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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1338-0532
Première publication
03 Mar 2011
Période de publication
2 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 22 (2014): Edition 34 (June 2014)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1338-0532
Première publication
03 Mar 2011
Période de publication
2 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

8 Articles
Accès libre

Thermal Stress of Surface of Mold Cavities and Parting Line of Silicone Molds

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2014
Pages: 7 - 14

Résumé

Abstract

The paper is focused on the study of thermal stress of surface of mold cavities and parting line of silicone molds after pouring. The silicone mold White SD - THT was thermally stressed by pouring of ZnAl4Cu3 zinc alloy with pouring cycle 20, 30 and 40 seconds. The most thermally stressed part of surface at each pouring cycle is gating system and mold cavities. It could be further concluded that linear increase of the pouring cycle time leads to the exponential increasing of the maximum temperature of mold surface after its cooling. The elongated pouring cycle increases the temperature accumulated on the surface of cavities and the ability of silicone mold to conduct the heat on its surface decreases, because the low thermal conductivity of silicone molds enables the conduction of larger amount of heat into ambient environment.

Mots clés

  • silicone mold
  • thermal stress
  • spin casting
Accès libre

Study of Thermal Stress Influence on Dimensional Stability of Silicone Molds

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2014
Pages: 15 - 19

Résumé

Abstract

The paper is focused on the study of temperature influence on dimensional stability of silicone molds used for spin casting of the low melting points alloys. The silicone material denoted as TEKSIL Silicone-GP-S was used to produce samples during experiments. The samples were heated to temperatures in the range from 100 up to 250oC for 30 up to 120 min. Dimensional changes of the samples in the radial and axial directions aa well as their change of weight were evaluated. The results of experiments proved that thermal stress of silicone molds can influence the size and shape of mold cavities. These results can also explain the possible mechanism of degradation process of silicone molds under thermal stress.

Mots clés

  • silicone mold
  • thermal stress
  • dimensional stability
Accès libre

Silver Streaks on Surface of Injected Thermoplastic Parts

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2014
Pages: 21 - 27

Résumé

Abstract

Silver streaks on injected thermoplastic parts are the undesirable features, considered as a visual surface defect. If they appear, elimination of this technological problem can be very difficult, especially in case the cause of their occurrence is not actually known. In this study, the detailed analysis of silver streaks formation was carried out. At first, the defect was microscopically studied. Then, the several analyses were performed to find the cause of silver streaks formation. Finally, solutions to the problem and elimination and this kind of surface defect were suggested.

Mots clés

  • injection moulding
  • silver streaks
  • moisture in polymer granulates
  • air bubbles
Accès libre

Dynamic Education as a Modern Education System of University

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2014
Pages: 29 - 34

Résumé

Abstract

The contribution discusses the issue of modern education system of university. This method of education was designed within the KEGA project. Implementation of on-line classroom for dynamic education of the secondary technical school and university students focused on the design and manufacturing of freeform surfaces. The main objective of this teaching method of is improving the parent faculty cooperation with training centres and increasing the interest of secondary school students in the university studies of technical orientation.

Mots clés

  • dynamic education
  • on -line classroom
  • CAD/CAM
  • machining
Accès libre

Electron Beam Welding of Gear Wheels by Splitted Beam

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2014
Pages: 35 - 41

Résumé

Abstract

This contribution deals with the issue of electron beam welding of high-accurate gear wheels composed of a spur gearing and fluted shaft joined with a face weld for automotive industry. Both parts made of the high-strength low-alloy steel are welded in the condition after final machining and heat treatment, performed by case hardening, whereas it is required that the run-out in the critical point of weldment after welding, i. e. after the final operation, would be 0.04 mm max..

In case of common welding procedure, cracks were formed in the weld, initiated by spiking in the weld root. Crack formation was prevented by the use of an interlocking joint with a rounded recess and suitable welding parameters, eliminating crack initiation by spiking in the weld root.

Minimisation of the welding distortions was achieved by the application of tack welding with simultaneous splitting of one beam into two parts in the opposite sections of circumferential face weld attained on the principle of a new system of controlled deflection with digital scanning of the beam.

This welding procedure assured that the weldment temperature after welding would not be higher than 400 °C.

Thus, this procedure allowed achieving the final run-outs in the critical point of gearwheels within the maximum range up to 0.04 mm, which is acceptable for the given application.

Accurate optical measurements did not reveal any changes in the teeth dimensions.

Mots clés

  • electron beam welding
  • beam deflection system
Accès libre

Current Concept of Geometrical Accuracy

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2014
Pages: 43 - 49

Résumé

Abstract

Within the solving VEGA 1/0615/12 research project "Influence of 5-axis grinding parameters on the shank cutter´s geometric accuracy", the research team will measure and evaluate geometrical accuracy of the produced parts. They will use the contemporary measurement technology (for example the optical 3D scanners). During the past few years, significant changes have occurred in the field of geometrical accuracy. The objective of this contribution is to analyse the current standards in the field of geometric tolerance. It is necessary to bring an overview of the basic concepts and definitions in the field. It will prevent the use of outdated and invalidated terms and definitions in the field. The knowledge presented in the contribution will provide the new perspective of the measurement that will be evaluated according to the current standards.

Mots clés

  • geometric tolerance
  • form
  • orientation
  • location
  • run-out
Accès libre

Identification of Precipitates in Cr-Mn-N Based Steel After Thermal Exposures

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2014
Pages: 51 - 57

Résumé

Abstract

The paper deals with the identification of precipitates in the Cr-Mn-N steels after thermal exposure. The purpose of the study is to clarify the M2N precipitation by isothermal annealing at the temperatures of 750 and 900 °C with a holding time of 5, 10, 30 min, 1 hr. and 10 hrs. Microstructure of austenitic steel was characterised by the typical presence of annealing twins. Stepwise etching was observed at the holding time of 5 and 10 minutes, but at the holding time of 30 minutes, secondary particles were precipitated at the grain boundaries. Corrosion tests revealed that holding time significantly affected steel structure. M2N is the dominant precipitate, but the occurrence of σ-phase was occasionally observed especially at the interface of discontinuous precipitation and austenitic matrix. Slight increase of hardness at the grain boundaries was caused due to the precipitation of secondary phases during isothermal holding. The maximum hardness of 294 HV was measured on the sample isothermally annealed at 750 °C and holding for 10 hrs. The research provides theoretical basis for the heat affecting of steels, such as, for example, in welding.

Mots clés

  • stainless steel
  • precipitation
  • corrosion
  • corrosion resistance
Accès libre

Research of Interaction Between Zn Based Solders and Cu, Al Substrates

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2014
Pages: 59 - 65

Résumé

Abstract

The paper deals with the study of interaction between Cu, Al substrates (purity 5N) and ZnAl4, ZnAg6Al6 zinc solders for higher application temperatures. Soldering was performed with power ultrasound in the air without flux application at temperature 420 °C. Acting time of ultrasonic vibration was 3 s and ultrasound frequency was 40 kHz. Soldered joints were assessed by optical light microscopy and EDX microanalysis. Intermetallic layers (IM) CuZn4 and Cu5Zn8 were formed at the Cu/ZnAl4 boundary. The βZn-αAl mechanical mixture was formed at the Al/ZnAl4 boundary. AgZn3 and Cu5Zn8 IM layers were formed at the Cu/ZnAg6Al6 boundary, and mechanical mixture of βZn-αAl and AgZn3 intermetallic mixture were formed at the boundary Al/ZnAg6Al6.

Mots clés

  • zinc solders
  • ultrasonic soldering
  • copper
  • aluminium
  • higher application temperatures
8 Articles
Accès libre

Thermal Stress of Surface of Mold Cavities and Parting Line of Silicone Molds

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2014
Pages: 7 - 14

Résumé

Abstract

The paper is focused on the study of thermal stress of surface of mold cavities and parting line of silicone molds after pouring. The silicone mold White SD - THT was thermally stressed by pouring of ZnAl4Cu3 zinc alloy with pouring cycle 20, 30 and 40 seconds. The most thermally stressed part of surface at each pouring cycle is gating system and mold cavities. It could be further concluded that linear increase of the pouring cycle time leads to the exponential increasing of the maximum temperature of mold surface after its cooling. The elongated pouring cycle increases the temperature accumulated on the surface of cavities and the ability of silicone mold to conduct the heat on its surface decreases, because the low thermal conductivity of silicone molds enables the conduction of larger amount of heat into ambient environment.

Mots clés

  • silicone mold
  • thermal stress
  • spin casting
Accès libre

Study of Thermal Stress Influence on Dimensional Stability of Silicone Molds

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2014
Pages: 15 - 19

Résumé

Abstract

The paper is focused on the study of temperature influence on dimensional stability of silicone molds used for spin casting of the low melting points alloys. The silicone material denoted as TEKSIL Silicone-GP-S was used to produce samples during experiments. The samples were heated to temperatures in the range from 100 up to 250oC for 30 up to 120 min. Dimensional changes of the samples in the radial and axial directions aa well as their change of weight were evaluated. The results of experiments proved that thermal stress of silicone molds can influence the size and shape of mold cavities. These results can also explain the possible mechanism of degradation process of silicone molds under thermal stress.

Mots clés

  • silicone mold
  • thermal stress
  • dimensional stability
Accès libre

Silver Streaks on Surface of Injected Thermoplastic Parts

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2014
Pages: 21 - 27

Résumé

Abstract

Silver streaks on injected thermoplastic parts are the undesirable features, considered as a visual surface defect. If they appear, elimination of this technological problem can be very difficult, especially in case the cause of their occurrence is not actually known. In this study, the detailed analysis of silver streaks formation was carried out. At first, the defect was microscopically studied. Then, the several analyses were performed to find the cause of silver streaks formation. Finally, solutions to the problem and elimination and this kind of surface defect were suggested.

Mots clés

  • injection moulding
  • silver streaks
  • moisture in polymer granulates
  • air bubbles
Accès libre

Dynamic Education as a Modern Education System of University

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2014
Pages: 29 - 34

Résumé

Abstract

The contribution discusses the issue of modern education system of university. This method of education was designed within the KEGA project. Implementation of on-line classroom for dynamic education of the secondary technical school and university students focused on the design and manufacturing of freeform surfaces. The main objective of this teaching method of is improving the parent faculty cooperation with training centres and increasing the interest of secondary school students in the university studies of technical orientation.

Mots clés

  • dynamic education
  • on -line classroom
  • CAD/CAM
  • machining
Accès libre

Electron Beam Welding of Gear Wheels by Splitted Beam

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2014
Pages: 35 - 41

Résumé

Abstract

This contribution deals with the issue of electron beam welding of high-accurate gear wheels composed of a spur gearing and fluted shaft joined with a face weld for automotive industry. Both parts made of the high-strength low-alloy steel are welded in the condition after final machining and heat treatment, performed by case hardening, whereas it is required that the run-out in the critical point of weldment after welding, i. e. after the final operation, would be 0.04 mm max..

In case of common welding procedure, cracks were formed in the weld, initiated by spiking in the weld root. Crack formation was prevented by the use of an interlocking joint with a rounded recess and suitable welding parameters, eliminating crack initiation by spiking in the weld root.

Minimisation of the welding distortions was achieved by the application of tack welding with simultaneous splitting of one beam into two parts in the opposite sections of circumferential face weld attained on the principle of a new system of controlled deflection with digital scanning of the beam.

This welding procedure assured that the weldment temperature after welding would not be higher than 400 °C.

Thus, this procedure allowed achieving the final run-outs in the critical point of gearwheels within the maximum range up to 0.04 mm, which is acceptable for the given application.

Accurate optical measurements did not reveal any changes in the teeth dimensions.

Mots clés

  • electron beam welding
  • beam deflection system
Accès libre

Current Concept of Geometrical Accuracy

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2014
Pages: 43 - 49

Résumé

Abstract

Within the solving VEGA 1/0615/12 research project "Influence of 5-axis grinding parameters on the shank cutter´s geometric accuracy", the research team will measure and evaluate geometrical accuracy of the produced parts. They will use the contemporary measurement technology (for example the optical 3D scanners). During the past few years, significant changes have occurred in the field of geometrical accuracy. The objective of this contribution is to analyse the current standards in the field of geometric tolerance. It is necessary to bring an overview of the basic concepts and definitions in the field. It will prevent the use of outdated and invalidated terms and definitions in the field. The knowledge presented in the contribution will provide the new perspective of the measurement that will be evaluated according to the current standards.

Mots clés

  • geometric tolerance
  • form
  • orientation
  • location
  • run-out
Accès libre

Identification of Precipitates in Cr-Mn-N Based Steel After Thermal Exposures

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2014
Pages: 51 - 57

Résumé

Abstract

The paper deals with the identification of precipitates in the Cr-Mn-N steels after thermal exposure. The purpose of the study is to clarify the M2N precipitation by isothermal annealing at the temperatures of 750 and 900 °C with a holding time of 5, 10, 30 min, 1 hr. and 10 hrs. Microstructure of austenitic steel was characterised by the typical presence of annealing twins. Stepwise etching was observed at the holding time of 5 and 10 minutes, but at the holding time of 30 minutes, secondary particles were precipitated at the grain boundaries. Corrosion tests revealed that holding time significantly affected steel structure. M2N is the dominant precipitate, but the occurrence of σ-phase was occasionally observed especially at the interface of discontinuous precipitation and austenitic matrix. Slight increase of hardness at the grain boundaries was caused due to the precipitation of secondary phases during isothermal holding. The maximum hardness of 294 HV was measured on the sample isothermally annealed at 750 °C and holding for 10 hrs. The research provides theoretical basis for the heat affecting of steels, such as, for example, in welding.

Mots clés

  • stainless steel
  • precipitation
  • corrosion
  • corrosion resistance
Accès libre

Research of Interaction Between Zn Based Solders and Cu, Al Substrates

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2014
Pages: 59 - 65

Résumé

Abstract

The paper deals with the study of interaction between Cu, Al substrates (purity 5N) and ZnAl4, ZnAg6Al6 zinc solders for higher application temperatures. Soldering was performed with power ultrasound in the air without flux application at temperature 420 °C. Acting time of ultrasonic vibration was 3 s and ultrasound frequency was 40 kHz. Soldered joints were assessed by optical light microscopy and EDX microanalysis. Intermetallic layers (IM) CuZn4 and Cu5Zn8 were formed at the Cu/ZnAl4 boundary. The βZn-αAl mechanical mixture was formed at the Al/ZnAl4 boundary. AgZn3 and Cu5Zn8 IM layers were formed at the Cu/ZnAg6Al6 boundary, and mechanical mixture of βZn-αAl and AgZn3 intermetallic mixture were formed at the boundary Al/ZnAg6Al6.

Mots clés

  • zinc solders
  • ultrasonic soldering
  • copper
  • aluminium
  • higher application temperatures

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