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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1338-3973
Première publication
23 May 2011
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 29 (2021): Edition 3 (September 2021)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1338-3973
Première publication
23 May 2011
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

6 Articles
access type Accès libre

A Simplified Matrix Analysis Approach to Multi Storey Buildings Involving a Friction Damper

Publié en ligne: 08 Oct 2021
Pages: 1 - 8

Résumé

Abstract

Damping through friction tends to be one of the most efficient methods to suppress damage to structures from earthquakes. Realizing robust structures is therefore highly dependent on designing for the dynamic forces of friction- damped structures and exploring their reliability against natural disasters. This paper presents a simplified matrix analysis algorithm for multi-storey friction- damped buildings. We have analyzed the behavior of friction- damped systems more accurately by modeling the master-slave degree of freedom of the joints. First, the formulation of the problem is discussed, and a condensed general equation is derived. Then, an end- to- end solution is proposed to find the responses of structures. The displacement response of each storey has been carried out in both condensed and non-condensed general equations, and the results clearly show the accuracy of the proposed method. The numerical analysis and the results of the simulation of various friction- damped structures depicts the proposed approach consists with the commercial finite element method and is applicable for the analysis various types of structures. It is noted that the acceleration and displacement responses of the structures investigated under the proposed method and the traditional finite element method are so consistent that only a 1.5% difference is observed. Moreover, as a result of the proper allocation of degrees of freedom during the analysis, this method yields a reduction in computational costs especially in large buildings.

Mots clés

  • Analyticalmodeling
  • Friction damper
  • Matrix analysis
  • Master-slave modeling
  • Multi degree of freedom
access type Accès libre

Identification of Damage on Stringers By the PSO Method

Publié en ligne: 08 Oct 2021
Pages: 9 - 14

Résumé

Abstract

The paper employs the particle swarm optimization (PSO) method for the identification of damage to a stringer web. This method is inspired by a swarm of bees or flock of birds which look for a common solution. It is a heuristic method, that utilizes a particle as a problem-solving candidate. The location of this particle in the search space represents the configuration of all the variables to possible solutions of the problem. As the particle moves into the solution space, the values of the variables change. The particle is defined by a position vector and a velocity vector. The resulting direction of the particle is determined by three components i.e. (1) the moment or inertia, (2) autobiographical or cognitive information and (3) social interaction. The quality of the particle is evaluated by a comparison function.

In this study we tried to locate damage by using this method. The damage is represented by a rusted area on a stringer web, which was simulated as a change in the Young’s modulus. We used the modal calculation of the eigenfrequencies as an evaluation function.

Mots clés

  • Particle swarm optimization
  • Identification of damage
  • Stringer
  • bridge
access type Accès libre

Modelling Pedestrian Crossing Behaviour at a Midblock Section

Publié en ligne: 08 Oct 2021
Pages: 15 - 21

Résumé

Abstract

In general, pedestrians want to cross a road at a mid-block section instead of intersections because it is the shortest route. According to an Indian scenario, most of the crosswalks in urban areas are not signalised and controlled. In this study, the crossing behaviour of pedestrians in terms of speed at a midblock section was studied by considering several parameters. Statistical tests such as ANOVA and Pearson correlation tests were performed in order to know the effect of parameters on the crossing speed of a pedestrian. The pedestrian’s age and gender, crossing type, pattern, time, number of stops, number of two wheelers, three wheelers, light and heavy commercial vehicles, and groups significantly affect their crossing speed. A multiple linear regression model was developed by considering the most significant parameters. The mean absolute percentage error, root mean square error, and R2 values were calculated to validate the models.

Mots clés

  • Age
  • Gender
  • Group
  • Luggage
  • Speed
  • ANOVA
access type Accès libre

Evaluation of an Asphalt Mixture Containing a High Content of Reclaimed Asphalt and Different Crumb Rubber Modified Binders

Publié en ligne: 08 Oct 2021
Pages: 22 - 30

Résumé

Abstract

Recently, environmental concerns have become a primary driving force in most countries and industries dealing with natural resources. As a part of this category, asphalt pavement industry is trying to implement more green and sustainable features in its products, while maintaining the mechanical and performance-based properties of the resulting asphalt mixtures. Among potential recycled materials, vehicle tires and aged asphalt pavement have been demonstrated to show economic, ecological, and behavioral improvements in the mixtures. However, mixtures with a high content of reclaimed asphalt (RA) and crumb rubber present some limitations. Therefore, using another group of additives, i.e., a warm mix asphalt (WMA) additive, has been considered. The presented paper investigates the use of an elevated content of RA with different crumb rubber modified binders and (in some mixtures) a warm mix additive in an asphalt concrete (AC) binder mix. Regular empirical tests have been conducted and more advanced performance or functional characteristics, i.e., stiffness, thermal induced cracking, resistance to permanent deformation, complex modulus have been determined and evaluated. Selected results are presented in the paper.

Mots clés

  • ReclaimedAsphalt
  • Crumb rubber modified binder
  • Crumb rubber
access type Accès libre

Measuring Control Delays at Signalized Intersections in Mixed Traffic Conditions

Publié en ligne: 08 Oct 2021
Pages: 31 - 40

Résumé

Abstract

Control delay is the key performance indicator of a signalized intersection that defines the level of service. Several models have been developed in previous research work for estimating control delays, but many of them were based on homogeneous traffic conditions. In the present study, an Open Street Map (OSM) tracker mobile application was used to measure control delays from the field. A non-linear model was developed in the present study for estimating control delays in mixed traffic conditions using a MATLAB fitting tool. The field delay is compared with the developed non-linear model delay along with the Indian Highway Capacity manual (INDO HCM) and Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) models. The control delay estimated using the model developed in the present study shows a close relation with the field delay obtained using an OSM tracker when compared to that obtained using the INDO HCM and HCM models. Therefore, the OSM tracker mobile application can be used as a field control delay measuring technique.

Mots clés

  • OSMtracker
  • Non-linear model
  • Control delay
  • Mixed traffic
access type Accès libre

Effect of Glazed Loggias on the Energy Efficiency of a T08b Prefabricated Dwelling – A Case Study

Publié en ligne: 08 Oct 2021
Pages: 41 - 50

Résumé

Abstract

The topic focuses on current solutions of interspaces in the renovation and modernization of residential buildings, the design of which is conditioned by the principles of sustainable development and construction. It concerns the integration of closed interspaces in renovated buildings from the 1950s to the 1980s. One example is the frequent glazing of loggias/balconies in original panel construction. The form of glazing of loggias and balconies is not regulated and is chosen by the apartment owners. For these reasons, the integration of interspaces in renovated buildings should be supported by research that will bring new insights about their effect on assessments of the energy performance of residential buildings and their effect on the architectural expression of facades. The paper compares alternatives for the integration of interspaces with an emphasis on the efferc of their orientation. The research should serve to help regulate the glazing of loggias in residential panel buildings.

Mots clés

  • Interspace
  • Sustainable architecture
  • Renovation
  • Residential buildings
  • Buffer zone
  • Construction panel systems
6 Articles
access type Accès libre

A Simplified Matrix Analysis Approach to Multi Storey Buildings Involving a Friction Damper

Publié en ligne: 08 Oct 2021
Pages: 1 - 8

Résumé

Abstract

Damping through friction tends to be one of the most efficient methods to suppress damage to structures from earthquakes. Realizing robust structures is therefore highly dependent on designing for the dynamic forces of friction- damped structures and exploring their reliability against natural disasters. This paper presents a simplified matrix analysis algorithm for multi-storey friction- damped buildings. We have analyzed the behavior of friction- damped systems more accurately by modeling the master-slave degree of freedom of the joints. First, the formulation of the problem is discussed, and a condensed general equation is derived. Then, an end- to- end solution is proposed to find the responses of structures. The displacement response of each storey has been carried out in both condensed and non-condensed general equations, and the results clearly show the accuracy of the proposed method. The numerical analysis and the results of the simulation of various friction- damped structures depicts the proposed approach consists with the commercial finite element method and is applicable for the analysis various types of structures. It is noted that the acceleration and displacement responses of the structures investigated under the proposed method and the traditional finite element method are so consistent that only a 1.5% difference is observed. Moreover, as a result of the proper allocation of degrees of freedom during the analysis, this method yields a reduction in computational costs especially in large buildings.

Mots clés

  • Analyticalmodeling
  • Friction damper
  • Matrix analysis
  • Master-slave modeling
  • Multi degree of freedom
access type Accès libre

Identification of Damage on Stringers By the PSO Method

Publié en ligne: 08 Oct 2021
Pages: 9 - 14

Résumé

Abstract

The paper employs the particle swarm optimization (PSO) method for the identification of damage to a stringer web. This method is inspired by a swarm of bees or flock of birds which look for a common solution. It is a heuristic method, that utilizes a particle as a problem-solving candidate. The location of this particle in the search space represents the configuration of all the variables to possible solutions of the problem. As the particle moves into the solution space, the values of the variables change. The particle is defined by a position vector and a velocity vector. The resulting direction of the particle is determined by three components i.e. (1) the moment or inertia, (2) autobiographical or cognitive information and (3) social interaction. The quality of the particle is evaluated by a comparison function.

In this study we tried to locate damage by using this method. The damage is represented by a rusted area on a stringer web, which was simulated as a change in the Young’s modulus. We used the modal calculation of the eigenfrequencies as an evaluation function.

Mots clés

  • Particle swarm optimization
  • Identification of damage
  • Stringer
  • bridge
access type Accès libre

Modelling Pedestrian Crossing Behaviour at a Midblock Section

Publié en ligne: 08 Oct 2021
Pages: 15 - 21

Résumé

Abstract

In general, pedestrians want to cross a road at a mid-block section instead of intersections because it is the shortest route. According to an Indian scenario, most of the crosswalks in urban areas are not signalised and controlled. In this study, the crossing behaviour of pedestrians in terms of speed at a midblock section was studied by considering several parameters. Statistical tests such as ANOVA and Pearson correlation tests were performed in order to know the effect of parameters on the crossing speed of a pedestrian. The pedestrian’s age and gender, crossing type, pattern, time, number of stops, number of two wheelers, three wheelers, light and heavy commercial vehicles, and groups significantly affect their crossing speed. A multiple linear regression model was developed by considering the most significant parameters. The mean absolute percentage error, root mean square error, and R2 values were calculated to validate the models.

Mots clés

  • Age
  • Gender
  • Group
  • Luggage
  • Speed
  • ANOVA
access type Accès libre

Evaluation of an Asphalt Mixture Containing a High Content of Reclaimed Asphalt and Different Crumb Rubber Modified Binders

Publié en ligne: 08 Oct 2021
Pages: 22 - 30

Résumé

Abstract

Recently, environmental concerns have become a primary driving force in most countries and industries dealing with natural resources. As a part of this category, asphalt pavement industry is trying to implement more green and sustainable features in its products, while maintaining the mechanical and performance-based properties of the resulting asphalt mixtures. Among potential recycled materials, vehicle tires and aged asphalt pavement have been demonstrated to show economic, ecological, and behavioral improvements in the mixtures. However, mixtures with a high content of reclaimed asphalt (RA) and crumb rubber present some limitations. Therefore, using another group of additives, i.e., a warm mix asphalt (WMA) additive, has been considered. The presented paper investigates the use of an elevated content of RA with different crumb rubber modified binders and (in some mixtures) a warm mix additive in an asphalt concrete (AC) binder mix. Regular empirical tests have been conducted and more advanced performance or functional characteristics, i.e., stiffness, thermal induced cracking, resistance to permanent deformation, complex modulus have been determined and evaluated. Selected results are presented in the paper.

Mots clés

  • ReclaimedAsphalt
  • Crumb rubber modified binder
  • Crumb rubber
access type Accès libre

Measuring Control Delays at Signalized Intersections in Mixed Traffic Conditions

Publié en ligne: 08 Oct 2021
Pages: 31 - 40

Résumé

Abstract

Control delay is the key performance indicator of a signalized intersection that defines the level of service. Several models have been developed in previous research work for estimating control delays, but many of them were based on homogeneous traffic conditions. In the present study, an Open Street Map (OSM) tracker mobile application was used to measure control delays from the field. A non-linear model was developed in the present study for estimating control delays in mixed traffic conditions using a MATLAB fitting tool. The field delay is compared with the developed non-linear model delay along with the Indian Highway Capacity manual (INDO HCM) and Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) models. The control delay estimated using the model developed in the present study shows a close relation with the field delay obtained using an OSM tracker when compared to that obtained using the INDO HCM and HCM models. Therefore, the OSM tracker mobile application can be used as a field control delay measuring technique.

Mots clés

  • OSMtracker
  • Non-linear model
  • Control delay
  • Mixed traffic
access type Accès libre

Effect of Glazed Loggias on the Energy Efficiency of a T08b Prefabricated Dwelling – A Case Study

Publié en ligne: 08 Oct 2021
Pages: 41 - 50

Résumé

Abstract

The topic focuses on current solutions of interspaces in the renovation and modernization of residential buildings, the design of which is conditioned by the principles of sustainable development and construction. It concerns the integration of closed interspaces in renovated buildings from the 1950s to the 1980s. One example is the frequent glazing of loggias/balconies in original panel construction. The form of glazing of loggias and balconies is not regulated and is chosen by the apartment owners. For these reasons, the integration of interspaces in renovated buildings should be supported by research that will bring new insights about their effect on assessments of the energy performance of residential buildings and their effect on the architectural expression of facades. The paper compares alternatives for the integration of interspaces with an emphasis on the efferc of their orientation. The research should serve to help regulate the glazing of loggias in residential panel buildings.

Mots clés

  • Interspace
  • Sustainable architecture
  • Renovation
  • Residential buildings
  • Buffer zone
  • Construction panel systems

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