severity of road accidents. Light and heavy vehicles speed in free-flow traffic at six locations on Poland’s national road network was analyzed. The results were used to formulate two models predicting the mean speed in free-flow traffic for both light and heavy vehicles. The first one is a multiple linear regression model, the second is based on an artificial neural network with a radial type of neuron function. A set of the following input parameters is used: average hourly traffic, the percentage of vehicles in free-flow traffic, geometric parameters of the road section (lane and hard shoulder width), type of day and time (hour). The ANN model was found to be more effective for predicting the mean free-flow speed of vehicles. Assuming a 5% acceptable error of indication, the ANN model predicted the mean free-flow speed correctly in 84% of cases for light and 89% for heavy vehicles.

Mots clés

  • traffic
  • free-flow
  • speed
  • model
  • neural network
Accès libre

Trajectory Planning of Autonomous Vehicle in Freeway Driving

Publié en ligne: 22 Jun 2021
Pages: 278 - 286

Résumé

Abstract

This paper describes trajectory planning for an Autonomous Vehicle (AV) in the freeway path. Three types of driving modes are analyzed. First was free flow, this constitutes that moving at the desired speed is determined at the beginning of the movement. Second case was car following, when overtaking or lane-change was impossible, distance or speed adaptation is executed using the variable acceleration/deceleration strategy. Third case was lane change or overtaking. For lane change or overtaking paths, the 5th degree polynomial is used to create a curvilinear path to changes its path to the left lane and then returns to its default lane. The velocity and relative distances of cars are main factors for decision making. All proper driving decisions algorithm is introduced. According to autonomous car desired velocity, in the two driving cases (fast and slow desired velocity for AV) are studied by simulation and their results analyzed and compared with together.

Mots clés

  • Trajectory Planning
  • Autonomous Vehicle
  • Freeway
  • Overtaking
Accès libre

Travel Demand Estimation in Urban Road Networks as Inverse Traffic Assignment Problem

Publié en ligne: 22 Jun 2021
Pages: 287 - 300

Résumé

Abstract

Nowadays, traffic engineers employ a variety of intelligent tools for decision support in the field of transportation planning and management. However, not a one available tool is useful without precise travel demand information which is actually the key input data in simulation models used for traffic prediction in urban road areas. Thus, it is no wonder that the problem of estimation of travel demand values between intersections in a road network is a challenge of high urgency. The present paper is devoted to this urgent problem and investigates its properties from computational and mathematical perspectives. We rigorously define the travel demand estimation problem as directly inverse to traffic assignment in a form of a bi-level optimization program avoiding usage of any pre-given (a priori) information on trips. The computational study of the obtained optimization program demonstrates that generally it has no clear descent direction, while the mathematical study advances our understanding on rigor existence and uniqueness conditions of its solution. We prove that once a traffic engineer recognizes the travel demand locations, then their values in the road network can be found uniquely. On the contrary, we discover a non-continuous dependence between the travel demand locations and absolute difference of observed and modeled traffic values. Therefore, the results of the present paper reveal that the actual problem to be solved when dealing with travel demand estimation is the problem of recognition of travel demand locations. The obtained findings contribute in the theory of travel demand estimation and give fresh managerial insights for traffic engineers.

Mots clés

  • travel demand estimation
  • OD-matrix estimation
  • congestion
  • traffic assignment problem
  • primal and inverse problems
Accès libre

Modern Sediment Model of Traffic Flow

Publié en ligne: 22 Jun 2021
Pages: 301 - 311

Résumé

Abstract

The work deals with the mathematical modeling of traffic phenomena. The submitted model is based on a prospective analogy of some described phenomena with particle sedimentation. Both the qualitative analysis of the model and the numerical experiment is carried out. Qualitative results of the research have been compared with the known data of supervision of the traffic on city highways. As a result, the main control parameters which can use for optimal traffic management are highlighted and justified.

Mots clés

  • traffic flow
  • sediment model
  • traffic intensity
  • hysteresis
  • traffic jam
  • time delay
Accès libre

Mathematical Model of a Tonal Rail Chain without Insulating Joints with Current Receiver in Shunt Mode

Publié en ligne: 22 Jun 2021
Pages: 312 - 320

Résumé

Abstract

One of the drawbacks of the currently used tonal rail chains without insulating joints is that when the train approaches the controlled section, the train begins to shunt this section at some distance before entry on him. In connection with the traffic light moves on this distance. But being that this distance depends on many variables, it constantly changes these variables. For eliminate this drawback, instead of the traditional potential receiver it is proposed to use electric current track receiver, which has a clear boundary fixation entry of train on the controlled section. By now developed and used methods for determining the main analytical expressions for analysis and synthesis tonal rail circuits with potential receivers in various operating modes, and the theoretical issues of tonal rail chains with current receivers were practically not considered, in this connection, the article considers the development of mathematical models for determining the absolute shunt sensitivity of tonal rail chains without isolating joints with current receivers and methods for calculating determination of the critical location of the minimum shunt sensitivity.

The obtained expressions differ significantly from the known equations of absolute shunt sensitivity and the critical location of the minimum value of the shunt sensitivity and will allow to spend analyzing, synthesis and design of tonal rail chains without isolating joints with current receivers, that will allow to increase the safety of train traffic.

Mots clés

  • tonal rail chain without isolating joints
  • potential receiver
  • current receiver
  • equivalent scheme
  • shunt sensitivity
Accès libre

Data Sources Analysis for Sustainable Trip Planner Development for Riga City

Publié en ligne: 22 Jun 2021
Pages: 321 - 331

Résumé

Abstract

In today’s daily traveller world, not only the time and money became important, but climate change and pandemic raised the importance of safety and sustainability of future trip plans. In order to provide such a wide coverage for a variety of important information, a sustainable trip planner needs to receive a lot of data from a variety of differentiated data sources. Provided review of related works shows that a lot of started activities in this aspects gives all of us promises and hope that available Big Data sources will be wisely used in order to bring added value not only to individual travellers, but also society, the transportation services will become better structured and information will be easily available for smart and safe decision making, that gradually will increase life quality.

The study’s main goal is analysis of open data sources for the trip planner development. Authors analysed availability of data for Riga transport system and data usage for sustainable trip planner.

Mots clés

  • mobility
  • trip planner
  • individual preferences
  • open data
  • regulations
Accès libre

A Digital or Sustainable Small and Medium-Sized Port? Sustainable Port Blueprint in the Baltic Sea Region Based on Port Benchmarking

Publié en ligne: 22 Jun 2021
Pages: 332 - 342

Résumé

Abstract

Small and medium-sized ports (SMSPs) in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) are caught in a dilemma of less financial support by the European funding programmes due to their peripheral position in the TEN-T Core Network. Most of the BSR ports belong to the TEN-T Comprehensive Network, which is rationally less important in the topical financial, infrastructural and policy discourses. Despite this, BSR ports are of a colossal importance for the regional economic development serving as gateways for the individual regions and drivers of socio-economic and environmental transition. In addition, ports are essential in pursuing new innovation avenues. The environmental targets published by the European Commission for maritime sector in 2030 and 2050 are applicable for SMSPs as well, creating further obstacles and future challenges on the one hand, but opening new horizons to grow and innovate on the other one. A successful environmental and digital transformation going hand in hand in SMSPs enable sustainable boost of sustainable development. Thus, as a first step, the assessment of sustainable readiness in SMSPs is incumbent in order to implement tailor-made solutions on individual basis, by ensuring efficient usage of available resources and capabilities. In line with the Connect2SmallPorts project, part-financed by the INTERREG South Baltic Programme, 38 SMSPs in the BSR were approached to mapping their digital readiness according to the methodology of the Digital Readiness Index for Ports (DRIP), published within the project in 2020. Building upon this, this paper introduces the idea of digital and environmental twinning to conclude on sustainable development potentials in SMSPs with an adaptation of the DRIP score. Hence, the research contributes to the sustainable port concept and illustrates the positioning of SMSPs in the progress of sustainable development.

Mots clés

  • Small and medium-sized ports
  • Baltic Sea Region
  • sustainable port
  • Digital benchmarking
  • sustainable development
Accès libre

Genetic Algorithm for the Pick-up and Delivery Problem with Time Window by Multi-Compartment Vehicles

Publié en ligne: 22 Jun 2021
Pages: 343 - 352

Résumé

Abstract

In this article we focus on multi-compartment vehicles that have to pick-up goods from suppliers and deliver them to various customers. Usually these goods cannot be transported by single-compartment vehicles due to the fact that some products are harmful to others: incompatibility between products. It is therefore a question of satisfying a set of customers while respecting the constraints linked to the capacity of each vehicle compartment, each type of product and ensuring that each supplier is visited before his customer. Our work consists firstly of mathematically modelling the problem described and secondly of solving it using methods due to its complexity. In this case we use the genetic algorithm to solve the pick-up and delivery problem of goods with a time window provided by multi-compartment vehicles. Our model allows to find a minimum distance and a minimum cost in the tour carried out by a reasonable number of vehicles.

Mots clés

  • Genetic Algorithm
  • Multi-Compartment Vehicles
  • PDPTW
Accès libre

The Method of Determining the Optimal Transmission Resources Distribution of ICT Networks Modelled by Graphs

Publié en ligne: 22 Jun 2021
Pages: 353 - 366

Résumé

Abstract

The paper discusses the method of improvement of transmission properties of ICT networks by setting the correct distribution of transmission resources in order that it is possible to increase the resulting global probability of supporting the calls generated in the nodes included in the network. The method uses some parts of the graph theory. A minimum length path searching algorithm was used which made it possible to calculate the volume of movement transferred by individual edges of the graph describing the network. The coefficient of the distribution of transmission resources was determined and used to calculate the value of the resources in reference to a particular link, both in the case of equal and diverse movement generated in individual network nodes. A piece of software was developed which uses the results of applying the above-mentioned algorithm to prepare the files describing the analyzed structures in order to carry out simulation tests. The views and analyses are illustrated by examples, and the resulting effects of the influence of the introduction of the method of dividing network resources into transmission properties of a network modelled by graphs are shown in the charts included.

Mots clés

  • telecommunication network
  • graph
  • simulation
10 Articles
Accès libre

Time and Space Discretization in the Digital Twin of the Airport Transport Network

Publié en ligne: 22 Jun 2021
Pages: 257 - 265

Résumé

Abstract

The paper describes the concept of a Digital Twin (DT) creation, which could be used as part of a centralized ground traffic control system in the airport’s apron area. The work is focused on the automatic control systems expected in the future, which will completely replace the ground traffic controllers that solve the centralized control’s tasks in our days. It is assumed that the developed DT can be used both at the stage of training the control system and at the stage of its use. A special feature of the proposed DT concept is the clearly formulated principles of the observed process’ time discretization and the space in which the movement of ground vehicles and aircraft occurs. The experimental verification of the developed concept was carried out using a special simulation model designed to generate data streams on the airport’s transport network’s traffic participants’ location.

Mots clés

  • airport
  • ground traffic
  • centralized control
  • digital twin
  • simulation
Accès libre

Analysis and Prediction of Vehicles Speed in Free-Flow Traffic

Publié en ligne: 22 Jun 2021
Pages: 266 - 277

Résumé

Abstract

Speed is a crucial factor in the frequency and severity of road accidents. Light and heavy vehicles speed in free-flow traffic at six locations on Poland’s national road network was analyzed. The results were used to formulate two models predicting the mean speed in free-flow traffic for both light and heavy vehicles. The first one is a multiple linear regression model, the second is based on an artificial neural network with a radial type of neuron function. A set of the following input parameters is used: average hourly traffic, the percentage of vehicles in free-flow traffic, geometric parameters of the road section (lane and hard shoulder width), type of day and time (hour). The ANN model was found to be more effective for predicting the mean free-flow speed of vehicles. Assuming a 5% acceptable error of indication, the ANN model predicted the mean free-flow speed correctly in 84% of cases for light and 89% for heavy vehicles.

Mots clés

  • traffic
  • free-flow
  • speed
  • model
  • neural network
Accès libre

Trajectory Planning of Autonomous Vehicle in Freeway Driving

Publié en ligne: 22 Jun 2021
Pages: 278 - 286

Résumé

Abstract

This paper describes trajectory planning for an Autonomous Vehicle (AV) in the freeway path. Three types of driving modes are analyzed. First was free flow, this constitutes that moving at the desired speed is determined at the beginning of the movement. Second case was car following, when overtaking or lane-change was impossible, distance or speed adaptation is executed using the variable acceleration/deceleration strategy. Third case was lane change or overtaking. For lane change or overtaking paths, the 5th degree polynomial is used to create a curvilinear path to changes its path to the left lane and then returns to its default lane. The velocity and relative distances of cars are main factors for decision making. All proper driving decisions algorithm is introduced. According to autonomous car desired velocity, in the two driving cases (fast and slow desired velocity for AV) are studied by simulation and their results analyzed and compared with together.

Mots clés

  • Trajectory Planning
  • Autonomous Vehicle
  • Freeway
  • Overtaking
Accès libre

Travel Demand Estimation in Urban Road Networks as Inverse Traffic Assignment Problem

Publié en ligne: 22 Jun 2021
Pages: 287 - 300

Résumé

Abstract

Nowadays, traffic engineers employ a variety of intelligent tools for decision support in the field of transportation planning and management. However, not a one available tool is useful without precise travel demand information which is actually the key input data in simulation models used for traffic prediction in urban road areas. Thus, it is no wonder that the problem of estimation of travel demand values between intersections in a road network is a challenge of high urgency. The present paper is devoted to this urgent problem and investigates its properties from computational and mathematical perspectives. We rigorously define the travel demand estimation problem as directly inverse to traffic assignment in a form of a bi-level optimization program avoiding usage of any pre-given (a priori) information on trips. The computational study of the obtained optimization program demonstrates that generally it has no clear descent direction, while the mathematical study advances our understanding on rigor existence and uniqueness conditions of its solution. We prove that once a traffic engineer recognizes the travel demand locations, then their values in the road network can be found uniquely. On the contrary, we discover a non-continuous dependence between the travel demand locations and absolute difference of observed and modeled traffic values. Therefore, the results of the present paper reveal that the actual problem to be solved when dealing with travel demand estimation is the problem of recognition of travel demand locations. The obtained findings contribute in the theory of travel demand estimation and give fresh managerial insights for traffic engineers.

Mots clés

  • travel demand estimation
  • OD-matrix estimation
  • congestion
  • traffic assignment problem
  • primal and inverse problems
Accès libre

Modern Sediment Model of Traffic Flow

Publié en ligne: 22 Jun 2021
Pages: 301 - 311

Résumé

Abstract

The work deals with the mathematical modeling of traffic phenomena. The submitted model is based on a prospective analogy of some described phenomena with particle sedimentation. Both the qualitative analysis of the model and the numerical experiment is carried out. Qualitative results of the research have been compared with the known data of supervision of the traffic on city highways. As a result, the main control parameters which can use for optimal traffic management are highlighted and justified.

Mots clés

  • traffic flow
  • sediment model
  • traffic intensity
  • hysteresis
  • traffic jam
  • time delay
Accès libre

Mathematical Model of a Tonal Rail Chain without Insulating Joints with Current Receiver in Shunt Mode

Publié en ligne: 22 Jun 2021
Pages: 312 - 320

Résumé

Abstract

One of the drawbacks of the currently used tonal rail chains without insulating joints is that when the train approaches the controlled section, the train begins to shunt this section at some distance before entry on him. In connection with the traffic light moves on this distance. But being that this distance depends on many variables, it constantly changes these variables. For eliminate this drawback, instead of the traditional potential receiver it is proposed to use electric current track receiver, which has a clear boundary fixation entry of train on the controlled section. By now developed and used methods for determining the main analytical expressions for analysis and synthesis tonal rail circuits with potential receivers in various operating modes, and the theoretical issues of tonal rail chains with current receivers were practically not considered, in this connection, the article considers the development of mathematical models for determining the absolute shunt sensitivity of tonal rail chains without isolating joints with current receivers and methods for calculating determination of the critical location of the minimum shunt sensitivity.

The obtained expressions differ significantly from the known equations of absolute shunt sensitivity and the critical location of the minimum value of the shunt sensitivity and will allow to spend analyzing, synthesis and design of tonal rail chains without isolating joints with current receivers, that will allow to increase the safety of train traffic.

Mots clés

  • tonal rail chain without isolating joints
  • potential receiver
  • current receiver
  • equivalent scheme
  • shunt sensitivity
Accès libre

Data Sources Analysis for Sustainable Trip Planner Development for Riga City

Publié en ligne: 22 Jun 2021
Pages: 321 - 331

Résumé

Abstract

In today’s daily traveller world, not only the time and money became important, but climate change and pandemic raised the importance of safety and sustainability of future trip plans. In order to provide such a wide coverage for a variety of important information, a sustainable trip planner needs to receive a lot of data from a variety of differentiated data sources. Provided review of related works shows that a lot of started activities in this aspects gives all of us promises and hope that available Big Data sources will be wisely used in order to bring added value not only to individual travellers, but also society, the transportation services will become better structured and information will be easily available for smart and safe decision making, that gradually will increase life quality.

The study’s main goal is analysis of open data sources for the trip planner development. Authors analysed availability of data for Riga transport system and data usage for sustainable trip planner.

Mots clés

  • mobility
  • trip planner
  • individual preferences
  • open data
  • regulations
Accès libre

A Digital or Sustainable Small and Medium-Sized Port? Sustainable Port Blueprint in the Baltic Sea Region Based on Port Benchmarking

Publié en ligne: 22 Jun 2021
Pages: 332 - 342

Résumé

Abstract

Small and medium-sized ports (SMSPs) in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) are caught in a dilemma of less financial support by the European funding programmes due to their peripheral position in the TEN-T Core Network. Most of the BSR ports belong to the TEN-T Comprehensive Network, which is rationally less important in the topical financial, infrastructural and policy discourses. Despite this, BSR ports are of a colossal importance for the regional economic development serving as gateways for the individual regions and drivers of socio-economic and environmental transition. In addition, ports are essential in pursuing new innovation avenues. The environmental targets published by the European Commission for maritime sector in 2030 and 2050 are applicable for SMSPs as well, creating further obstacles and future challenges on the one hand, but opening new horizons to grow and innovate on the other one. A successful environmental and digital transformation going hand in hand in SMSPs enable sustainable boost of sustainable development. Thus, as a first step, the assessment of sustainable readiness in SMSPs is incumbent in order to implement tailor-made solutions on individual basis, by ensuring efficient usage of available resources and capabilities. In line with the Connect2SmallPorts project, part-financed by the INTERREG South Baltic Programme, 38 SMSPs in the BSR were approached to mapping their digital readiness according to the methodology of the Digital Readiness Index for Ports (DRIP), published within the project in 2020. Building upon this, this paper introduces the idea of digital and environmental twinning to conclude on sustainable development potentials in SMSPs with an adaptation of the DRIP score. Hence, the research contributes to the sustainable port concept and illustrates the positioning of SMSPs in the progress of sustainable development.

Mots clés

  • Small and medium-sized ports
  • Baltic Sea Region
  • sustainable port
  • Digital benchmarking
  • sustainable development
Accès libre

Genetic Algorithm for the Pick-up and Delivery Problem with Time Window by Multi-Compartment Vehicles

Publié en ligne: 22 Jun 2021
Pages: 343 - 352

Résumé

Abstract

In this article we focus on multi-compartment vehicles that have to pick-up goods from suppliers and deliver them to various customers. Usually these goods cannot be transported by single-compartment vehicles due to the fact that some products are harmful to others: incompatibility between products. It is therefore a question of satisfying a set of customers while respecting the constraints linked to the capacity of each vehicle compartment, each type of product and ensuring that each supplier is visited before his customer. Our work consists firstly of mathematically modelling the problem described and secondly of solving it using methods due to its complexity. In this case we use the genetic algorithm to solve the pick-up and delivery problem of goods with a time window provided by multi-compartment vehicles. Our model allows to find a minimum distance and a minimum cost in the tour carried out by a reasonable number of vehicles.

Mots clés

  • Genetic Algorithm
  • Multi-Compartment Vehicles
  • PDPTW
Accès libre

The Method of Determining the Optimal Transmission Resources Distribution of ICT Networks Modelled by Graphs

Publié en ligne: 22 Jun 2021
Pages: 353 - 366

Résumé

Abstract

The paper discusses the method of improvement of transmission properties of ICT networks by setting the correct distribution of transmission resources in order that it is possible to increase the resulting global probability of supporting the calls generated in the nodes included in the network. The method uses some parts of the graph theory. A minimum length path searching algorithm was used which made it possible to calculate the volume of movement transferred by individual edges of the graph describing the network. The coefficient of the distribution of transmission resources was determined and used to calculate the value of the resources in reference to a particular link, both in the case of equal and diverse movement generated in individual network nodes. A piece of software was developed which uses the results of applying the above-mentioned algorithm to prepare the files describing the analyzed structures in order to carry out simulation tests. The views and analyses are illustrated by examples, and the resulting effects of the influence of the introduction of the method of dividing network resources into transmission properties of a network modelled by graphs are shown in the charts included.

Mots clés

  • telecommunication network
  • graph
  • simulation

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