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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2450-8608
Première publication
30 Mar 2016
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 61 (2017): Edition 2 (June 2017)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2450-8608
Première publication
30 Mar 2016
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

14 Articles
access type Accès libre

Roles of African swine fever virus structural proteins in viral infection

Publié en ligne: 12 Jun 2017
Pages: 135 - 143

Résumé

Abstract

African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large, double-stranded DNA virus and the sole member of the Asfarviridae family. ASFV infects domestic pigs, wild boars, warthogs, and bush pigs, as well as soft ticks (Ornithodoros erraticus), which likely act as a vector. The major target is swine monocyte-macrophage cells. The virus can cause high fever, haemorrhagic lesions, cyanosis, anorexia, and even fatalities in domestic pigs. Currently, there is no vaccine and effective disease control strategies against its spread are culling infected pigs and maintaining high biosecurity standards. African swine fever (ASF) spread to Europe from Africa in the middle of the 20th century, and later also to South America and the Caribbean. Since then, ASF has spread more widely and thus is still a great challenge for swine breeding. The genome of ASFV ranges in length from about 170 to 193 kbp depending on the isolate and contains between 150 and 167 open reading frames (ORFs). The ASFV genome encodes 150 to 200 proteins, around 50 of them structural. The roles of virus structural proteins in viral infection have been described. These proteins, such as pp220, pp62, p72, p54, p30, and CD2v, serve as the major component of virus particles and have roles in attachment, entry, and replication. All studies on ASFV proteins lay a good foundation upon which to clarify the infection mechanism and develop vaccines and diagnosis methods. In this paper, the roles of ASFV structural proteins in viral infection are reviewed.

Mots clés

  • African swine fever virus
  • structural proteins
  • viral infection
  • review
access type Accès libre

Identification of infectious bursal disease virus with atypical VP2 amino acid profile in Latvia

Publié en ligne: 12 Jun 2017
Pages: 145 - 149

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a causative agent of immunosuppressive disorder resulting in significant losses to the world poultry industry. This study describes the molecular characterisation of an atypical IBDV from a field outbreak that occurred in vaccinated chicken flocks in Latvia in 2011.

Material and Methods: Ten bursae of Fabricius from each flock were collected for laboratory examination. Virus isolation was performed in embryonated eggs and CEF culture. The RT-PCR aimed at hypervariable domain of VP2 gene combined with sequencing was performed for detection and identification of IBDV.

Results: The molecular examinations confirmed the IBDV infection. The analysis of the amino acid sequence revealed that the strain possessed four amino acids at VP2 protein (222A, 256I, 294I, and 299S), indicating a genetic relatedness to a very virulent IBDV. However, some unique or rare amino acid substitutions (219L, 220F, 254D, 279N, and 280T) were also detected.

Conclusion: The obtained results demonstrate the occurrence of IBDV with a high mutation rate within the hypervariable domain of VP2 peptide, and highlight the necessity of implementation of IBDV surveillance in Eastern European poultry industry to determine whether this strain is an exception or a new wave of IBDV with new genetic features emerged in the field.

Mots clés

  • chickens
  • infectious bursal disease virus
  • VP2
  • Latvia
access type Accès libre

Were Polish wild boars exposed to Schmallenberg virus?

Publié en ligne: 12 Jun 2017
Pages: 151 - 155

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: A novel to Europe Schmallenberg virus (SBV) causes clinical disease manifested by reproduction disorders in farm ruminants. In free-living ruminants, SBV antibodies as well as the virus were detected. Recent studies also revealed SBV antibodies in wild boars. The study investigates SBV antibodies occurring in wild boars in Poland at the peak of recent virus epidemics in the country.

Material and Methods: Samples collected from 203 wild boars culled during the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 hunting season were serologically tested using multi-species cELISA. Attempted neutralisation tests failed due to poor serum quality. RT-PCR was implemented in seropositive and doubtful animals.

Results: Two samples collected from wild boar in the winter of 2013 gave a positive result in ELISA, while another two from the 2012/2013 hunting season were doubtful. No SBV RNA was detected in spleen and liver tissues.

Conclusion: Low SBV seroprevalence in wild boars, despite high incidence of SBV infections occurring simultaneously in wild ruminants, suggests that boars are unlikely to be a significant reservoir of the virus in the sylvatic environment in Poland.

Mots clés

  • wild boar
  • Schmallenberg virus
  • antibodies
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Serological survey of the influenza A virus in Polish farrow-to-finish pig herds in 2011–2015

Publié en ligne: 12 Jun 2017
Pages: 157 - 161

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of swine influenza A virus (SIV) in Polish farrow-to-finish pig herds.

Material and Methods: Serum samples collected from 5,952 pigs, from 145 farrow-to-finish herds were tested for the presence of antibodies against H1N1, H1N1pdm09, H1N2, and H3N2 SIV subtypes using haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Samples with HI titres equal or higher than 20 were considered positive.

Results: HI antibodies to at least one of the analysed SIV subtypes were detected in 129 (89%) herds and in 2,263 (38%) serum samples. Antibodies to multiple SIV subtypes were detected in 104 (71.7%) herds and in 996 (16.7%) serum samples. Concerning the seroprevalence rate, according to age category, the highest prevalence of the antibodies was detected in weaners, with regard to the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2, and in sows, with regard to the H1N1pdm09. The lowest seroprevalence for all evaluated SIV subtypes was detected in finishers.

Conclusion: The study indicates that antibodies against single and multiple SIV subtypes are circulating in Polish farrow-to-finish herds and highlights the importance of conducting a molecular surveillance programme in future studies.

Mots clés

  • pigs
  • influenza virus
  • seroprevalence
  • co-seropositivity
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ApxIV toxin antibody in serum and oral fluid specimens from pigs inoculated under experimental conditions

Publié en ligne: 12 Jun 2017
Pages: 163 - 171

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: The prevention and control of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in commercial production settings is based on serological monitoring. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have been developed to detect specific antibodies against a variety of A. pleuropneumoniae antigens, including long-chain lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and the ApxIV toxin, a repeats-in-toxin (RTX) exotoxin unique to A. pleuropneumoniae and produced by all serovars. The objective of this study was to describe ApxIV antibody responses in serum and oral fluid of pigs.

Material and Methods: Four groups of pigs (six pigs per group) were inoculated with A. pleuropneumoniae serovars 1, 5, 7, or 12. Weekly serum samples and daily oral fluid samples were collected from individual pigs for 56 days post inoculation (DPI) and tested by LPS and ApxIV ELISAs. The ApxIV ELISA was run in three formats to detect immunlgobulins M, G, and A (IgM, IgG and IgA) while the LPS ELISA detected only IgG.

Results: All pigs inoculated with A. pleuropneumoniae serovars 1 and 7 were LPS ELISA serum antibody positive from DPI 14 to 56. A transient and weak LPS ELISA antibody response was observed in pigs inoculated with serovar 5 and a single antibody positive pig was observed in serovar 12 at ≥35 DPI. Notably, ApxIV serum and oral fluid antibody responses in pig inoculated with serovars 1 and 7 reflected the patterns observed for LPS antibody, albeit with a 14 to 21 day delay.

Conclusion: This work suggests that ELISAs based on ApxIV antibody detection in oral fluid samples could be effective in population monitoring for A. pleuropneumoniae.

Mots clés

  • ApxIV
  • ELISA
  • oral fluid
  • antibody
access type Accès libre

Distribution of Salmonella serovars along the food chain in Poland, 2010–2015

Publié en ligne: 12 Jun 2017
Pages: 173 - 179

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: Data collection on the Salmonella occurrence is crucial in effective implementation of different actions or control programmes aiming to protect consumers’ health and to reduce the level of Salmonella prevalence in farm animals. The goal was to describe Salmonella serovar distribution along the food chain in Poland during 2010–2015 and to identify their epidemiological importance.

Material and Methods: Slide agglutination according to White-Kauffmann-Le Minor scheme was used to identify Salmonella serovars of 6,928 isolates originating from animals, food, feeds, and fertilisers.

Results: In total, 160 Salmonella serovars were identified. Differences in serovar distribution were observed depending on animal species. Among isolates from hens, S. Enteritidis and S. Infantis were the most prevalent. Serovar pattern in turkeys differed from those in hens, with S. Kentucky, S. Newport, S. Saintpaul being the most prevalent. Monophasic S. Typhimurium was predominant in pigs. Serovars found in food reflected those observed among livestock animals. Nine out of the ten most prevalent serovars in animals and humans were also found in organic fertilisers.

Conclusion: Serotyping of large number of isolates from different sources is essential for insight on emerging serovars and trends of Salmonella occurrence. This may increase the value of epidemiological data and result in updating of Salmonella control programmes to target further epidemiologically important serovars in animals and better protection of consumers’ health.

Mots clés

  • serovars
  • salmonellosis
  • food chain
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Epizootic and epidemiological situation of Trichinella sp. infection in Poland in 2006–2015 in view of wild boar population dynamics

Publié en ligne: 12 Jun 2017
Pages: 181 - 187

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: The objective was to evaluate the epizootic and epidemiological situation of Trichinella sp. infection in Poland between 2006 and 2015 against the dynamics of the wild boar population and its primary reservoir host.

Material and Methods: Boar and porcine trichinosis epizootic analysis was based on General Veterinary Inspectorate data from RRW-6 bulletins. The epidemiological situation was evaluated on the basis of the data supplied by the Department of Epidemiology of the National Institute of Hygiene - National Institute of Public Health. The wild boar hunting harvest and population dynamics were estimated, as these animals remain the basic infection source for humans. Population size and harvest data were obtained from hunting statistics.

Results: The study timeframe showed an almost 2.5-fold increase in Trichinella infection cases in wild boars but a significant decline in human cases. In the domestic pig, the incidence rate did not exceed 0.00037%. The highest infection risk exists in West Pomerania, Greater Poland, and Kuyavian-Pomeranian Provinces. Over the study period, the wild boar population increased more than 1.5-fold, while the hunting harvest more than tripled. During the last two seasons the total hunt surpassed 100% of the spring population.

Conclusion: Wild boar management by increasing the hunting take of the annual population growth should limit that growth and decrease the take in the future. Thereby, over some years intra-species trichinosis spread should reduce, for a substantial safety gain for wild boar meat.

Mots clés

  • wild boar
  • epidemiology
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Dogs’ gastrointestinal parasites and their association with public health in Iran

Publié en ligne: 12 Jun 2017
Pages: 189 - 195

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: Dogs harbour zoonotic parasites that cause serious infections in humans, such as visceral larva migrans, ocular larva migrans, cystic echinococcosis, and alveolar echinococcosis. Studies on dogs’ gastrointestinal parasites in different geographical locations are required to increase knowledge of the risk of canine zoonoses in human populations.

Material and Methods: The presence of parasites was examined in 450 faecal samples collected from eight zones of Zanjan province, northwest Iran from June to November 2015. The samples were examined using the sedimentation concentration method and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining.

Results: Gastrointestinal parasites were found in 86 (19.1%) faecal samples. Sarcocystis spp. (7.3%), Taenia/Echinococcus spp. (5.6%), Toxocara spp. (1.8%), and Cystoisospora spp. (1.6%) were the most common parasites observed. The other detected parasites consisted of Dicrocoelium dendriticum (0.7%), Eimeria spp. (0.7%), Cryptosporidium spp. (0.4%), Physaloptera spp. (0.4%), Giardia spp. (1.3%), and Spirocerca lupi (1.3%). The lowest parasite infection rates belonged to Trichuris vulpis and Acanthocephalans (0.2% each).

Conclusion: This study provides current information on the infection rates in dog populations in Zanjan Province. Furthermore, the study shows a high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infections, including zoonotic ones and particularly Taenia/Echinococcus spp., potentially transmissible to humans and thus relevant to public health.

Mots clés

  • dog
  • gastrointestinal parasites
  • zoonoses
  • public health
  • Iran
access type Accès libre

Evaluation of oxidative stress in sheep infected with Psoroptes ovis using total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, and malondialdehyde level

Publié en ligne: 12 Jun 2017
Pages: 197 - 201

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: The study aimed at evaluating oxidative stress using malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) markers in sheep naturally infected with Psoroptes ovis (Acari).

Material and Methods: The study was performed on 40 sheep divided into two equal groups: a healthy group (group I) and a group naturally infected with Psoroptes ovis (group II). The sera were obtained by centrifuging blood samples collected from the vena jugularis and serum MDA level changes in the samples were measured spectrophotometrically. Commercially available test kits were used for the measurement of TAC and TOS levels. The percentage ratio of TOS level to TAC level was accepted as OSI.

Results: The serum malondialdehyde, total oxidant status levels, and oxidative stress index increased significantly (P < 0.01) in group II, while the serum total antioxidant capacity levels decreased significantly (P < 0.01) in this group. Negative correlations between total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status and total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde, and a positive correlation between total oxidant status and malondialdehyde were found in infected sheep.

Conclusion: The obtained results indicated the relationship between oxidant/antioxidant imbalance and Psoroptes ovis infection in sheep. Their MDA, TAC, TOS, and OSI markers may be used to determine the oxidative stress in natural infections with Psoroptes ovis.

Mots clés

  • sheep
  • mange
  • oxidative stress
access type Accès libre

Expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) in the mammary lymph nodes of cows with subclinical mastitis

Publié en ligne: 12 Jun 2017
Pages: 203 - 209

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) is a member of Ig superfamily. The aim of this study was to prepare highly specific polyclonal antibodies against bovine VCAM-1 and to evaluate the expression of VCAM-1 in the mammary lymph nodes of cows with subclinical mastitis.

Material and Methods: The VCAM-1 gene was cloned from bovine Peyer’s patches and inserted into the pGEX-4T-1 and pET-28a vectors. The recombinant plasmids pGEX-4T-1/VCAM-1 and pET-28a/VCAM-1 were transferred into Escherichia coli BL21 and the recombinant strains were induced by isopropyl-D-thiogalactoside to produce fusion proteins tagged with polyhistidine (His) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), respectively. The expressed fusion proteins His-VCAM-1 and GST-VCAM-1 were identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. His-VCAM-1 protein was used as an antigen to immunise Wistar rats and polyclonal antibody serum against VCAM-1 was obtained.

Results: The serum titre tested by indirect ELISA was 128,000 using GST-VCAM-1 as the well coating antigen. Western blots indicated that the antibody recognised recombinant VCAM-1 protein as well as endogenous VCAM-1. In addition, using qPCR and Western blot, VCAM-1 mRNA and protein expression levels were measured in dairy cows with subclinical mastitis. It was demonstrated that VCAM-1 levels in the mammary lymph nodes of the cows were significantly higher than those from healthy controls (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: These results are to our knowledge the first report that VCAM-1 expression in the mammary lymph nodes is elevated in dairy cows with subclinical mastitis.

Mots clés

  • dairy cows
  • mammary lymph nodes
  • subclinical mastitis
  • VCAM-1
  • polyclonal antibody
access type Accès libre

Effect of pregnancy and stage of lactation on energy processes in isolated blood cells of dairy cows

Publié en ligne: 12 Jun 2017
Pages: 211 - 215

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: The transition period is the most challenging time for dairy cattle, which is characterised not only by negative energy balance but also by fatty tissue mobilisation.

Material and Methods: The efficiency of energy pathways, β-oxidation in WBC and glycolysis in RBC (based on deoxyglucose transmembrane transport) were estimated. Insulin in blood plasma was determined using ELISA.

Results: After calving and up to one month after delivery, a significant drop in blood plasma level was noticed, simultaneously with a rise in β-oxidation from 18.93 ±3.64 to 30.32 ±5.28 pmol/min/mg protein in WBC. A strong negative correlation between these two indices (r = −0.68) was found. During the period of transition to lactation an increase in glucose cross-membrane transportation from 41.44 ±4.92 to 50.49 ±6.41 μmol/h/g Hb was observed. A strong positive correlation between glucose transportation in RBC and β-oxidation in WBC (r = 0.71) was noticed. These data are in agreement with results of studies on dairy cows using liver slices from dairy cows in late pregnancy and different stages of lactation, in which changes in gene expression were analysed.

Conclusion: It seems that measuring fatty acids oxidation and glycolysis using isolated blood cells may be an adequate and relatively simple method for energy state analysis to estimate the state of dairy cow metabolism and animal health.

Mots clés

  • dairy cows
  • energetic metabolism
  • perinatal period
  • lactation
access type Accès libre

Changes in blood lymphocyte subpopulations and expression of MHC-II molecules in wild mares before and after parturition

Publié en ligne: 12 Jun 2017
Pages: 217 - 221

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: Pregnancy is a physiological state in which the immune system undergoes certain changes. On the one hand, by depleting cell defence mechanisms, it favours development and maintenance of the pregnancy. At the same time cells of the immune system ensure resistance to many risk factors, including infectious agents.

Material and Methods: The study was carried out on 24 Polish Konik breed mares which were divided into two equal groups. The first group (group I) included mares living in the reserve. The second group (group II) comprised mares maintained under conventional conditions in the stables. The blood samples were collected for the first time in the perinatal period, i.e. 2 weeks before parturition (trial 0), then within the first 24 h after delivery, and then on 7th and 21st day after foaling. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte expressing TCD4+, TCD8+, CD2+, and MHC class II antigens was performed.

Results: Before the delivery, in group I there was a significantly higher CD4:CD8 ratio compared to group II (P ≤0.05). Similarly, significantly increased CD4:CD8 ratio in group I was noted within 24 h after parturition (P ≤0.001) and it was also observed on 7th day (P ≤0.03) and 21st day after foaling (P ≤0.02). In the first 24 h after parturition, a significant decline of lymphocytes CD8+ (P ≤0.02) was noted. No significant differences in terms of lymphocytes CD2+ and CD3+ were observed. Expression of MHC-II molecules before and after the parturition was higher in group I compared to group II; however, the difference between the groups was not significant.

Conclusion: The results obtained indicate that mares living in the reserve display higher activity of cell defence mechanisms.

Mots clés

  • mares
  • pregnancy
  • immunity
  • lymphocytes
  • major histocompatibility complex
access type Accès libre

Macro-microscopic research in reideer (Rangifer tarandus) hoof suitable for efficient locomotion on complex grounds

Publié en ligne: 12 Jun 2017
Pages: 223 - 229

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: Reindeer are adapted to long distance migration. This species can cope with variations in substrate, especially in ice and snow environment. However, few detailed studies about reindeer hoof are available. Thus this article describes the results of studies on macro- and micro-structures of reindeer hoof.

Material and Methods: The gross anatomy of the reindeer hooves was examined. Stereo microscope (SM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to observe four key selected positions of reindeer hooves. Moreover, element contents of the three selected positions of reindeer hooves were analysed using the SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectroscope.

Results: Hoof bone structures were similar to other artiodactyl animals. In the microscopic analysis, the surfaces of the ungula sphere and ungula sole presented irregular laminated structure. Ungula edge surfaces were smooth and ungula cusp surfaces had unique features. Aside from C, O, and N, reindeer hooves contained such elements as S, Si, Fe, Al, and Ca. The content of the elements in different parts varied. Ti was the particular element in the ungula sole, and ungula edge lacked Mg and S which other parts contained.

Conclusion: The macro- and micro-structures of the reindeer hooves showed high performance of skid and abrasion resistance. It is most probably essential to the long distance migration for the animals.

Mots clés

  • reindeer
  • hoof
  • morphology
  • energy spectrum analysis
  • long distance migration
access type Accès libre

Comparison of clinical, biomechanical, and histopathological effects of various suture techniques on repair of tendon rupture by using autograft

Publié en ligne: 12 Jun 2017
Pages: 231 - 237

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of four different suture techniques in the treatment of experimentally modelled tendon injuries with tissue loss with autograft and grafting applications in rabbits.

Material and Methods: The study was performed on 30 male mature (2-year-old) New Zealand rabbits with mean body weight of 3.1 kg, divided into three equal groups. A graft measuring 1 cm in length was collected from the m. tibialis cranialis of each rabbit under general anaesthesia. The graft collected from the right tendon was transplanted into the left tendon, and the graft from the left tendon was transplanted into the right tendon. In all groups, a simple interrupted suture was placed on the left tendon as control, a Bunnell-Mayer suture was placed on the right tendon in group I, a Locking-Loop suture in group II, and a Horizontal U suture in group III. Both hindlimbs were bandaged for four weeks. The tendons were assessed biomechanically and histopathologically.

Results: According to the results of the tensile testing, the maximum durability of the techniques ranked as follows: Bunnell-Mayer, Horizontal U, Locking-Loop, and control groups.

Conclusion: The use of autografts was a good alternative for the treatment of tendon ruptures with tissue loss. Furthermore, even though there were no clinical or histopathological differences, the suture technique can be chosen based on the results of the tensile test.

Mots clés

  • rabbit
  • tendon repair
  • autograft
  • suture techniques
14 Articles
access type Accès libre

Roles of African swine fever virus structural proteins in viral infection

Publié en ligne: 12 Jun 2017
Pages: 135 - 143

Résumé

Abstract

African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large, double-stranded DNA virus and the sole member of the Asfarviridae family. ASFV infects domestic pigs, wild boars, warthogs, and bush pigs, as well as soft ticks (Ornithodoros erraticus), which likely act as a vector. The major target is swine monocyte-macrophage cells. The virus can cause high fever, haemorrhagic lesions, cyanosis, anorexia, and even fatalities in domestic pigs. Currently, there is no vaccine and effective disease control strategies against its spread are culling infected pigs and maintaining high biosecurity standards. African swine fever (ASF) spread to Europe from Africa in the middle of the 20th century, and later also to South America and the Caribbean. Since then, ASF has spread more widely and thus is still a great challenge for swine breeding. The genome of ASFV ranges in length from about 170 to 193 kbp depending on the isolate and contains between 150 and 167 open reading frames (ORFs). The ASFV genome encodes 150 to 200 proteins, around 50 of them structural. The roles of virus structural proteins in viral infection have been described. These proteins, such as pp220, pp62, p72, p54, p30, and CD2v, serve as the major component of virus particles and have roles in attachment, entry, and replication. All studies on ASFV proteins lay a good foundation upon which to clarify the infection mechanism and develop vaccines and diagnosis methods. In this paper, the roles of ASFV structural proteins in viral infection are reviewed.

Mots clés

  • African swine fever virus
  • structural proteins
  • viral infection
  • review
access type Accès libre

Identification of infectious bursal disease virus with atypical VP2 amino acid profile in Latvia

Publié en ligne: 12 Jun 2017
Pages: 145 - 149

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a causative agent of immunosuppressive disorder resulting in significant losses to the world poultry industry. This study describes the molecular characterisation of an atypical IBDV from a field outbreak that occurred in vaccinated chicken flocks in Latvia in 2011.

Material and Methods: Ten bursae of Fabricius from each flock were collected for laboratory examination. Virus isolation was performed in embryonated eggs and CEF culture. The RT-PCR aimed at hypervariable domain of VP2 gene combined with sequencing was performed for detection and identification of IBDV.

Results: The molecular examinations confirmed the IBDV infection. The analysis of the amino acid sequence revealed that the strain possessed four amino acids at VP2 protein (222A, 256I, 294I, and 299S), indicating a genetic relatedness to a very virulent IBDV. However, some unique or rare amino acid substitutions (219L, 220F, 254D, 279N, and 280T) were also detected.

Conclusion: The obtained results demonstrate the occurrence of IBDV with a high mutation rate within the hypervariable domain of VP2 peptide, and highlight the necessity of implementation of IBDV surveillance in Eastern European poultry industry to determine whether this strain is an exception or a new wave of IBDV with new genetic features emerged in the field.

Mots clés

  • chickens
  • infectious bursal disease virus
  • VP2
  • Latvia
access type Accès libre

Were Polish wild boars exposed to Schmallenberg virus?

Publié en ligne: 12 Jun 2017
Pages: 151 - 155

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: A novel to Europe Schmallenberg virus (SBV) causes clinical disease manifested by reproduction disorders in farm ruminants. In free-living ruminants, SBV antibodies as well as the virus were detected. Recent studies also revealed SBV antibodies in wild boars. The study investigates SBV antibodies occurring in wild boars in Poland at the peak of recent virus epidemics in the country.

Material and Methods: Samples collected from 203 wild boars culled during the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 hunting season were serologically tested using multi-species cELISA. Attempted neutralisation tests failed due to poor serum quality. RT-PCR was implemented in seropositive and doubtful animals.

Results: Two samples collected from wild boar in the winter of 2013 gave a positive result in ELISA, while another two from the 2012/2013 hunting season were doubtful. No SBV RNA was detected in spleen and liver tissues.

Conclusion: Low SBV seroprevalence in wild boars, despite high incidence of SBV infections occurring simultaneously in wild ruminants, suggests that boars are unlikely to be a significant reservoir of the virus in the sylvatic environment in Poland.

Mots clés

  • wild boar
  • Schmallenberg virus
  • antibodies
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Serological survey of the influenza A virus in Polish farrow-to-finish pig herds in 2011–2015

Publié en ligne: 12 Jun 2017
Pages: 157 - 161

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the seroprevalence of swine influenza A virus (SIV) in Polish farrow-to-finish pig herds.

Material and Methods: Serum samples collected from 5,952 pigs, from 145 farrow-to-finish herds were tested for the presence of antibodies against H1N1, H1N1pdm09, H1N2, and H3N2 SIV subtypes using haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Samples with HI titres equal or higher than 20 were considered positive.

Results: HI antibodies to at least one of the analysed SIV subtypes were detected in 129 (89%) herds and in 2,263 (38%) serum samples. Antibodies to multiple SIV subtypes were detected in 104 (71.7%) herds and in 996 (16.7%) serum samples. Concerning the seroprevalence rate, according to age category, the highest prevalence of the antibodies was detected in weaners, with regard to the H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2, and in sows, with regard to the H1N1pdm09. The lowest seroprevalence for all evaluated SIV subtypes was detected in finishers.

Conclusion: The study indicates that antibodies against single and multiple SIV subtypes are circulating in Polish farrow-to-finish herds and highlights the importance of conducting a molecular surveillance programme in future studies.

Mots clés

  • pigs
  • influenza virus
  • seroprevalence
  • co-seropositivity
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ApxIV toxin antibody in serum and oral fluid specimens from pigs inoculated under experimental conditions

Publié en ligne: 12 Jun 2017
Pages: 163 - 171

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: The prevention and control of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in commercial production settings is based on serological monitoring. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have been developed to detect specific antibodies against a variety of A. pleuropneumoniae antigens, including long-chain lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and the ApxIV toxin, a repeats-in-toxin (RTX) exotoxin unique to A. pleuropneumoniae and produced by all serovars. The objective of this study was to describe ApxIV antibody responses in serum and oral fluid of pigs.

Material and Methods: Four groups of pigs (six pigs per group) were inoculated with A. pleuropneumoniae serovars 1, 5, 7, or 12. Weekly serum samples and daily oral fluid samples were collected from individual pigs for 56 days post inoculation (DPI) and tested by LPS and ApxIV ELISAs. The ApxIV ELISA was run in three formats to detect immunlgobulins M, G, and A (IgM, IgG and IgA) while the LPS ELISA detected only IgG.

Results: All pigs inoculated with A. pleuropneumoniae serovars 1 and 7 were LPS ELISA serum antibody positive from DPI 14 to 56. A transient and weak LPS ELISA antibody response was observed in pigs inoculated with serovar 5 and a single antibody positive pig was observed in serovar 12 at ≥35 DPI. Notably, ApxIV serum and oral fluid antibody responses in pig inoculated with serovars 1 and 7 reflected the patterns observed for LPS antibody, albeit with a 14 to 21 day delay.

Conclusion: This work suggests that ELISAs based on ApxIV antibody detection in oral fluid samples could be effective in population monitoring for A. pleuropneumoniae.

Mots clés

  • ApxIV
  • ELISA
  • oral fluid
  • antibody
access type Accès libre

Distribution of Salmonella serovars along the food chain in Poland, 2010–2015

Publié en ligne: 12 Jun 2017
Pages: 173 - 179

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: Data collection on the Salmonella occurrence is crucial in effective implementation of different actions or control programmes aiming to protect consumers’ health and to reduce the level of Salmonella prevalence in farm animals. The goal was to describe Salmonella serovar distribution along the food chain in Poland during 2010–2015 and to identify their epidemiological importance.

Material and Methods: Slide agglutination according to White-Kauffmann-Le Minor scheme was used to identify Salmonella serovars of 6,928 isolates originating from animals, food, feeds, and fertilisers.

Results: In total, 160 Salmonella serovars were identified. Differences in serovar distribution were observed depending on animal species. Among isolates from hens, S. Enteritidis and S. Infantis were the most prevalent. Serovar pattern in turkeys differed from those in hens, with S. Kentucky, S. Newport, S. Saintpaul being the most prevalent. Monophasic S. Typhimurium was predominant in pigs. Serovars found in food reflected those observed among livestock animals. Nine out of the ten most prevalent serovars in animals and humans were also found in organic fertilisers.

Conclusion: Serotyping of large number of isolates from different sources is essential for insight on emerging serovars and trends of Salmonella occurrence. This may increase the value of epidemiological data and result in updating of Salmonella control programmes to target further epidemiologically important serovars in animals and better protection of consumers’ health.

Mots clés

  • serovars
  • salmonellosis
  • food chain
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Epizootic and epidemiological situation of Trichinella sp. infection in Poland in 2006–2015 in view of wild boar population dynamics

Publié en ligne: 12 Jun 2017
Pages: 181 - 187

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: The objective was to evaluate the epizootic and epidemiological situation of Trichinella sp. infection in Poland between 2006 and 2015 against the dynamics of the wild boar population and its primary reservoir host.

Material and Methods: Boar and porcine trichinosis epizootic analysis was based on General Veterinary Inspectorate data from RRW-6 bulletins. The epidemiological situation was evaluated on the basis of the data supplied by the Department of Epidemiology of the National Institute of Hygiene - National Institute of Public Health. The wild boar hunting harvest and population dynamics were estimated, as these animals remain the basic infection source for humans. Population size and harvest data were obtained from hunting statistics.

Results: The study timeframe showed an almost 2.5-fold increase in Trichinella infection cases in wild boars but a significant decline in human cases. In the domestic pig, the incidence rate did not exceed 0.00037%. The highest infection risk exists in West Pomerania, Greater Poland, and Kuyavian-Pomeranian Provinces. Over the study period, the wild boar population increased more than 1.5-fold, while the hunting harvest more than tripled. During the last two seasons the total hunt surpassed 100% of the spring population.

Conclusion: Wild boar management by increasing the hunting take of the annual population growth should limit that growth and decrease the take in the future. Thereby, over some years intra-species trichinosis spread should reduce, for a substantial safety gain for wild boar meat.

Mots clés

  • wild boar
  • epidemiology
  • Poland
access type Accès libre

Dogs’ gastrointestinal parasites and their association with public health in Iran

Publié en ligne: 12 Jun 2017
Pages: 189 - 195

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: Dogs harbour zoonotic parasites that cause serious infections in humans, such as visceral larva migrans, ocular larva migrans, cystic echinococcosis, and alveolar echinococcosis. Studies on dogs’ gastrointestinal parasites in different geographical locations are required to increase knowledge of the risk of canine zoonoses in human populations.

Material and Methods: The presence of parasites was examined in 450 faecal samples collected from eight zones of Zanjan province, northwest Iran from June to November 2015. The samples were examined using the sedimentation concentration method and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining.

Results: Gastrointestinal parasites were found in 86 (19.1%) faecal samples. Sarcocystis spp. (7.3%), Taenia/Echinococcus spp. (5.6%), Toxocara spp. (1.8%), and Cystoisospora spp. (1.6%) were the most common parasites observed. The other detected parasites consisted of Dicrocoelium dendriticum (0.7%), Eimeria spp. (0.7%), Cryptosporidium spp. (0.4%), Physaloptera spp. (0.4%), Giardia spp. (1.3%), and Spirocerca lupi (1.3%). The lowest parasite infection rates belonged to Trichuris vulpis and Acanthocephalans (0.2% each).

Conclusion: This study provides current information on the infection rates in dog populations in Zanjan Province. Furthermore, the study shows a high prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infections, including zoonotic ones and particularly Taenia/Echinococcus spp., potentially transmissible to humans and thus relevant to public health.

Mots clés

  • dog
  • gastrointestinal parasites
  • zoonoses
  • public health
  • Iran
access type Accès libre

Evaluation of oxidative stress in sheep infected with Psoroptes ovis using total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, and malondialdehyde level

Publié en ligne: 12 Jun 2017
Pages: 197 - 201

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: The study aimed at evaluating oxidative stress using malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) markers in sheep naturally infected with Psoroptes ovis (Acari).

Material and Methods: The study was performed on 40 sheep divided into two equal groups: a healthy group (group I) and a group naturally infected with Psoroptes ovis (group II). The sera were obtained by centrifuging blood samples collected from the vena jugularis and serum MDA level changes in the samples were measured spectrophotometrically. Commercially available test kits were used for the measurement of TAC and TOS levels. The percentage ratio of TOS level to TAC level was accepted as OSI.

Results: The serum malondialdehyde, total oxidant status levels, and oxidative stress index increased significantly (P < 0.01) in group II, while the serum total antioxidant capacity levels decreased significantly (P < 0.01) in this group. Negative correlations between total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status and total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde, and a positive correlation between total oxidant status and malondialdehyde were found in infected sheep.

Conclusion: The obtained results indicated the relationship between oxidant/antioxidant imbalance and Psoroptes ovis infection in sheep. Their MDA, TAC, TOS, and OSI markers may be used to determine the oxidative stress in natural infections with Psoroptes ovis.

Mots clés

  • sheep
  • mange
  • oxidative stress
access type Accès libre

Expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) in the mammary lymph nodes of cows with subclinical mastitis

Publié en ligne: 12 Jun 2017
Pages: 203 - 209

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) is a member of Ig superfamily. The aim of this study was to prepare highly specific polyclonal antibodies against bovine VCAM-1 and to evaluate the expression of VCAM-1 in the mammary lymph nodes of cows with subclinical mastitis.

Material and Methods: The VCAM-1 gene was cloned from bovine Peyer’s patches and inserted into the pGEX-4T-1 and pET-28a vectors. The recombinant plasmids pGEX-4T-1/VCAM-1 and pET-28a/VCAM-1 were transferred into Escherichia coli BL21 and the recombinant strains were induced by isopropyl-D-thiogalactoside to produce fusion proteins tagged with polyhistidine (His) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), respectively. The expressed fusion proteins His-VCAM-1 and GST-VCAM-1 were identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. His-VCAM-1 protein was used as an antigen to immunise Wistar rats and polyclonal antibody serum against VCAM-1 was obtained.

Results: The serum titre tested by indirect ELISA was 128,000 using GST-VCAM-1 as the well coating antigen. Western blots indicated that the antibody recognised recombinant VCAM-1 protein as well as endogenous VCAM-1. In addition, using qPCR and Western blot, VCAM-1 mRNA and protein expression levels were measured in dairy cows with subclinical mastitis. It was demonstrated that VCAM-1 levels in the mammary lymph nodes of the cows were significantly higher than those from healthy controls (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: These results are to our knowledge the first report that VCAM-1 expression in the mammary lymph nodes is elevated in dairy cows with subclinical mastitis.

Mots clés

  • dairy cows
  • mammary lymph nodes
  • subclinical mastitis
  • VCAM-1
  • polyclonal antibody
access type Accès libre

Effect of pregnancy and stage of lactation on energy processes in isolated blood cells of dairy cows

Publié en ligne: 12 Jun 2017
Pages: 211 - 215

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: The transition period is the most challenging time for dairy cattle, which is characterised not only by negative energy balance but also by fatty tissue mobilisation.

Material and Methods: The efficiency of energy pathways, β-oxidation in WBC and glycolysis in RBC (based on deoxyglucose transmembrane transport) were estimated. Insulin in blood plasma was determined using ELISA.

Results: After calving and up to one month after delivery, a significant drop in blood plasma level was noticed, simultaneously with a rise in β-oxidation from 18.93 ±3.64 to 30.32 ±5.28 pmol/min/mg protein in WBC. A strong negative correlation between these two indices (r = −0.68) was found. During the period of transition to lactation an increase in glucose cross-membrane transportation from 41.44 ±4.92 to 50.49 ±6.41 μmol/h/g Hb was observed. A strong positive correlation between glucose transportation in RBC and β-oxidation in WBC (r = 0.71) was noticed. These data are in agreement with results of studies on dairy cows using liver slices from dairy cows in late pregnancy and different stages of lactation, in which changes in gene expression were analysed.

Conclusion: It seems that measuring fatty acids oxidation and glycolysis using isolated blood cells may be an adequate and relatively simple method for energy state analysis to estimate the state of dairy cow metabolism and animal health.

Mots clés

  • dairy cows
  • energetic metabolism
  • perinatal period
  • lactation
access type Accès libre

Changes in blood lymphocyte subpopulations and expression of MHC-II molecules in wild mares before and after parturition

Publié en ligne: 12 Jun 2017
Pages: 217 - 221

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: Pregnancy is a physiological state in which the immune system undergoes certain changes. On the one hand, by depleting cell defence mechanisms, it favours development and maintenance of the pregnancy. At the same time cells of the immune system ensure resistance to many risk factors, including infectious agents.

Material and Methods: The study was carried out on 24 Polish Konik breed mares which were divided into two equal groups. The first group (group I) included mares living in the reserve. The second group (group II) comprised mares maintained under conventional conditions in the stables. The blood samples were collected for the first time in the perinatal period, i.e. 2 weeks before parturition (trial 0), then within the first 24 h after delivery, and then on 7th and 21st day after foaling. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte expressing TCD4+, TCD8+, CD2+, and MHC class II antigens was performed.

Results: Before the delivery, in group I there was a significantly higher CD4:CD8 ratio compared to group II (P ≤0.05). Similarly, significantly increased CD4:CD8 ratio in group I was noted within 24 h after parturition (P ≤0.001) and it was also observed on 7th day (P ≤0.03) and 21st day after foaling (P ≤0.02). In the first 24 h after parturition, a significant decline of lymphocytes CD8+ (P ≤0.02) was noted. No significant differences in terms of lymphocytes CD2+ and CD3+ were observed. Expression of MHC-II molecules before and after the parturition was higher in group I compared to group II; however, the difference between the groups was not significant.

Conclusion: The results obtained indicate that mares living in the reserve display higher activity of cell defence mechanisms.

Mots clés

  • mares
  • pregnancy
  • immunity
  • lymphocytes
  • major histocompatibility complex
access type Accès libre

Macro-microscopic research in reideer (Rangifer tarandus) hoof suitable for efficient locomotion on complex grounds

Publié en ligne: 12 Jun 2017
Pages: 223 - 229

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: Reindeer are adapted to long distance migration. This species can cope with variations in substrate, especially in ice and snow environment. However, few detailed studies about reindeer hoof are available. Thus this article describes the results of studies on macro- and micro-structures of reindeer hoof.

Material and Methods: The gross anatomy of the reindeer hooves was examined. Stereo microscope (SM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to observe four key selected positions of reindeer hooves. Moreover, element contents of the three selected positions of reindeer hooves were analysed using the SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectroscope.

Results: Hoof bone structures were similar to other artiodactyl animals. In the microscopic analysis, the surfaces of the ungula sphere and ungula sole presented irregular laminated structure. Ungula edge surfaces were smooth and ungula cusp surfaces had unique features. Aside from C, O, and N, reindeer hooves contained such elements as S, Si, Fe, Al, and Ca. The content of the elements in different parts varied. Ti was the particular element in the ungula sole, and ungula edge lacked Mg and S which other parts contained.

Conclusion: The macro- and micro-structures of the reindeer hooves showed high performance of skid and abrasion resistance. It is most probably essential to the long distance migration for the animals.

Mots clés

  • reindeer
  • hoof
  • morphology
  • energy spectrum analysis
  • long distance migration
access type Accès libre

Comparison of clinical, biomechanical, and histopathological effects of various suture techniques on repair of tendon rupture by using autograft

Publié en ligne: 12 Jun 2017
Pages: 231 - 237

Résumé

Abstract

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of four different suture techniques in the treatment of experimentally modelled tendon injuries with tissue loss with autograft and grafting applications in rabbits.

Material and Methods: The study was performed on 30 male mature (2-year-old) New Zealand rabbits with mean body weight of 3.1 kg, divided into three equal groups. A graft measuring 1 cm in length was collected from the m. tibialis cranialis of each rabbit under general anaesthesia. The graft collected from the right tendon was transplanted into the left tendon, and the graft from the left tendon was transplanted into the right tendon. In all groups, a simple interrupted suture was placed on the left tendon as control, a Bunnell-Mayer suture was placed on the right tendon in group I, a Locking-Loop suture in group II, and a Horizontal U suture in group III. Both hindlimbs were bandaged for four weeks. The tendons were assessed biomechanically and histopathologically.

Results: According to the results of the tensile testing, the maximum durability of the techniques ranked as follows: Bunnell-Mayer, Horizontal U, Locking-Loop, and control groups.

Conclusion: The use of autografts was a good alternative for the treatment of tendon ruptures with tissue loss. Furthermore, even though there were no clinical or histopathological differences, the suture technique can be chosen based on the results of the tensile test.

Mots clés

  • rabbit
  • tendon repair
  • autograft
  • suture techniques

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