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Volume 68 (2019): Edition 3 (September 2019)

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Volume 65 (2018): Edition 4 (December 2018)

Volume 64 (2018): Edition 3 (September 2018)

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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2084-0535
Première publication
30 Mar 2015
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 68 (2019): Edition 3 (September 2019)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2084-0535
Première publication
30 Mar 2015
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

7 Articles
access type Accès libre

Modernisation of a Lift that Constitutes Part of the Breathing Simulator, Equipment Part 2

Publié en ligne: 10 Jan 2020
Pages: 7 - 32

Résumé

Abstract

This article is a continuation of the article published in issue No. 3 (64) 2018 of Polish Hyperbaric Research, which demonstrated the scope of changes which a typical car lift should be subjected to in order to extend its functionality to that of a hoist, that lifts the lid of the decompression chamber, in a breathing simulator used at the Department of Underwater Works Technology of the Naval Academy in Gdynia.

Mots clés

  • breathing simulators
  • equipment of breathing simulators
access type Accès libre

Phenomenological Variant of Quasi-Chemical Approximation in the Description of the Dimerisation of Adsorbate Molecules in a Multilayer Adsorption Phase on a Homogeneous Surface

Publié en ligne: 10 Jan 2020
Pages: 33 - 40

Résumé

Abstract

This article is related thematically to two of our earlier publications, which demonstrated full equivalence of statistical and phenomenological methods in the description of physical gas adsorption on the surface of a solid body, and the fundamental possibility of analytical solution of adsorbate-adsorbate association problems in the entire multi-layer adsorption phase. The quasi-chemical scheme of secondary interactions leading to the formation of horizontal multimolecular adsorption complexes has been elaborated. A new adsorption equation was formulated taking into account the dimerisation of adsorbed molecules in the whole adsorption phase, as well as the influence of topography of the binding sites of adsorbent surfaces on the form of this solution.

Mots clés

  • adsorption
  • surface homogeneity
  • adsorbate-adsorbate association
  • adsorption multiple layers
access type Accès libre

The Polish Implementation of Decompression Procedures in Underwater Deep-Sea Works Part I. Revolution of Personal Diving Computers

Publié en ligne: 10 Jan 2020
Pages: 41 - 58

Résumé

Abstract

In the article the author presents the specificity of deep diving decompression in relation to the revolution in diving which was triggered by the introduction of a personal computer in recreational diving. Continuous development of these computers, especially in the last decades of our century, concerned deep-sea technical and recreational dives. Deep-sea dives are difficult and risky in terms of underwater physiology and decompression. In characterizing the decompression of a diver, realized with the use of a computer for deep-sea dives, the author compares the realization of decompression in professional deep-sea dives. He also points out the formal and technical obstacles to the implementation of personal dive computers. In summary, the article evaluates the possibility of using the diving computer in the implementation of underwater works.

Mots clés

  • diving computer
  • application of diving computer diver’s decompression
  • deep underwater work
  • deep diving
  • professional diving
  • data deep diving
  • diving bell
  • breathing mixtures
  • decompression table
access type Accès libre

A Generalised Amnistic Model for the Development of Underwater Technology

Publié en ligne: 10 Jan 2020
Pages: 59 - 70

Résumé

Abstract

The material proposes a generalised model for the development of underwater technology, understood as a technical means of penetrating and exploring the depths of the oceans. The model was developed on the basis of the previously proposed bifurcation model. The basis and starting point for the development of the model was the analysis of literature. The proposed model indicates that regardless of which technical solution for underwater penetration was developed in the past, it will belong to one of the three defined developmental ‘streams’ of this technique. Since the proposed model has the characteristic of a flowing stream and is more general than the bifurcation model, its name has been proposed as a generalised amnistic developmental model of the underwater technique.

Mots clés

  • mechanical engineering
  • marine engineering
  • underwater works technology
access type Accès libre

Developing a Methodology for Testing and Preliminary Determination of the Presence of Legionella Spp. and Legionella Pneumophila in Environmental Water Samples by Immunomagnetic Separation Combined with Flow Cytometry

Publié en ligne: 10 Jan 2020
Pages: 71 - 92

Résumé

Abstract

In the event of an epidemic of Legionnaires’ disease, prompt and unambiguous identification of the source of infection and immediate undertaking of repair actions is a necessary condition to limit and minimise the effects of the developing epidemic. In the classical method for determining the level of Legionella bacteria in water samples, the effectiveness of the reparative action (increase of the water temperature in the water supply system to 600C, additional chlorination) can only be confirmed after 14 days!!! Only by using the IMMS&FCM method can Legionella’s determination time be reduced to 2-4 hours, which is the most important factor in limiting the development of an epidemic.

Mots clés

  • Legionella spp.
  • Legionnaires’ Disease
  • immunomagnetic separation
  • flow cytometry
  • hot water distribution systems
  • public utility buildings
  • ships
access type Accès libre

Habitable Underwater Hyperbaric Facilities: Respiratory Balance in the Human Organism During Adapting to Saturation Nitrogen-Oxygen Hyperbaria

Publié en ligne: 10 Jan 2020
Pages: 93 - 118

Résumé

Abstract

There were evaluated responses of the respiratory system to changes in the variables of the external environment under increased pressure. To the model of professional underwater human activity underwater served the conditions of full saturation in compressed air or nitrogen-oxygen gas mixtures. Technical devices were presented by a number of underwater laboratories, mounted at the bottom (Ikhtiander-66, 67 and 68), hyperbaric chambers, submersible drilling rigs (Bur-1 and 2), and an autonomous diving Ikhtiander-2 for a long stay in the water.

Studies of respiratory gases mass transport conditions in man showed than within the pressure range of 0.25-1.1 MPa at density of moderate hyperoxic and nitrogen-helio-oxygen environment up to 14 kg/m3 oxygen and carbon dioxide regimes of the organism come to a new functional level which provides the adaptation to the extremal conditions. It is determined that an increase of physiological dead breathing space, a decrease of the rate of the O2 diffusion through the alveole-capillary barrier, intensification of unevenness of ventilator-perfusional relations in lungs and an increase of blood shunting in lungs are the main respiratory mechanisms which regulate mass transfer of O2 and CO2 in man under hyperbaria. The leading hemodynamic mechanism is the retention of volume blood circulation and cardiac output. It is studied how the compression rate, high partial pressures of oxygen and nitrogen, microclimate parameters in inhabited hypebaric chambers influence changes of functional breathing system. Absence of hypoxic state is proved in man (full saturation of man with nitrogen) under normoxia in nitrogen-oxygen environment with the density 6.34 kg/m3. These are also the data about accelerated rehabilitation of divers using the method of active adaptation o high altitudes. Basic directions in physiological studies of functional breathing system under increased pressure of gas and water environment are described.

Mots clés

  • underwater laboratory
  • Ikhtiander
  • hyperbaria
  • aquanaut
  • respiratory gases transport
  • saturation diving
  • oxygen and carbon dioxide regimes of the organism
  • autonomous diving suit
  • submersible drilling rigs
access type Accès libre

Analysis of Species Characteristics of Laboratory Animals in Reaction to Hyperbaric Environmental Conditions

Publié en ligne: 10 Jan 2020
Pages: 119 - 138

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this work is to determine the dynamics of nitrogen saturation in small laboratory animals. Nitrogen was chosen as a model gas in this study because of its availability and characteristics, as it is not metabolised and is subject to passive diffusion. By subjecting different species of animals to hyperbaric exposures of increasing time and pressure, the study aimed to identify how rapid a decompression was possible to achieve an outcome that saw 50% of the animals surviving the ensuing acute decompression sickness.

The basic parameters of hyperbaric exposure - pressure and time - made it possible to describe the saturation phenomena on the basis of partial saturation periods and to show whether a small animal organism can be considered as a single compartment model.

Mots clés

  • decompression sickness
  • small laboratory animals
  • survival rate of 50%
  • species specificity
7 Articles
access type Accès libre

Modernisation of a Lift that Constitutes Part of the Breathing Simulator, Equipment Part 2

Publié en ligne: 10 Jan 2020
Pages: 7 - 32

Résumé

Abstract

This article is a continuation of the article published in issue No. 3 (64) 2018 of Polish Hyperbaric Research, which demonstrated the scope of changes which a typical car lift should be subjected to in order to extend its functionality to that of a hoist, that lifts the lid of the decompression chamber, in a breathing simulator used at the Department of Underwater Works Technology of the Naval Academy in Gdynia.

Mots clés

  • breathing simulators
  • equipment of breathing simulators
access type Accès libre

Phenomenological Variant of Quasi-Chemical Approximation in the Description of the Dimerisation of Adsorbate Molecules in a Multilayer Adsorption Phase on a Homogeneous Surface

Publié en ligne: 10 Jan 2020
Pages: 33 - 40

Résumé

Abstract

This article is related thematically to two of our earlier publications, which demonstrated full equivalence of statistical and phenomenological methods in the description of physical gas adsorption on the surface of a solid body, and the fundamental possibility of analytical solution of adsorbate-adsorbate association problems in the entire multi-layer adsorption phase. The quasi-chemical scheme of secondary interactions leading to the formation of horizontal multimolecular adsorption complexes has been elaborated. A new adsorption equation was formulated taking into account the dimerisation of adsorbed molecules in the whole adsorption phase, as well as the influence of topography of the binding sites of adsorbent surfaces on the form of this solution.

Mots clés

  • adsorption
  • surface homogeneity
  • adsorbate-adsorbate association
  • adsorption multiple layers
access type Accès libre

The Polish Implementation of Decompression Procedures in Underwater Deep-Sea Works Part I. Revolution of Personal Diving Computers

Publié en ligne: 10 Jan 2020
Pages: 41 - 58

Résumé

Abstract

In the article the author presents the specificity of deep diving decompression in relation to the revolution in diving which was triggered by the introduction of a personal computer in recreational diving. Continuous development of these computers, especially in the last decades of our century, concerned deep-sea technical and recreational dives. Deep-sea dives are difficult and risky in terms of underwater physiology and decompression. In characterizing the decompression of a diver, realized with the use of a computer for deep-sea dives, the author compares the realization of decompression in professional deep-sea dives. He also points out the formal and technical obstacles to the implementation of personal dive computers. In summary, the article evaluates the possibility of using the diving computer in the implementation of underwater works.

Mots clés

  • diving computer
  • application of diving computer diver’s decompression
  • deep underwater work
  • deep diving
  • professional diving
  • data deep diving
  • diving bell
  • breathing mixtures
  • decompression table
access type Accès libre

A Generalised Amnistic Model for the Development of Underwater Technology

Publié en ligne: 10 Jan 2020
Pages: 59 - 70

Résumé

Abstract

The material proposes a generalised model for the development of underwater technology, understood as a technical means of penetrating and exploring the depths of the oceans. The model was developed on the basis of the previously proposed bifurcation model. The basis and starting point for the development of the model was the analysis of literature. The proposed model indicates that regardless of which technical solution for underwater penetration was developed in the past, it will belong to one of the three defined developmental ‘streams’ of this technique. Since the proposed model has the characteristic of a flowing stream and is more general than the bifurcation model, its name has been proposed as a generalised amnistic developmental model of the underwater technique.

Mots clés

  • mechanical engineering
  • marine engineering
  • underwater works technology
access type Accès libre

Developing a Methodology for Testing and Preliminary Determination of the Presence of Legionella Spp. and Legionella Pneumophila in Environmental Water Samples by Immunomagnetic Separation Combined with Flow Cytometry

Publié en ligne: 10 Jan 2020
Pages: 71 - 92

Résumé

Abstract

In the event of an epidemic of Legionnaires’ disease, prompt and unambiguous identification of the source of infection and immediate undertaking of repair actions is a necessary condition to limit and minimise the effects of the developing epidemic. In the classical method for determining the level of Legionella bacteria in water samples, the effectiveness of the reparative action (increase of the water temperature in the water supply system to 600C, additional chlorination) can only be confirmed after 14 days!!! Only by using the IMMS&FCM method can Legionella’s determination time be reduced to 2-4 hours, which is the most important factor in limiting the development of an epidemic.

Mots clés

  • Legionella spp.
  • Legionnaires’ Disease
  • immunomagnetic separation
  • flow cytometry
  • hot water distribution systems
  • public utility buildings
  • ships
access type Accès libre

Habitable Underwater Hyperbaric Facilities: Respiratory Balance in the Human Organism During Adapting to Saturation Nitrogen-Oxygen Hyperbaria

Publié en ligne: 10 Jan 2020
Pages: 93 - 118

Résumé

Abstract

There were evaluated responses of the respiratory system to changes in the variables of the external environment under increased pressure. To the model of professional underwater human activity underwater served the conditions of full saturation in compressed air or nitrogen-oxygen gas mixtures. Technical devices were presented by a number of underwater laboratories, mounted at the bottom (Ikhtiander-66, 67 and 68), hyperbaric chambers, submersible drilling rigs (Bur-1 and 2), and an autonomous diving Ikhtiander-2 for a long stay in the water.

Studies of respiratory gases mass transport conditions in man showed than within the pressure range of 0.25-1.1 MPa at density of moderate hyperoxic and nitrogen-helio-oxygen environment up to 14 kg/m3 oxygen and carbon dioxide regimes of the organism come to a new functional level which provides the adaptation to the extremal conditions. It is determined that an increase of physiological dead breathing space, a decrease of the rate of the O2 diffusion through the alveole-capillary barrier, intensification of unevenness of ventilator-perfusional relations in lungs and an increase of blood shunting in lungs are the main respiratory mechanisms which regulate mass transfer of O2 and CO2 in man under hyperbaria. The leading hemodynamic mechanism is the retention of volume blood circulation and cardiac output. It is studied how the compression rate, high partial pressures of oxygen and nitrogen, microclimate parameters in inhabited hypebaric chambers influence changes of functional breathing system. Absence of hypoxic state is proved in man (full saturation of man with nitrogen) under normoxia in nitrogen-oxygen environment with the density 6.34 kg/m3. These are also the data about accelerated rehabilitation of divers using the method of active adaptation o high altitudes. Basic directions in physiological studies of functional breathing system under increased pressure of gas and water environment are described.

Mots clés

  • underwater laboratory
  • Ikhtiander
  • hyperbaria
  • aquanaut
  • respiratory gases transport
  • saturation diving
  • oxygen and carbon dioxide regimes of the organism
  • autonomous diving suit
  • submersible drilling rigs
access type Accès libre

Analysis of Species Characteristics of Laboratory Animals in Reaction to Hyperbaric Environmental Conditions

Publié en ligne: 10 Jan 2020
Pages: 119 - 138

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this work is to determine the dynamics of nitrogen saturation in small laboratory animals. Nitrogen was chosen as a model gas in this study because of its availability and characteristics, as it is not metabolised and is subject to passive diffusion. By subjecting different species of animals to hyperbaric exposures of increasing time and pressure, the study aimed to identify how rapid a decompression was possible to achieve an outcome that saw 50% of the animals surviving the ensuing acute decompression sickness.

The basic parameters of hyperbaric exposure - pressure and time - made it possible to describe the saturation phenomena on the basis of partial saturation periods and to show whether a small animal organism can be considered as a single compartment model.

Mots clés

  • decompression sickness
  • small laboratory animals
  • survival rate of 50%
  • species specificity

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