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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2545-2819
Première publication
30 Sep 2018
Période de publication
2 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 59 (2018): Edition 1 (December 2018)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2545-2819
Première publication
30 Sep 2018
Période de publication
2 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

8 Articles
Accès libre

The Influence of Production Parameters on Pozzolanic Reactivity of Calcined Clays

Publié en ligne: 31 Dec 2018
Pages: 1 - 12

Résumé

Abstract

Calcined clays are gaining increasing interest as future supplementary cementitious materials for the production of blended cements. Besides the mineralogy, the right production conditions can affect the pozzolanic activity of calcined clays. In this paper, the pozzolanic reactivity of two calcined natural clays in dependence of burning temperature, residence time in the furnace, cooling conditions and particle size of the final product is investigated. The highest pozzolanic reactivity was found at calcination temperatures between 600 and 800°C. While different cooling conditions had no identified effect on reactivity, decreased particle size and residence time increased the reactivity.

Mots clés

  • Calcined clay
  • pozzolana
  • lime consumption
  • heating
  • particle size
Accès libre

Meso Mechanical Study of Cracking Process in Concrete Subjected to Tensile Loading

Publié en ligne: 31 Dec 2018
Pages: 13 - 29

Résumé

Abstract

This project focused on how the cracking process in concrete is influenced by both the micro and meso structures of concrete. The aim was to increase knowledge pertaining to the effect of critical parameters on the cracking process and how this is related to the material’s macroscopic properties. A methodology based on the combination of different experimental methods and measuring techniques at different scales was developed. Crack propagation during tensile loading of small-scale specimens in a tensile stage was monitored by means of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Acoustic Emission (AE). After testing, crack patterns were studied using fluorescence microscopy.

Mots clés

  • Concrete
  • Cracking
  • Testing
  • Digital Image Correlation
  • Acoustic Emission
  • Microscopic Analysis
Accès libre

Alkali-silica Reaction in Finnish Concrete Structures

Publié en ligne: 31 Dec 2018
Pages: 31 - 44

Résumé

Abstract

Even though natural phenomena do not abide to borders, Finland has traditionally been considered an alkali-silica reaction (ASR) free country. This is due to exceptional quality of the mostly course crystalline igneous rocks. However, during the last few years dozens of cases of ASR have been reported. The scope of this study was to study the occurrence of ASR, and to find out the initiation time of the reaction in resent investigations of Finnish concrete structures. ASR is found occurring all over Finland. The reacting aggregates consist of rock types, which are considered relatively stable or low reacting in literature.

Mots clés

  • concrete
  • alkali-silica reaction
  • initiation time
Accès libre

Rice Husk Resource for Energy and Cementitious Products with Low CO2 Contributions

Publié en ligne: 31 Dec 2018
Pages: 45 - 58

Résumé

Abstract

Rice Husk Ash (RHA) is a well-known supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) that can be used for concrete with reduced CO2 contributions. In 2016, only Nepal produced 5.2 million tonnes rice that gave about 1.14 million tonnes rice husk. The rice husk can also be used directly in a cement kiln as a fuel. This study analysis the potential CO2 reductions from three scenarios and emphasis strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and treats in the production systems for initiate a decision process with possibilities to get an industry project financed from the green climate found. The highest CO2 benefits were from rice husk used in a cement kiln were half of the yearly rice husk production in Nepal could reduce the climate impact with 808000 tonnes CO2.

Mots clés

  • Carbon emission reduction
  • rice husk ash supplementary cementitious material
  • concrete
  • sustainable
Accès libre

Early Age Autogenous Shrinkage of Fibre Reinforced Concrete

Publié en ligne: 31 Dec 2018
Pages: 59 - 72

Résumé

Abstract

Concrete is often sensitive to cracking during the hardening process, and these cracks could be the result of early-age shrinkage. One method to reduce shrinkage is to add different types of fibres to concrete. The aim of this study was to study the effects of different types of fibres on the early-age autogenous shrinkage of concrete. Three different types of fibre materials were used in the research. A “Schleibinger Bending-drain” test setup was used to record early-age autogenous shrinkage of fresh concrete immediately after mixing. The results show that, a fibre dosage of 0.38% by volume was found to be effective in reducing the effects of early-age autogenous shrinkage of concrete.

Mots clés

  • Autogenous shrinkage
  • cracking
  • steel fibre
  • thermal deformation
  • hydration
Accès libre

Prediction of Restraint Moments in Precast, Prestressed Structures Made Continuous

Publié en ligne: 31 Dec 2018
Pages: 73 - 93

Résumé

Abstract

This paper studies restraint moments developing in simple-span precast, prestressed beams made continuous. Methods of evaluating restraint moments produced by creep and differential shrinkage are presented. Shrinkage and creep properties of composite structures, beam and deck parts were tested and compared to values defined according to Eurocode models. Finally, the restraint moments were calculated with both material models for the two-span parking deck structure. The study confirmed the findings of previous studies: that the methods that are used overestimate the negative restraint moment produced by differential shrinkage.

Mots clés

  • Restraint moment
  • creep
  • differential shrinkage
  • continuity
  • prestressed concrete
Accès libre

Influence of Cracking on Effects of Restrained Deformations in a Post-tensioned Concrete Bridge

Publié en ligne: 31 Dec 2018
Pages: 95 - 110

Résumé

Abstract

Imposed and restrained deformations cause stresses in continuous concrete bridges, and in analyses of the superstructure these stresses are usually reduced to some degree due to creep and cracking of concrete. This study examines cracking and redistribution of stresses in a bridge superstructure under the loads and load combinations used in the original bridge design. The subject of this study is a three-span post-tensioned continuous concrete cantilever beam bridge. The bridge was analysed with non-linear calculation utilising the general force method and moment-curvature relationships. The analysis yielded the bending stiffness of the post-tensioned bridge superstructure as a function of bridge length under different loads. It was discovered that the secondary moment from prestressing force increased as the bending stiffness of the central span decreased due to cracking under external loads, which is not normally considered in design. The bending moment effects of linear temperature difference and support settlement decreased as expected as the superstructure bending stiffness decreased. The analysis provided new information on the effects of secondary moment from the prestressing force and on the difference between the cracked state and the linear elastic analysis of the concrete bridge superstructure.

Mots clés

  • restrained deformations
  • concrete cracking
  • post-tensioned concrete
  • bridge
Accès libre

Impact of Accelerated Carbonation on Microstructure and Phase Assemblage

Publié en ligne: 31 Dec 2018
Pages: 111 - 126

Résumé

Abstract

The paper summarizes preliminary results on characterization of the microstructure and phase assemblage of mortar and concrete samples containing Portland and Portland-fly ash cement carbonated at either natural conditions, 60% RH and 1% CO2, 90% RH and 5% CO2 or 60% RH and 100% CO2. Different characterization techniques were used: thermogravimetric analysis to study the solid phases, SEM-EDS point analysis to investigate the chemical composition of the solid phases, optical microscopy to investigate the microstructure, and cold water extraction to characterize the chemical composition of the pore solution. The combined results on microstructure and phase assemblage indicate that carbonation up to 5% CO2 appears representative for natural carbonation. Pore solution analysis revealed similar trends for the three accelerated carbonation conditions.

Mots clés

  • Carbonation
  • microstructure
  • solid phases
  • pore solution
  • Portland-fly ash cement
8 Articles
Accès libre

The Influence of Production Parameters on Pozzolanic Reactivity of Calcined Clays

Publié en ligne: 31 Dec 2018
Pages: 1 - 12

Résumé

Abstract

Calcined clays are gaining increasing interest as future supplementary cementitious materials for the production of blended cements. Besides the mineralogy, the right production conditions can affect the pozzolanic activity of calcined clays. In this paper, the pozzolanic reactivity of two calcined natural clays in dependence of burning temperature, residence time in the furnace, cooling conditions and particle size of the final product is investigated. The highest pozzolanic reactivity was found at calcination temperatures between 600 and 800°C. While different cooling conditions had no identified effect on reactivity, decreased particle size and residence time increased the reactivity.

Mots clés

  • Calcined clay
  • pozzolana
  • lime consumption
  • heating
  • particle size
Accès libre

Meso Mechanical Study of Cracking Process in Concrete Subjected to Tensile Loading

Publié en ligne: 31 Dec 2018
Pages: 13 - 29

Résumé

Abstract

This project focused on how the cracking process in concrete is influenced by both the micro and meso structures of concrete. The aim was to increase knowledge pertaining to the effect of critical parameters on the cracking process and how this is related to the material’s macroscopic properties. A methodology based on the combination of different experimental methods and measuring techniques at different scales was developed. Crack propagation during tensile loading of small-scale specimens in a tensile stage was monitored by means of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Acoustic Emission (AE). After testing, crack patterns were studied using fluorescence microscopy.

Mots clés

  • Concrete
  • Cracking
  • Testing
  • Digital Image Correlation
  • Acoustic Emission
  • Microscopic Analysis
Accès libre

Alkali-silica Reaction in Finnish Concrete Structures

Publié en ligne: 31 Dec 2018
Pages: 31 - 44

Résumé

Abstract

Even though natural phenomena do not abide to borders, Finland has traditionally been considered an alkali-silica reaction (ASR) free country. This is due to exceptional quality of the mostly course crystalline igneous rocks. However, during the last few years dozens of cases of ASR have been reported. The scope of this study was to study the occurrence of ASR, and to find out the initiation time of the reaction in resent investigations of Finnish concrete structures. ASR is found occurring all over Finland. The reacting aggregates consist of rock types, which are considered relatively stable or low reacting in literature.

Mots clés

  • concrete
  • alkali-silica reaction
  • initiation time
Accès libre

Rice Husk Resource for Energy and Cementitious Products with Low CO2 Contributions

Publié en ligne: 31 Dec 2018
Pages: 45 - 58

Résumé

Abstract

Rice Husk Ash (RHA) is a well-known supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) that can be used for concrete with reduced CO2 contributions. In 2016, only Nepal produced 5.2 million tonnes rice that gave about 1.14 million tonnes rice husk. The rice husk can also be used directly in a cement kiln as a fuel. This study analysis the potential CO2 reductions from three scenarios and emphasis strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and treats in the production systems for initiate a decision process with possibilities to get an industry project financed from the green climate found. The highest CO2 benefits were from rice husk used in a cement kiln were half of the yearly rice husk production in Nepal could reduce the climate impact with 808000 tonnes CO2.

Mots clés

  • Carbon emission reduction
  • rice husk ash supplementary cementitious material
  • concrete
  • sustainable
Accès libre

Early Age Autogenous Shrinkage of Fibre Reinforced Concrete

Publié en ligne: 31 Dec 2018
Pages: 59 - 72

Résumé

Abstract

Concrete is often sensitive to cracking during the hardening process, and these cracks could be the result of early-age shrinkage. One method to reduce shrinkage is to add different types of fibres to concrete. The aim of this study was to study the effects of different types of fibres on the early-age autogenous shrinkage of concrete. Three different types of fibre materials were used in the research. A “Schleibinger Bending-drain” test setup was used to record early-age autogenous shrinkage of fresh concrete immediately after mixing. The results show that, a fibre dosage of 0.38% by volume was found to be effective in reducing the effects of early-age autogenous shrinkage of concrete.

Mots clés

  • Autogenous shrinkage
  • cracking
  • steel fibre
  • thermal deformation
  • hydration
Accès libre

Prediction of Restraint Moments in Precast, Prestressed Structures Made Continuous

Publié en ligne: 31 Dec 2018
Pages: 73 - 93

Résumé

Abstract

This paper studies restraint moments developing in simple-span precast, prestressed beams made continuous. Methods of evaluating restraint moments produced by creep and differential shrinkage are presented. Shrinkage and creep properties of composite structures, beam and deck parts were tested and compared to values defined according to Eurocode models. Finally, the restraint moments were calculated with both material models for the two-span parking deck structure. The study confirmed the findings of previous studies: that the methods that are used overestimate the negative restraint moment produced by differential shrinkage.

Mots clés

  • Restraint moment
  • creep
  • differential shrinkage
  • continuity
  • prestressed concrete
Accès libre

Influence of Cracking on Effects of Restrained Deformations in a Post-tensioned Concrete Bridge

Publié en ligne: 31 Dec 2018
Pages: 95 - 110

Résumé

Abstract

Imposed and restrained deformations cause stresses in continuous concrete bridges, and in analyses of the superstructure these stresses are usually reduced to some degree due to creep and cracking of concrete. This study examines cracking and redistribution of stresses in a bridge superstructure under the loads and load combinations used in the original bridge design. The subject of this study is a three-span post-tensioned continuous concrete cantilever beam bridge. The bridge was analysed with non-linear calculation utilising the general force method and moment-curvature relationships. The analysis yielded the bending stiffness of the post-tensioned bridge superstructure as a function of bridge length under different loads. It was discovered that the secondary moment from prestressing force increased as the bending stiffness of the central span decreased due to cracking under external loads, which is not normally considered in design. The bending moment effects of linear temperature difference and support settlement decreased as expected as the superstructure bending stiffness decreased. The analysis provided new information on the effects of secondary moment from the prestressing force and on the difference between the cracked state and the linear elastic analysis of the concrete bridge superstructure.

Mots clés

  • restrained deformations
  • concrete cracking
  • post-tensioned concrete
  • bridge
Accès libre

Impact of Accelerated Carbonation on Microstructure and Phase Assemblage

Publié en ligne: 31 Dec 2018
Pages: 111 - 126

Résumé

Abstract

The paper summarizes preliminary results on characterization of the microstructure and phase assemblage of mortar and concrete samples containing Portland and Portland-fly ash cement carbonated at either natural conditions, 60% RH and 1% CO2, 90% RH and 5% CO2 or 60% RH and 100% CO2. Different characterization techniques were used: thermogravimetric analysis to study the solid phases, SEM-EDS point analysis to investigate the chemical composition of the solid phases, optical microscopy to investigate the microstructure, and cold water extraction to characterize the chemical composition of the pore solution. The combined results on microstructure and phase assemblage indicate that carbonation up to 5% CO2 appears representative for natural carbonation. Pore solution analysis revealed similar trends for the three accelerated carbonation conditions.

Mots clés

  • Carbonation
  • microstructure
  • solid phases
  • pore solution
  • Portland-fly ash cement

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