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Volume 67 (2022): Edition 2 (June 2022)

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Volume 66 (2021): Edition 4 (December 2021)

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Volume 66 (2021): Edition 2 (June 2021)

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Volume 65 (2020): Edition 4 (December 2020)

Volume 65 (2020): Edition 3 (September 2020)

Volume 65 (2020): Edition 2 (June 2020)

Volume 65 (2020): Edition 1 (March 2020)

Volume 64 (2019): Edition 4 (December 2019)

Volume 64 (2019): Edition 3 (September 2019)

Volume 64 (2019): Edition 2 (June 2019)

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Volume 63 (2018): Edition 2 (June 2018)

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Volume 62 (2017): Edition 4 (December 2017)

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Volume 62 (2017): Edition 2 (June 2017)

Volume 62 (2017): Edition 1 (March 2017)

Volume 61 (2016): Edition 4 (December 2016)

Volume 61 (2016): Edition 3 (September 2016)

Volume 61 (2016): Edition 2 (June 2016)

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Volume 60 (2015): Edition 4 (December 2015)

Volume 60 (2015): Edition 3 (September 2015)

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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1508-5791
Première publication
25 Mar 2014
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 66 (2021): Edition 4 (December 2021)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1508-5791
Première publication
25 Mar 2014
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

18 Articles
Accès libre

The International Conference on Development and Applications of Nuclear Technologies, NUTECH-2020, Warsaw, Poland, 4–7 October 2020

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 113 - 114

Résumé

Accès libre

Studies on uranium recovery from a U-bearing Radoniów Dump

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 115 - 119

Résumé

Abstract

This work reports the possibility of uranium recovery from a post-mining uranium ore dump in Poland by a bioleaching method. The studies were conducted on the dump leaching model with the mass of 570 kg of uranium bearing mineral material from Radoniów pile and in the periodic bioreactor with a work volume of 80 dm3 and with mechanical mixing and aeration of the charge. The uranium concentration in the examined material was about 800 ppm. In this process, the consortium of microorganisms isolated from former mines was used. It was composed of the following microorganisms: Bacillius, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Thiobacillus, Halothiobacillus, Thiomonas, and Geothrix. The efficiency of the uranium bioleaching process was 98% in the reactor, and a yield of 70% was obtained in the dump leaching model. The post-leaching solution contained significant amounts of uranium ions that were separated in two stages: (1) by ion chromatography and then (2) by a two-step precipitation method. The resulting solution was a source of ammonium diuranate, the precursor of yellowcake (uranium oxides).

Mots clés

  • Ammonium diuranate precipitation
  • Bioleaching
  • Uranium
Accès libre

Critical comparison of INAA and ICP-MS applied in the characterization of purity of TRISO fuel and substrates to its production

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 121 - 126

Résumé

Abstract

The application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), both in solution and laser ablation (LA) mode, and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in the nuclear material analysis are presented in this paper. The possibility of each technique for the chemical characterization of substances used during TRISO fuel production and its advantages and limitations are discussed based on the obtained results of the analysis of real materials used in TRISO fuel production in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The paper also reports the application of INAA and LA-ICP-MS to the verification of the purity of the protective layers of pyrolytic carbon (PyC) and silicon carbide.

Mots clés

  • Chemical purity
  • Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
  • Instrumental neutron activation analysis
  • TRISO coated fuel
Accès libre

Preliminary computational and experimental design studies of the ISHTAR thermostatic rig for the high-temperature reactors materials irradiation

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 127 - 132

Résumé

Abstract

The Irradiation System for High-Temperature Reactors (ISHTAR) thermostatic rig will be used to irradiate advanced core material samples in conditions corresponding to those prevailing in the high-temperature reactors (HTRs): these conditions include a stable temperature extending up to 1000°C in the helium atmosphere. Computational and experimental studies concerning the design have been conducted, proving the possibility of these conditions’ fulfillment inside the rig while maintaining the safety limits for MARIA research reactor. The outcome is the thermostatic rig design that will be implemented in the MARIA reactor. Appropriate irradiation temperature will be achieved by a combination of electric heating with the control system, gamma heating, and a helium insulation gap with precisely designed thickness. The ISHTAR rig will be placed inside the vertical irradiation channel, which is located in the reactor pool. The device is being developed from scratch at the Nuclear Facilities Operation Department of the National Centre for Nuclear Research as a part of the GOSPOSTRATEG programme.

Mots clés

  • High-temperature reactor
  • HTR
  • Irradiation
  • Materials
  • Reactor MARIA
Accès libre

Numerical modelling of modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors with thorium fuel

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 133 - 138

Résumé

Abstract

The volumetric homogenization method for the simplified modelling of modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor core with thorium-uranium fuel is presented in the paper. The method significantly reduces the complexity of the 3D numerical model. Hence, the computation time associated with the time-consuming Monte Carlo modelling of neutron transport is considerably reduced. Example results comprise the time evolutions of the effective neutron multiplication factor and fissionable isotopes (233U, 235U, 239Pu, 241Pu) for a few configurations of the initial reactor core.

Mots clés

  • HTR
  • Homogenization
  • Thorium
  • Monte Carlo
Accès libre

Application of genetic algorithms in optimization of SFR nuclear reactor design

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 139 - 145

Résumé

Abstract

This work presents a demonstrational application of genetic algorithms (GAs) to solve sample optimization problems in the generation IV nuclear reactor core design. The new software was developed implementing novel GAs, and it was applied to show their capabilities by presenting an example solution of two selected problems to check whether GAs can be used successfully in reactor engineering as an optimization tool. The 3600 MWth oxide core, which was based on the OECD/NEA sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) benchmark, was used a reference design [1]. The first problem was the optimization of the fuel isotopic inventory in terms of minimizing the volume share of long-lived actinides, while maximizing the effective neutron multiplication factor. The second task was the optimization of the boron shield distribution around the reactor core to minimize the sodium void reactivity effect (SVRE). Neutron transport and fuel depletion simulations were performed using Monte Carlo neutron transport code SERPENT2. The simulation resulted in an optimized fuel mixture composition for the selected parameters, which demonstrates the functionality of the algorithm. The results show the efficiency and universality of GAs in multidimensional optimization problems in nuclear engineering.

Mots clés

  • Genetic algorithms
  • Nuclear reactor
  • Optimization
  • Sodium-cooled fast reactor
Accès libre

Optimization of the loading pattern of the PWR core using genetic algorithms and multi-purpose fitness function

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 147 - 151

Résumé

Abstract

The study demonstrates an application of genetic algorithms (GAs) in the optimization of the first core loading pattern. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) BEAVRS pressurized water reactor (PWR) model was applied with PARCS nodal-diffusion core simulator coupled with GA numerical tool to perform pattern selection. In principle, GAs have been successfully used in many nuclear engineering problems such as core geometry optimization and fuel configuration. In many cases, however, these analyses focused on optimizing only a single parameter, such as the effective neutron multiplication factor (keff), and often limited to the simplified core model. On the contrary, the GAs developed in this work are equipped with multiple-purpose fitness function (FF) and allow the optimization of more than one parameter at the same time, and these were applied to a realistic full-core problem. The main parameters of interest in this study were the total power peaking factor (PPF) and the length of the fuel cycle. The basic purpose of this study was to improve the economics by finding longer fuel cycle with more uniform power/flux distribution. Proper FFs were developed, tested, and implemented and their results were compared with the reference BEAVRS first fuel cycle. In the two analysed test scenarios, it was possible to extend the first fuel cycle while maintaining lower or similar PPF, in comparison with the BEAVRS core, but for the price of increased initial reactivity.

Mots clés

  • Genetic algorithms
  • Fuel loading
  • Loading optimization
  • PWR
  • Nuclear reactor technology
Accès libre

Sorption of selected radionuclides from liquid radioactive waste by sorbents of biological origin: The alkaline earth alginates

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 153 - 158

Résumé

Abstract

The sorption of 241Am3+, 85Sr2+ and 137Cs+ by calcium, strontium and barium alginates has been studied under different operation conditions. The most prominent adsorption was found in the pH range of 5–6 for all systems, even if the observed dependence on the acidity of the solution was small. The most favourable time for the adsorption process was found to be about 2 h for calcium alginate and 4 h for the other two sorbents.

Mots clés

  • Alginates
  • Biosorption
  • Radionuclides
  • Caesium
  • Strontium
  • Americium
Accès libre

Sub-cellular elemental imaging of human muscle tissues affected by neuromuscular diseases

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 159 - 164

Résumé

Abstract

Various types of neuromuscular diseases differ in symptoms, pathology, and clinical picture but one of their common elements is muscle weakness, which could lead to human motor activities impairment and in many cases to shortening of life span and even death due to respiratory failure. That is why it is very important to better understand the underlying causes of these diseases to be able to implement new methods of treatment more effectively. This paper presents the results of the elemental analysis of human muscular tissues affected by dystrophy and myopathy. For this purpose, the particle-induced X-ray emission method was used, which is perfectly suited for measuring light elements. The samples were analysed for differences in the elemental composition of Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Fe, Zn, and Br. The results were presented in the form of elemental concentration maps and a thorough statistical analysis of the obtained data using the advanced statistical methods.

Mots clés

  • Dystrophy
  • Elemental analysis
  • Myopathy
  • Neurodegenerative diseases
  • PIXE
Accès libre

Radiolytic synthesis of gold nanoparticles in HEMA-based hydrogels: Potentialities for imaging nanocomposites

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 165 - 177

Résumé

Abstract

This article reports on the radiolytic synthesis of nanocomposites containing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) within two types of hydrogels based on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA): (i) plain networks with various contents in ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), as a cross-linker and (ii) stimuli-responsive (SR) networks prepared from these monomers copolymerized with [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride (MADQUAT) to confer pH-switchable swelling. Hydrogels were prepared by photopolymerization with well-defined composition and a high degree of monomer conversion using two experimental procedures, as xerogels or in aqueous solution. Besides MADQUAT, acrylic acid (AA) or N-isopropylacrylamide have been tested as copolymers, yielding pHor temperature-sensitive hydrogels, respectively. Isothermal swelling in water was affected by monomer composition. Electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses up to 100 kGy of poly(HEMA) xerogels and water-swollen networks prepared with 0.5 wt% of EGDMA had a moderate impact on swelling characteristics and thermomechanical properties of the plain materials, whereas small amounts of extractables were formed. Poly(HEMA)-based nanocomposites containing AuNPs were successfully obtained by EB irradiation of samples swollen by aqueous solutions of Au(III). The effects of dose and cross-linking density on the formation of AuNPs were monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy. Irradiation at well-defined temperatures of the Au(III)-loaded SR hydrogels induced the formation of nanoparticles with size-dependent features, whereas the efficiency of Au(III) reduction at 10 kGy was not significantly affected by the network structure. EB-induced reduction of Au(III) in poly(HEMA) hydrogels using a lead mask to generate well-defined patterns yielded coloured and long-lasting images in the zones where the nanocomposite was formed.

Mots clés

  • Functional hydrogels
  • Gold nanoparticles
  • Nanocomposites
  • Network properties
  • Radiation-induced reactions
  • Stimuli-responsiveness
Accès libre

Radiation synthesis of poly(acrylic acid) nanogels for drug delivery applications – post-synthesis product colloidal stability

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 179 - 186

Résumé

Abstract

Synthesis of polymer nanogels (NGs) for biomedical applications is considered to be a very promising application in radiation engineering. Under high-dose pulse irradiation of dilute aqueous polymer solution, reactive species generated by water radiolysis can create multiple radicals on each macromolecule and consequently induce intramolecular cross-linking of polymer chains, resulting in NG formation. The obtained products are free from harmful monomers, initiators, and cross-linking agents, which makes them potentially applicable for drug delivery applications. One of the biggest challenges in handling and use of nanoparticles, however, is the colloidal stability, when aqueous suspensions are stored for prolonged periods. Therefore, development of the best protocols for the particular nanocarrier storage is key. To address this need, we have performed the prospective study in which we systematically assessed the influence of various processing and storage scenarios feasible in our lab, on the colloidal stability of the radiation-synthesized poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) NG particles in suspension. This allowed us to choose the optimal way of handling the product after its synthesis. We confirmed that none of the strategies we used and tested are substantially detrimental to our product. Filtration with 0.2-μm filters was proven sufficient for sample purification and prolonged storage in aqueous suspension did not exert a negative effect on the colloidal stability of particles suspension. We have also demonstrated that lyoprotectant-free lyophilization was suitable for our polymer nanoparticles. This is an important fact for further application of particles as nanocarriers for biologically active compounds such as targeting ligands or therapeutic moieties.

Mots clés

  • Colloidal stability
  • Freeze-drying
  • Lyophilization
  • Nanogels
  • Poly(acrylic acid)
  • Radiation synthesis
Accès libre

GC investigation of post-irradiation oxidation phenomena on polypropylene

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 187 - 192

Résumé

Abstract

The paper summarizes the results of research on gas products of polypropylene (PP) radiolysis. Particular attention was paid to the phenomena of post-radiation degradation of PP. The protective effect of selected aromatic compounds was investigated. The research was carried out both from the point of view of obtaining radiation-resistant PP varieties and the possibility of accelerating biodegradation phenomena, e.g., PP/cellulose composition. The phenomena of post-radiation chain oxidation of PP were investigated by gas chromatography (GC). The GC in the system used (packed column, thermal conductivity detector, argon – carrier gas) enables the determination of H2, O2, CO, and CH4 in one measurement. The samples were irradiated with electron beams (EBs) accelerated in accelerators: Elektronika 10/10 with a power of 10 kW and energy of 10 MeV and LAE 13/9 with a power of 9 kW and energy up to 13 MeV. In the tests, PP without stabilizing additives (obtained directly from the production line) and non-stabilized styrene were used. Radiolytic efficiency of hydrogen evolution allowed us to estimate the number of originally formed free radicals. The maintenance of the secondary oxidation processes was the loss of oxygen and the formation of oxidation products (CO, CH4). Attention is paid to the protective effect of aromatic compounds (polystyrene (PS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), anthracene, fluoranthene, acenaphthene, pyrene, naphthalene) both at the stage of hydrogen atom separation and the secondary oxidation process. The examples of post-radiation oxidation of PP irradiated in cryogenic conditions (–196°C) are presented. All used aromatic compounds showed a protective effect in PP radiolysis. We suppose that this phenomenon is responsible for the charge transfer along the polymer chain from the ionization spurs to the aromatic compound. The protective ranges of PS in PP radiolysis were estimated for the variously prepared PP/PS type compositions from 6 mers to 28 mers.

Mots clés

  • Gas chromatography
  • Polypropylene
  • Post-radiation oxidation
  • Protective effect
  • Radiolysis
Accès libre

Organic pollutant removal from marine diesel engine off-gases under electron beam and hybrid electron beam and wet scrubbing process

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 193 - 199

Résumé

Abstract

The removal of organic pollutants from ship emission was studied using two processes namely electron beam (EB) and hybrid EB with wet scrubbing process. A mobile accelerator unit was used to treat 4915 Nm3/h of flue gas emitted from a tugboat in Riga Shipyard. A volume of 3 m3 seawater containing 36.8 mM of NaClO2 oxidant was used as a wet scrubber solution. Organic pollutants, mainly volatile organic pollutants (VOCs), were collected at three different sampling points, before and after irradiation vessels, and after wet-scrubber unit, respectively. They were collected with glass sampling bottles, tedlar bags, Coconut Shell Charcoal (CSC) sorbents and XAD-2 sorbents. CH3OH and CH3OH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) were used to extract VOCs from CSC and XAD-2 sorbents, respectively. Syringe filters were used to obtain the solid-free extraction solutions. They were concentrated using a micro-extractor under continuously blowing high-purity Ar. A gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for analysis. The identified organic compounds were: aliphatic hydrocarbons (dodecane C12H26 to eicosane C20H42), aromatic hydrocarbon (toluene), esters (C3H7COOCH3, (C4H9OCO)2C6H4), nitro compounds (C3H5NO3, C4H7NO2) and acid (C7H15COOH). After 4.2 kGy EB irradiation, around 50–100% aliphatic hydrocarbons, 83% toluene and 7.5% (C4H9OCO)2C6H4 were removed from the off-gases, and after EB hybrid wet-scrubber process, most organic compounds including nitro compounds were removed. Only trace amount of toluene, hexadecane, octadecane and dibutyl phthalate were found to be present in the gas phase.

Mots clés

  • Electron beam
  • Marine diesel engine
  • Off-gases
  • Organic pollutants
  • VOC
  • Wet scrubber
Accès libre

Decomposition of diclofenac in sewage from municipal wastewater treatment plant using ionizing radiation

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 201 - 206

Résumé

Abstract

The decomposition of diclofenac (DCF) in sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant was investigated. It was found that adsorption of DCF on sludge is about 40%. Compared to previous studies, where the degradation yield in aqueous solution was 100%, in those experiments at the dose up to 5 kGy, only 50% of initial DCF concentration of 50 mg L−1 was decomposed in sediment and in solution over the sediment. The experiments were carried out using both gamma radiation and electron beam. It has been observed that DCF in the aqueous phase, above the sediment, was decomposed with the same efficiency using both gamma radiation and electron beam. Whereas for DCF in the sediment, a higher degradation efficiency was found when gamma radiation was applied. This is most likely due to the limited penetration depth of the electron beam into the sludge layer. It was shown that the applied peroxide addition (in a stoichiometric amount needed for complete mineralization of 50 mg L−1 DCF) did not cause increase in yield of DCF decomposition.

Mots clés

  • Diclofenac
  • Degradation efficiency
  • Electron beam
  • Gamma rays
  • Sewage sludge
Accès libre

Combination of methods of thermal and radiation treatment of sediments associated with PCBs – the Delor type

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 207 - 211

Résumé

Abstract

An efficient method of burning polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is often used to remove the environmental burden of PCBs. However, combustion produces toxic dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), so residents are increasingly rejecting this method. The heat treatment (HT) method does not burn PCBs but evaporates it from sediments. Even in this process, PCDD/Fs are formed to a lesser extent, which are destroyed by radiation processing (RP) following the HT. At the same time, the RP method degrades PCB congeners down to biphenyls, which decompose easily in the environment. A block assembly of a complex synergistic combination of equipment for methods of thermal (HT) and radiation (RP) destruction of PCBs in sediments is proposed. The efficacy of this complex was preliminarily determined at a level of 70-fold reduction in PCB concentration in sediments. To achieve a higher reduction factor in the concentration of PCBs, possible procedures for optimizing the settings of individual devices of this complex are presented.

Mots clés

  • Electron beam
  • Heat treatment
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls
  • Radiation degradation
Accès libre

Electron beam technology for biogas and biofertilizer generation at municipal resource recovery facilities

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 213 - 219

Résumé

Abstract

In the era of circular economies, municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are viewed as resource recovery facilities. At the very minimum, the targeted resources are water, biogas, and phosphorus. However, municipal wastewater streams (sludge and effluent) need to be adequately treated to eliminate the potential for the transmission of microbial pathogens including protozoa, bacteria, and viruses. This paper presents the results from a study demonstrating the use of electron beam technology for sludge hygenization and enhanced methane (biogas) production using municipal wastewater samples. Cogeneration of heat for fertilizer drying and granulation and electricity for powering the electron beam system are also demonstrated.

Mots clés

  • Biogas
  • Biofertilizer
  • Cogeneration
  • Electron beam
  • Ionizing radiation
  • Municipal wastewater plant sludge
  • Phosphorus
  • Resource recovery facility
  • Sludge hygenization
Accès libre

Effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological and nutritional properties of the freeze-dried berries

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 221 - 225

Résumé

Abstract

Lyophilization or freeze-drying is the technique of removing ice or other frozen solvents from a material through sublimation and the removal of bound water molecules through the process of desorption. Drying occurs in an absolute vacuum at temperatures from −40°C to −50°C. This technique is often used for the conservation of fruits, especially berries. During this process, the water changes from frozen to gaseous, with no thawing. Due to low temperatures and the high vacuum, most microorganisms are rendered inactive during the lyophilization process. However, if there is a necessity to destroy all microorganisms from treated food, subsequent irradiation with gamma rays is an appropriate method. This paper investigated the influence of different doses of gamma radiation on lyophilized berries’ microbiological characteristics. It was shown that the radiation dose of 7 kGy is sufficient to eliminate the total number of microorganisms (excluding molds) to the extent that the number falls below the permitted limit according t o the law on the microbiological safety of foodstuffs of the Republic of Serbia, and 5 kGy is enough for molds to be rendered inactive. It was also concluded that gamma irradiation does not affect the nutritional value of lyophilized berries.

Mots clés

  • Freeze-drying
  • Gamma irradiation
  • Lyophilization
  • Microbiological properties
  • Nutritional properties
Accès libre

Plasma technology to remove NOx from off-gases

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 227 - 231

Résumé

Abstract

Operation of marine diesel engines causes significant emission of sulphur and nitrogen oxides. It was noticed worldwide and the regulations concerning harmful emissions were introduced. There were several solutions elaborated; however, emission control for both SOx and NOx requires two distinctive processes realized in separated devices, which is problematic due to limited space on ship board and high overall costs. Therefore, the electron beam flue gas treatment (EBFGT) process was adopted to ensure the abatement of the problem of marine diesel off-gases. This novel solution combines two main processes: first the flue gas is irradiated with electron beam where NO and SO2 are oxidized; the second stage is wet scrubbing to remove both pollutants with high efficiency. Laboratory tests showed that this process could be effectively applied to remove SO2 and NOx from diesel engine off-gases. Different compositions of absorbing solution with three different oxidants (NaClO, NaClO2 and NaClO3) were tested. The highest NOx removal efficiency (>96%) was obtained when seawater-NaClO2-NaOH was used as scrubber solution at 10.9 kGy dose. The process was further tested in real maritime conditions at Riga shipyard, Latvia. More than 45% NOx was removed at a 5.5 kGy dose, corresponding to 4800 Nm3/h off-gases arising from ship emission. The operation of the plant was the first case of examination of the hybrid electron beam technology in real conditions. Taking into account the experiment conditions, good agreement was obtained with laboratory tests. The results obtained in Riga shipyard provided valuable information for the application of this technology for control of large cargo ship emission.

Mots clés

  • Electron beam
  • Flue gas treatment
  • Marine diesel engines
  • NO
  • SO
  • Ship emissions
18 Articles
Accès libre

The International Conference on Development and Applications of Nuclear Technologies, NUTECH-2020, Warsaw, Poland, 4–7 October 2020

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 113 - 114

Résumé

Accès libre

Studies on uranium recovery from a U-bearing Radoniów Dump

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 115 - 119

Résumé

Abstract

This work reports the possibility of uranium recovery from a post-mining uranium ore dump in Poland by a bioleaching method. The studies were conducted on the dump leaching model with the mass of 570 kg of uranium bearing mineral material from Radoniów pile and in the periodic bioreactor with a work volume of 80 dm3 and with mechanical mixing and aeration of the charge. The uranium concentration in the examined material was about 800 ppm. In this process, the consortium of microorganisms isolated from former mines was used. It was composed of the following microorganisms: Bacillius, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas, Thiobacillus, Halothiobacillus, Thiomonas, and Geothrix. The efficiency of the uranium bioleaching process was 98% in the reactor, and a yield of 70% was obtained in the dump leaching model. The post-leaching solution contained significant amounts of uranium ions that were separated in two stages: (1) by ion chromatography and then (2) by a two-step precipitation method. The resulting solution was a source of ammonium diuranate, the precursor of yellowcake (uranium oxides).

Mots clés

  • Ammonium diuranate precipitation
  • Bioleaching
  • Uranium
Accès libre

Critical comparison of INAA and ICP-MS applied in the characterization of purity of TRISO fuel and substrates to its production

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 121 - 126

Résumé

Abstract

The application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), both in solution and laser ablation (LA) mode, and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in the nuclear material analysis are presented in this paper. The possibility of each technique for the chemical characterization of substances used during TRISO fuel production and its advantages and limitations are discussed based on the obtained results of the analysis of real materials used in TRISO fuel production in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The paper also reports the application of INAA and LA-ICP-MS to the verification of the purity of the protective layers of pyrolytic carbon (PyC) and silicon carbide.

Mots clés

  • Chemical purity
  • Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
  • Instrumental neutron activation analysis
  • TRISO coated fuel
Accès libre

Preliminary computational and experimental design studies of the ISHTAR thermostatic rig for the high-temperature reactors materials irradiation

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 127 - 132

Résumé

Abstract

The Irradiation System for High-Temperature Reactors (ISHTAR) thermostatic rig will be used to irradiate advanced core material samples in conditions corresponding to those prevailing in the high-temperature reactors (HTRs): these conditions include a stable temperature extending up to 1000°C in the helium atmosphere. Computational and experimental studies concerning the design have been conducted, proving the possibility of these conditions’ fulfillment inside the rig while maintaining the safety limits for MARIA research reactor. The outcome is the thermostatic rig design that will be implemented in the MARIA reactor. Appropriate irradiation temperature will be achieved by a combination of electric heating with the control system, gamma heating, and a helium insulation gap with precisely designed thickness. The ISHTAR rig will be placed inside the vertical irradiation channel, which is located in the reactor pool. The device is being developed from scratch at the Nuclear Facilities Operation Department of the National Centre for Nuclear Research as a part of the GOSPOSTRATEG programme.

Mots clés

  • High-temperature reactor
  • HTR
  • Irradiation
  • Materials
  • Reactor MARIA
Accès libre

Numerical modelling of modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors with thorium fuel

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 133 - 138

Résumé

Abstract

The volumetric homogenization method for the simplified modelling of modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor core with thorium-uranium fuel is presented in the paper. The method significantly reduces the complexity of the 3D numerical model. Hence, the computation time associated with the time-consuming Monte Carlo modelling of neutron transport is considerably reduced. Example results comprise the time evolutions of the effective neutron multiplication factor and fissionable isotopes (233U, 235U, 239Pu, 241Pu) for a few configurations of the initial reactor core.

Mots clés

  • HTR
  • Homogenization
  • Thorium
  • Monte Carlo
Accès libre

Application of genetic algorithms in optimization of SFR nuclear reactor design

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 139 - 145

Résumé

Abstract

This work presents a demonstrational application of genetic algorithms (GAs) to solve sample optimization problems in the generation IV nuclear reactor core design. The new software was developed implementing novel GAs, and it was applied to show their capabilities by presenting an example solution of two selected problems to check whether GAs can be used successfully in reactor engineering as an optimization tool. The 3600 MWth oxide core, which was based on the OECD/NEA sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) benchmark, was used a reference design [1]. The first problem was the optimization of the fuel isotopic inventory in terms of minimizing the volume share of long-lived actinides, while maximizing the effective neutron multiplication factor. The second task was the optimization of the boron shield distribution around the reactor core to minimize the sodium void reactivity effect (SVRE). Neutron transport and fuel depletion simulations were performed using Monte Carlo neutron transport code SERPENT2. The simulation resulted in an optimized fuel mixture composition for the selected parameters, which demonstrates the functionality of the algorithm. The results show the efficiency and universality of GAs in multidimensional optimization problems in nuclear engineering.

Mots clés

  • Genetic algorithms
  • Nuclear reactor
  • Optimization
  • Sodium-cooled fast reactor
Accès libre

Optimization of the loading pattern of the PWR core using genetic algorithms and multi-purpose fitness function

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 147 - 151

Résumé

Abstract

The study demonstrates an application of genetic algorithms (GAs) in the optimization of the first core loading pattern. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) BEAVRS pressurized water reactor (PWR) model was applied with PARCS nodal-diffusion core simulator coupled with GA numerical tool to perform pattern selection. In principle, GAs have been successfully used in many nuclear engineering problems such as core geometry optimization and fuel configuration. In many cases, however, these analyses focused on optimizing only a single parameter, such as the effective neutron multiplication factor (keff), and often limited to the simplified core model. On the contrary, the GAs developed in this work are equipped with multiple-purpose fitness function (FF) and allow the optimization of more than one parameter at the same time, and these were applied to a realistic full-core problem. The main parameters of interest in this study were the total power peaking factor (PPF) and the length of the fuel cycle. The basic purpose of this study was to improve the economics by finding longer fuel cycle with more uniform power/flux distribution. Proper FFs were developed, tested, and implemented and their results were compared with the reference BEAVRS first fuel cycle. In the two analysed test scenarios, it was possible to extend the first fuel cycle while maintaining lower or similar PPF, in comparison with the BEAVRS core, but for the price of increased initial reactivity.

Mots clés

  • Genetic algorithms
  • Fuel loading
  • Loading optimization
  • PWR
  • Nuclear reactor technology
Accès libre

Sorption of selected radionuclides from liquid radioactive waste by sorbents of biological origin: The alkaline earth alginates

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 153 - 158

Résumé

Abstract

The sorption of 241Am3+, 85Sr2+ and 137Cs+ by calcium, strontium and barium alginates has been studied under different operation conditions. The most prominent adsorption was found in the pH range of 5–6 for all systems, even if the observed dependence on the acidity of the solution was small. The most favourable time for the adsorption process was found to be about 2 h for calcium alginate and 4 h for the other two sorbents.

Mots clés

  • Alginates
  • Biosorption
  • Radionuclides
  • Caesium
  • Strontium
  • Americium
Accès libre

Sub-cellular elemental imaging of human muscle tissues affected by neuromuscular diseases

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 159 - 164

Résumé

Abstract

Various types of neuromuscular diseases differ in symptoms, pathology, and clinical picture but one of their common elements is muscle weakness, which could lead to human motor activities impairment and in many cases to shortening of life span and even death due to respiratory failure. That is why it is very important to better understand the underlying causes of these diseases to be able to implement new methods of treatment more effectively. This paper presents the results of the elemental analysis of human muscular tissues affected by dystrophy and myopathy. For this purpose, the particle-induced X-ray emission method was used, which is perfectly suited for measuring light elements. The samples were analysed for differences in the elemental composition of Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Fe, Zn, and Br. The results were presented in the form of elemental concentration maps and a thorough statistical analysis of the obtained data using the advanced statistical methods.

Mots clés

  • Dystrophy
  • Elemental analysis
  • Myopathy
  • Neurodegenerative diseases
  • PIXE
Accès libre

Radiolytic synthesis of gold nanoparticles in HEMA-based hydrogels: Potentialities for imaging nanocomposites

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 165 - 177

Résumé

Abstract

This article reports on the radiolytic synthesis of nanocomposites containing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) within two types of hydrogels based on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA): (i) plain networks with various contents in ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), as a cross-linker and (ii) stimuli-responsive (SR) networks prepared from these monomers copolymerized with [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride (MADQUAT) to confer pH-switchable swelling. Hydrogels were prepared by photopolymerization with well-defined composition and a high degree of monomer conversion using two experimental procedures, as xerogels or in aqueous solution. Besides MADQUAT, acrylic acid (AA) or N-isopropylacrylamide have been tested as copolymers, yielding pHor temperature-sensitive hydrogels, respectively. Isothermal swelling in water was affected by monomer composition. Electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses up to 100 kGy of poly(HEMA) xerogels and water-swollen networks prepared with 0.5 wt% of EGDMA had a moderate impact on swelling characteristics and thermomechanical properties of the plain materials, whereas small amounts of extractables were formed. Poly(HEMA)-based nanocomposites containing AuNPs were successfully obtained by EB irradiation of samples swollen by aqueous solutions of Au(III). The effects of dose and cross-linking density on the formation of AuNPs were monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy. Irradiation at well-defined temperatures of the Au(III)-loaded SR hydrogels induced the formation of nanoparticles with size-dependent features, whereas the efficiency of Au(III) reduction at 10 kGy was not significantly affected by the network structure. EB-induced reduction of Au(III) in poly(HEMA) hydrogels using a lead mask to generate well-defined patterns yielded coloured and long-lasting images in the zones where the nanocomposite was formed.

Mots clés

  • Functional hydrogels
  • Gold nanoparticles
  • Nanocomposites
  • Network properties
  • Radiation-induced reactions
  • Stimuli-responsiveness
Accès libre

Radiation synthesis of poly(acrylic acid) nanogels for drug delivery applications – post-synthesis product colloidal stability

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 179 - 186

Résumé

Abstract

Synthesis of polymer nanogels (NGs) for biomedical applications is considered to be a very promising application in radiation engineering. Under high-dose pulse irradiation of dilute aqueous polymer solution, reactive species generated by water radiolysis can create multiple radicals on each macromolecule and consequently induce intramolecular cross-linking of polymer chains, resulting in NG formation. The obtained products are free from harmful monomers, initiators, and cross-linking agents, which makes them potentially applicable for drug delivery applications. One of the biggest challenges in handling and use of nanoparticles, however, is the colloidal stability, when aqueous suspensions are stored for prolonged periods. Therefore, development of the best protocols for the particular nanocarrier storage is key. To address this need, we have performed the prospective study in which we systematically assessed the influence of various processing and storage scenarios feasible in our lab, on the colloidal stability of the radiation-synthesized poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) NG particles in suspension. This allowed us to choose the optimal way of handling the product after its synthesis. We confirmed that none of the strategies we used and tested are substantially detrimental to our product. Filtration with 0.2-μm filters was proven sufficient for sample purification and prolonged storage in aqueous suspension did not exert a negative effect on the colloidal stability of particles suspension. We have also demonstrated that lyoprotectant-free lyophilization was suitable for our polymer nanoparticles. This is an important fact for further application of particles as nanocarriers for biologically active compounds such as targeting ligands or therapeutic moieties.

Mots clés

  • Colloidal stability
  • Freeze-drying
  • Lyophilization
  • Nanogels
  • Poly(acrylic acid)
  • Radiation synthesis
Accès libre

GC investigation of post-irradiation oxidation phenomena on polypropylene

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 187 - 192

Résumé

Abstract

The paper summarizes the results of research on gas products of polypropylene (PP) radiolysis. Particular attention was paid to the phenomena of post-radiation degradation of PP. The protective effect of selected aromatic compounds was investigated. The research was carried out both from the point of view of obtaining radiation-resistant PP varieties and the possibility of accelerating biodegradation phenomena, e.g., PP/cellulose composition. The phenomena of post-radiation chain oxidation of PP were investigated by gas chromatography (GC). The GC in the system used (packed column, thermal conductivity detector, argon – carrier gas) enables the determination of H2, O2, CO, and CH4 in one measurement. The samples were irradiated with electron beams (EBs) accelerated in accelerators: Elektronika 10/10 with a power of 10 kW and energy of 10 MeV and LAE 13/9 with a power of 9 kW and energy up to 13 MeV. In the tests, PP without stabilizing additives (obtained directly from the production line) and non-stabilized styrene were used. Radiolytic efficiency of hydrogen evolution allowed us to estimate the number of originally formed free radicals. The maintenance of the secondary oxidation processes was the loss of oxygen and the formation of oxidation products (CO, CH4). Attention is paid to the protective effect of aromatic compounds (polystyrene (PS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), anthracene, fluoranthene, acenaphthene, pyrene, naphthalene) both at the stage of hydrogen atom separation and the secondary oxidation process. The examples of post-radiation oxidation of PP irradiated in cryogenic conditions (–196°C) are presented. All used aromatic compounds showed a protective effect in PP radiolysis. We suppose that this phenomenon is responsible for the charge transfer along the polymer chain from the ionization spurs to the aromatic compound. The protective ranges of PS in PP radiolysis were estimated for the variously prepared PP/PS type compositions from 6 mers to 28 mers.

Mots clés

  • Gas chromatography
  • Polypropylene
  • Post-radiation oxidation
  • Protective effect
  • Radiolysis
Accès libre

Organic pollutant removal from marine diesel engine off-gases under electron beam and hybrid electron beam and wet scrubbing process

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 193 - 199

Résumé

Abstract

The removal of organic pollutants from ship emission was studied using two processes namely electron beam (EB) and hybrid EB with wet scrubbing process. A mobile accelerator unit was used to treat 4915 Nm3/h of flue gas emitted from a tugboat in Riga Shipyard. A volume of 3 m3 seawater containing 36.8 mM of NaClO2 oxidant was used as a wet scrubber solution. Organic pollutants, mainly volatile organic pollutants (VOCs), were collected at three different sampling points, before and after irradiation vessels, and after wet-scrubber unit, respectively. They were collected with glass sampling bottles, tedlar bags, Coconut Shell Charcoal (CSC) sorbents and XAD-2 sorbents. CH3OH and CH3OH/CH2Cl2 (1:1) were used to extract VOCs from CSC and XAD-2 sorbents, respectively. Syringe filters were used to obtain the solid-free extraction solutions. They were concentrated using a micro-extractor under continuously blowing high-purity Ar. A gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for analysis. The identified organic compounds were: aliphatic hydrocarbons (dodecane C12H26 to eicosane C20H42), aromatic hydrocarbon (toluene), esters (C3H7COOCH3, (C4H9OCO)2C6H4), nitro compounds (C3H5NO3, C4H7NO2) and acid (C7H15COOH). After 4.2 kGy EB irradiation, around 50–100% aliphatic hydrocarbons, 83% toluene and 7.5% (C4H9OCO)2C6H4 were removed from the off-gases, and after EB hybrid wet-scrubber process, most organic compounds including nitro compounds were removed. Only trace amount of toluene, hexadecane, octadecane and dibutyl phthalate were found to be present in the gas phase.

Mots clés

  • Electron beam
  • Marine diesel engine
  • Off-gases
  • Organic pollutants
  • VOC
  • Wet scrubber
Accès libre

Decomposition of diclofenac in sewage from municipal wastewater treatment plant using ionizing radiation

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 201 - 206

Résumé

Abstract

The decomposition of diclofenac (DCF) in sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant was investigated. It was found that adsorption of DCF on sludge is about 40%. Compared to previous studies, where the degradation yield in aqueous solution was 100%, in those experiments at the dose up to 5 kGy, only 50% of initial DCF concentration of 50 mg L−1 was decomposed in sediment and in solution over the sediment. The experiments were carried out using both gamma radiation and electron beam. It has been observed that DCF in the aqueous phase, above the sediment, was decomposed with the same efficiency using both gamma radiation and electron beam. Whereas for DCF in the sediment, a higher degradation efficiency was found when gamma radiation was applied. This is most likely due to the limited penetration depth of the electron beam into the sludge layer. It was shown that the applied peroxide addition (in a stoichiometric amount needed for complete mineralization of 50 mg L−1 DCF) did not cause increase in yield of DCF decomposition.

Mots clés

  • Diclofenac
  • Degradation efficiency
  • Electron beam
  • Gamma rays
  • Sewage sludge
Accès libre

Combination of methods of thermal and radiation treatment of sediments associated with PCBs – the Delor type

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 207 - 211

Résumé

Abstract

An efficient method of burning polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is often used to remove the environmental burden of PCBs. However, combustion produces toxic dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), so residents are increasingly rejecting this method. The heat treatment (HT) method does not burn PCBs but evaporates it from sediments. Even in this process, PCDD/Fs are formed to a lesser extent, which are destroyed by radiation processing (RP) following the HT. At the same time, the RP method degrades PCB congeners down to biphenyls, which decompose easily in the environment. A block assembly of a complex synergistic combination of equipment for methods of thermal (HT) and radiation (RP) destruction of PCBs in sediments is proposed. The efficacy of this complex was preliminarily determined at a level of 70-fold reduction in PCB concentration in sediments. To achieve a higher reduction factor in the concentration of PCBs, possible procedures for optimizing the settings of individual devices of this complex are presented.

Mots clés

  • Electron beam
  • Heat treatment
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls
  • Radiation degradation
Accès libre

Electron beam technology for biogas and biofertilizer generation at municipal resource recovery facilities

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 213 - 219

Résumé

Abstract

In the era of circular economies, municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are viewed as resource recovery facilities. At the very minimum, the targeted resources are water, biogas, and phosphorus. However, municipal wastewater streams (sludge and effluent) need to be adequately treated to eliminate the potential for the transmission of microbial pathogens including protozoa, bacteria, and viruses. This paper presents the results from a study demonstrating the use of electron beam technology for sludge hygenization and enhanced methane (biogas) production using municipal wastewater samples. Cogeneration of heat for fertilizer drying and granulation and electricity for powering the electron beam system are also demonstrated.

Mots clés

  • Biogas
  • Biofertilizer
  • Cogeneration
  • Electron beam
  • Ionizing radiation
  • Municipal wastewater plant sludge
  • Phosphorus
  • Resource recovery facility
  • Sludge hygenization
Accès libre

Effect of gamma irradiation on microbiological and nutritional properties of the freeze-dried berries

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 221 - 225

Résumé

Abstract

Lyophilization or freeze-drying is the technique of removing ice or other frozen solvents from a material through sublimation and the removal of bound water molecules through the process of desorption. Drying occurs in an absolute vacuum at temperatures from −40°C to −50°C. This technique is often used for the conservation of fruits, especially berries. During this process, the water changes from frozen to gaseous, with no thawing. Due to low temperatures and the high vacuum, most microorganisms are rendered inactive during the lyophilization process. However, if there is a necessity to destroy all microorganisms from treated food, subsequent irradiation with gamma rays is an appropriate method. This paper investigated the influence of different doses of gamma radiation on lyophilized berries’ microbiological characteristics. It was shown that the radiation dose of 7 kGy is sufficient to eliminate the total number of microorganisms (excluding molds) to the extent that the number falls below the permitted limit according t o the law on the microbiological safety of foodstuffs of the Republic of Serbia, and 5 kGy is enough for molds to be rendered inactive. It was also concluded that gamma irradiation does not affect the nutritional value of lyophilized berries.

Mots clés

  • Freeze-drying
  • Gamma irradiation
  • Lyophilization
  • Microbiological properties
  • Nutritional properties
Accès libre

Plasma technology to remove NOx from off-gases

Publié en ligne: 25 Nov 2021
Pages: 227 - 231

Résumé

Abstract

Operation of marine diesel engines causes significant emission of sulphur and nitrogen oxides. It was noticed worldwide and the regulations concerning harmful emissions were introduced. There were several solutions elaborated; however, emission control for both SOx and NOx requires two distinctive processes realized in separated devices, which is problematic due to limited space on ship board and high overall costs. Therefore, the electron beam flue gas treatment (EBFGT) process was adopted to ensure the abatement of the problem of marine diesel off-gases. This novel solution combines two main processes: first the flue gas is irradiated with electron beam where NO and SO2 are oxidized; the second stage is wet scrubbing to remove both pollutants with high efficiency. Laboratory tests showed that this process could be effectively applied to remove SO2 and NOx from diesel engine off-gases. Different compositions of absorbing solution with three different oxidants (NaClO, NaClO2 and NaClO3) were tested. The highest NOx removal efficiency (>96%) was obtained when seawater-NaClO2-NaOH was used as scrubber solution at 10.9 kGy dose. The process was further tested in real maritime conditions at Riga shipyard, Latvia. More than 45% NOx was removed at a 5.5 kGy dose, corresponding to 4800 Nm3/h off-gases arising from ship emission. The operation of the plant was the first case of examination of the hybrid electron beam technology in real conditions. Taking into account the experiment conditions, good agreement was obtained with laboratory tests. The results obtained in Riga shipyard provided valuable information for the application of this technology for control of large cargo ship emission.

Mots clés

  • Electron beam
  • Flue gas treatment
  • Marine diesel engines
  • NO
  • SO
  • Ship emissions

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