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Volume 15 (2022): Edition 1 (May 2022)

Volume 14 (2021): Edition 3 (December 2021)

Volume 14 (2021): Edition 2 (September 2021)

Volume 14 (2021): Edition 1 (May 2021)

Volume 13 (2020): Edition 3 (December 2020)

Volume 13 (2020): Edition 2 (September 2020)

Volume 13 (2020): Edition 1 (May 2020)

Volume 12 (2019): Edition 3 (December 2019)

Volume 12 (2019): Edition 2 (September 2019)

Volume 12 (2019): Edition 1 (May 2019)

Volume 11 (2018): Edition 3 (December 2018)

Volume 11 (2018): Edition 2 (November 2018)

Volume 11 (2018): Edition 1 (January 2018)

Volume 10 (2017): Edition 3 (December 2017)

Volume 10 (2017): Edition 2 (November 2017)

Volume 10 (2017): Edition 1 (January 2017)

Volume 9 (2016): Edition 3 (December 2016)

Volume 9 (2016): Edition 2 (November 2016)

Volume 9 (2016): Edition 1 (January 2016)

Volume 8 (2015): Edition 3 (December 2015)

Volume 8 (2015): Edition 2 (November 2015)

Volume 8 (2015): Edition 1 (January 2015)

Volume 7 (2014): Edition 3 (December 2014)

Volume 7 (2014): Edition 2 (November 2014)

Volume 7 (2014): Edition 1 (January 2014)
MEDITERRANEAN LANDSCAPES, Guest Editors: Stefan Schindler and Linda Olsvig-Whittaker

Volume 6 (2013): Edition 3 (December 2013)

Volume 6 (2013): Edition 2 (December 2013)

Volume 6 (2013): Edition 1 (January 2013)

Volume 5 (2012): Edition 3 (December 2012)

Volume 5 (2012): Edition 2 (November 2012)

Volume 5 (2012): Edition 1 (January 2012)

Volume 4 (2011): Edition 3 (August 2011)

Volume 4 (2011): Edition 2 (April 2011)

Volume 4 (2011): Edition 1 (January 2011)

Volume 3 (2010): Edition 2 (December 2010)

Volume 3 (2010): Edition 1 (June 2010)

Volume 2 (2009): Edition 2 (December 2009)

Volume 2 (2009): Edition 1 (June 2009)

Volume 1 (2008): Edition 2 (December 2008)

Volume 1 (2008): Edition 1 (June 2008)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1805-4196
Première publication
20 Jun 2008
Période de publication
3 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 14 (2021): Edition 3 (December 2021)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1805-4196
Première publication
20 Jun 2008
Période de publication
3 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

7 Articles
Accès libre

Floodplain Forests and Urban Parks – A Brief Comparison of Bird Diversity

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2022
Pages: 1 - 11

Résumé

Abstract

Urbanization in cultural landscapes generally tends to select for omnivorous, granivorous, and cavity/hole nesting bird species in green urban areas. Studies on bird diversity in the cities are important to better understanding to the ecology of urban and sub-urban landscapes. The aim of this study was research on bird diversity in urban parks in Olomouc city in order to brief comparison with bird diversity in hardwood floodplain forest habitats based on our older above-mentioned study. Bird diversity in urban parks was very similar to the bird diversity in some localities of floodplain forests from the Czech Republic. Comparison between urban parks and hardwood floodplain forests in the vicinity of the city revealed a high similarity of alpha-diversity and diversity indexes. These results indicated that large urban parks have nearly the same importance for bird diversity such as managed hardwood floodplain forests. Results highlighted an importance of urban green areas for biodiversity maintaining in European cultural landscapes.

Mots clés

  • Biodiversity of bird nesting communities
  • Line transect
  • Olomouc city
  • Urban green area
Accès libre

Developing an Approach for Assessing Urban Blue-Green Spaces Towards Sustainable Urban Growth Through Retrospective Cyber Metrics Analysis of Operational Estimations Approaches

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2022
Pages: 12 - 51

Résumé

Abstract

Urban blue-green spaces provide us abundant social, environmental, and economic benefits, but the disparities often exist in their distribution and accessibility. Traditionally urban blue-green spaces are a consolidation of “blue-green infrastructure” within urban areas. Several urban features like parks, forests, gardens, visible water, such as parks, rivers, canals, reservoirs, ponds, lakes, fountains, etc. are categorized or considered under the blue-green spaces and these are very much crucial for various urban ecosystem services. These play a significant role for all stakeholders of the urban community. Thus, everyone must ensure the equitable number of blue-green spaces for all. Recently, several rules and regulations towards the safeguarding of urban blue-green spaces have been outlined. The work presents a methodological framework to develop an approach towards sustainable urban growth with the help of urban blue-green spaces assessments. The current work has attempted to examine the linkage between issues of the urban blue-green spaces for restoring the required infrastructures. It can be utilised for all sustainable urban development for urban planning and design projects to play a pivotal role. The work emphasizes more to develop a methodological framework to analyze the urban blue-green spaces for augmentation with a theoretical framework. It is expected that the advancement of a problem cum objectives-driven approach will help to design an impact-driven approach for planned and concrete action.

Mots clés

  • Assessment
  • Blue-Green Space
  • Supervised classification
  • High Resolutions
  • Remote Sensing & GIS
  • Geostatistics
Accès libre

Analysis of Land Use Land Cover Changes with Land Surface Temperature Using Spatial-Temporal Data for Nagpur City, India

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2022
Pages: 52 - 64

Résumé

Abstract

Remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) are the most efficient tools for spatial data processing. This Spatial technique helps in generating data on natural resources such as land, forests, water, and their management with planning. The study focuses on assessing land change and surface temperature for Nagpur city, Maharashtra, for two decades. Land surface temperature and land use land cover (LULC) are determined using Landsat 8 and Landsat 7 imageries for the years 2000 and 2020. The supervised classification technique is used with a maximum likelihood algorithm for performing land classification. Four significant classes are determined for classification, i.e., barren land, built-up, vegetation and water bodies. Thermal bands are used for the calculation of land surface temperature. The land use land cover map reveals that the built-up and water bodies are increasing with a decrease in vegetation and barren land. Likewise, the land surface temperature map showed increased temperature for all classes from 2000 to 2020. The overall accuracy of classification is 98 %, and the kappa coefficients are 0.98 and 0.9 for the years 2000 and 2020, respectively. Due to urban sprawl and changes in land use patterns, the increase in land surface temperature is documented, which is a global issue that needs to be addressed.

Mots clés

  • Nagpur
  • urban sprawl
  • land surface temperature
  • land use land cover
  • Kappa coefficient
Accès libre

Land Use Changes in the Alpine Tree Line Ecotone in the Hrubý Jeseník Mountains (Czech Republic)

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2022
Pages: 65 - 87

Résumé

Abstract

Currently, we expected a altitudinal shift of forest vegetation upward under predicted climate changes impacts to European mountains ecosystems. In this context can be very interesting, that changes in alpine tree line ecotone in high European mountains were induced by human activities relatively often also in history. Probably one of the most important driver in land-use changes in high mountains was grazing, which significantly have influenced both mountain spruce forests and open alpine grasslands in central-Europe. This paper deals with historical changes of land-use in Hruby Jesenik Mountains (Czech Republic) during 19th and 20th centuries. Results revealed consequences of former grazing in mountain grasslands above alpine tree line ecotone in the frame of land-use analyses based on historical maps and other sources. These results, based on historical data, support our better understanding to current dynamic changes in European mountain landscapes.

Mots clés

  • Alpine tree line ecotone
  • importance of grazing
  • historical land-use changes
  • mountain forests
Accès libre

Landscape Changes of Rural Protected Landscape Areas in Czechia: From Arable Land to Permanent Grassland – From Old to New Unification?

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2022
Pages: 88 - 109

Résumé

Abstract

The Czech rural landscape is a subject of research because it is affected by both intensification and extensification of land cover. This landscape was influenced in recent decades by political and socio-economic changes; we studied how these changes were reflected in the land cover development in protected areas. We selected ten Protected landscape areas (PLAs) with a significant share of open agricultural landscape and focused on land cover changes from the 1950s till the present with four milestones (1950s, 1990, 2004-2006, 2016-2019). Based on vectorised land cover data, analyses of land cover changes, land cover flows and landscape structure were performed.

More than one third of the studied area had changed. Forests dominated and enlarged its extent (from 39 % to 47 %); land cover flow (LCF) from arable land to permanent grassland was the largest process during study period (17% of study area) and it expanded after 1990. Other major LCF is forest spreading on permanent grassland (5 %) and arable land (3 %).

Trends of landscape metrics describing landscape structure are ambiguous and differ between PLAs. In total, Shannon’s diversity index (SDI), Shannon’s evenness index (SEI), and Mean Patch Size (MPS) increased and Number of Patches (NumP) decreased. SDI and SEI show improvement through time; however increasing anthropogenic areas are considered as factor contributing to this positive trend, despite the negative role of these categories in ecological stability. MPS and NumP show ongoing homogenization and unification of the landscape; however it differs between PLAs, with some having more favourable conditions and trends towards higher landscape heterogeneity.

To conclude, homogenous landscape structure remains present in Czech rural PLAs; however, there has been a huge shift to more extensive agricultural land cover, which is similar to some European protected areas.

Mots clés

  • Land cover change
  • Landscape structure
  • Land cover flows
  • Protected landscape area
  • Czechia
Accès libre

Landscape Painting in the Research of Landscape Changes

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2022
Pages: 110 - 127

Résumé

Abstract

The article analyses possibilities of using landscape paintings in the studies of land cover changes. It examines 112 paintings from 1728 till 1976 and compares them with existing topographic maps. It compares land cover depicted in the paintings with present landscape and it studies changes of landscape derived from topographic maps from several periods, ranging from 1764 till 2006. In order to make the analyses, all paintings had to be localised as precisely as possible. This was done with the help of present map and by field work. Field work was also necessary for identifying main land use/cover changes in comparison to landscape painting. A TopoLandUse database, consisting of land use vector data from five periods, based on vectorisation of topographical maps, was used for analysing land use/land cover changes, their rates and main trends.

Comparison of landscape paintings with topographic maps showed overall agreement between both types of sources. Paintings often capture details that cannot be found in the maps, thus enriching gained data. They can also serve as a source for periods from which no maps and other cartographic sources exist. However, paintings are as reliable as the painter makes them.

Comparison of landscape in the paintings with the present landscape showed general extensification and abandonment of the landscape, which manifested mainly in the increase of woody vegetation and decrease of arable land. Analyses of land cover changes in the surrounding cadastres in several periods confirmed general trends that can be seen in not only the Czech Republic but also elsewhere in Europe. These are mainly spread of both woody vegetation and permanent grassland at the detriment of arable land but also increase in built-up and recreational area in the settlements.

Mots clés

  • landscape painting
  • land cover change
  • Czech Republic
Accès libre

Assessing the Vulnerability to Land Degradation of (Not Only) Rural Landscapes Using the ESAI Index

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2022
Pages: 128 - 144

Résumé

Abstract

Determining the vulnerability of land to degradation is a crucial factor enabling policy makers to take targeted actions. The main aim of this work was to determine vulnerability to land degradation using the Environmentally Sensitive Area Index (ESAI) in the territory of 206 municipalities with extended power (MEPs), regions (NUTS 3) and in the Czech Republic (CR). The other two aims were found out i) whether land degradation is affected by land use characterized by landscape types according to Löw et al. (2006) and ii) whether land degradation occurred in larger territorial units (regions) or scattered across the CR (in individual isolated MEPs). The Environmentally Sensitive Area (ESA) method assesses the vulnerability of an area to land degradation using a composite index containing indicators divided into four thematic groups: human activity pressure and management intensity, vegetation cover and vegetation quality, climate, and soil in the assessed area. The ESAI index is expressed on a semi-quantitative scale ranging from the lowest levels of degradation (land not affected and land potentially affected by degradation) to the highest level of degradation (land at high risk). Most MEPs with a share of more than 70 % of their area were in the category "moderately critical areas" at risk of land degradation were located in the Central Bohemia region (15 MEPs) and in the South Moravia region (14 MEPs). For the whole territory of the Czech Republic, 51 % of the territory was found to be critically vulnerable to land degradation, and 38 % of the republic area was vulnerable to land degradation. Vulnerability to land degradation was strongly influenced by the landscape type. Almost all MEPs with a predominantly agricultural landscapes were critically vulnerable to land degradation, as were about half of the MEPs in the forest-agricultural and urban landscapes and only a few MEPs in the forest landscapes. Given the selected indicators, the MEP seems to be the appropriate smallest administrative unit to assess vulnerability to land degradation in the Czech Republic. The map of individual ESAI values can be viewed free of charge online at http://www.imalbes.cz/vysledek.php. We are currently preparing a proposal for appropriate measures to prevent and reduce land degradation throughout the territory of the Czech Republic, and our proposals are coordinated with representatives of the MEPs and regions.

Mots clés

  • land degradation
  • vulnerability
  • Environmentally Sensitive Area Index
  • region
  • municipality with extended power
  • Czech Republic
7 Articles
Accès libre

Floodplain Forests and Urban Parks – A Brief Comparison of Bird Diversity

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2022
Pages: 1 - 11

Résumé

Abstract

Urbanization in cultural landscapes generally tends to select for omnivorous, granivorous, and cavity/hole nesting bird species in green urban areas. Studies on bird diversity in the cities are important to better understanding to the ecology of urban and sub-urban landscapes. The aim of this study was research on bird diversity in urban parks in Olomouc city in order to brief comparison with bird diversity in hardwood floodplain forest habitats based on our older above-mentioned study. Bird diversity in urban parks was very similar to the bird diversity in some localities of floodplain forests from the Czech Republic. Comparison between urban parks and hardwood floodplain forests in the vicinity of the city revealed a high similarity of alpha-diversity and diversity indexes. These results indicated that large urban parks have nearly the same importance for bird diversity such as managed hardwood floodplain forests. Results highlighted an importance of urban green areas for biodiversity maintaining in European cultural landscapes.

Mots clés

  • Biodiversity of bird nesting communities
  • Line transect
  • Olomouc city
  • Urban green area
Accès libre

Developing an Approach for Assessing Urban Blue-Green Spaces Towards Sustainable Urban Growth Through Retrospective Cyber Metrics Analysis of Operational Estimations Approaches

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2022
Pages: 12 - 51

Résumé

Abstract

Urban blue-green spaces provide us abundant social, environmental, and economic benefits, but the disparities often exist in their distribution and accessibility. Traditionally urban blue-green spaces are a consolidation of “blue-green infrastructure” within urban areas. Several urban features like parks, forests, gardens, visible water, such as parks, rivers, canals, reservoirs, ponds, lakes, fountains, etc. are categorized or considered under the blue-green spaces and these are very much crucial for various urban ecosystem services. These play a significant role for all stakeholders of the urban community. Thus, everyone must ensure the equitable number of blue-green spaces for all. Recently, several rules and regulations towards the safeguarding of urban blue-green spaces have been outlined. The work presents a methodological framework to develop an approach towards sustainable urban growth with the help of urban blue-green spaces assessments. The current work has attempted to examine the linkage between issues of the urban blue-green spaces for restoring the required infrastructures. It can be utilised for all sustainable urban development for urban planning and design projects to play a pivotal role. The work emphasizes more to develop a methodological framework to analyze the urban blue-green spaces for augmentation with a theoretical framework. It is expected that the advancement of a problem cum objectives-driven approach will help to design an impact-driven approach for planned and concrete action.

Mots clés

  • Assessment
  • Blue-Green Space
  • Supervised classification
  • High Resolutions
  • Remote Sensing & GIS
  • Geostatistics
Accès libre

Analysis of Land Use Land Cover Changes with Land Surface Temperature Using Spatial-Temporal Data for Nagpur City, India

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2022
Pages: 52 - 64

Résumé

Abstract

Remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) are the most efficient tools for spatial data processing. This Spatial technique helps in generating data on natural resources such as land, forests, water, and their management with planning. The study focuses on assessing land change and surface temperature for Nagpur city, Maharashtra, for two decades. Land surface temperature and land use land cover (LULC) are determined using Landsat 8 and Landsat 7 imageries for the years 2000 and 2020. The supervised classification technique is used with a maximum likelihood algorithm for performing land classification. Four significant classes are determined for classification, i.e., barren land, built-up, vegetation and water bodies. Thermal bands are used for the calculation of land surface temperature. The land use land cover map reveals that the built-up and water bodies are increasing with a decrease in vegetation and barren land. Likewise, the land surface temperature map showed increased temperature for all classes from 2000 to 2020. The overall accuracy of classification is 98 %, and the kappa coefficients are 0.98 and 0.9 for the years 2000 and 2020, respectively. Due to urban sprawl and changes in land use patterns, the increase in land surface temperature is documented, which is a global issue that needs to be addressed.

Mots clés

  • Nagpur
  • urban sprawl
  • land surface temperature
  • land use land cover
  • Kappa coefficient
Accès libre

Land Use Changes in the Alpine Tree Line Ecotone in the Hrubý Jeseník Mountains (Czech Republic)

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2022
Pages: 65 - 87

Résumé

Abstract

Currently, we expected a altitudinal shift of forest vegetation upward under predicted climate changes impacts to European mountains ecosystems. In this context can be very interesting, that changes in alpine tree line ecotone in high European mountains were induced by human activities relatively often also in history. Probably one of the most important driver in land-use changes in high mountains was grazing, which significantly have influenced both mountain spruce forests and open alpine grasslands in central-Europe. This paper deals with historical changes of land-use in Hruby Jesenik Mountains (Czech Republic) during 19th and 20th centuries. Results revealed consequences of former grazing in mountain grasslands above alpine tree line ecotone in the frame of land-use analyses based on historical maps and other sources. These results, based on historical data, support our better understanding to current dynamic changes in European mountain landscapes.

Mots clés

  • Alpine tree line ecotone
  • importance of grazing
  • historical land-use changes
  • mountain forests
Accès libre

Landscape Changes of Rural Protected Landscape Areas in Czechia: From Arable Land to Permanent Grassland – From Old to New Unification?

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2022
Pages: 88 - 109

Résumé

Abstract

The Czech rural landscape is a subject of research because it is affected by both intensification and extensification of land cover. This landscape was influenced in recent decades by political and socio-economic changes; we studied how these changes were reflected in the land cover development in protected areas. We selected ten Protected landscape areas (PLAs) with a significant share of open agricultural landscape and focused on land cover changes from the 1950s till the present with four milestones (1950s, 1990, 2004-2006, 2016-2019). Based on vectorised land cover data, analyses of land cover changes, land cover flows and landscape structure were performed.

More than one third of the studied area had changed. Forests dominated and enlarged its extent (from 39 % to 47 %); land cover flow (LCF) from arable land to permanent grassland was the largest process during study period (17% of study area) and it expanded after 1990. Other major LCF is forest spreading on permanent grassland (5 %) and arable land (3 %).

Trends of landscape metrics describing landscape structure are ambiguous and differ between PLAs. In total, Shannon’s diversity index (SDI), Shannon’s evenness index (SEI), and Mean Patch Size (MPS) increased and Number of Patches (NumP) decreased. SDI and SEI show improvement through time; however increasing anthropogenic areas are considered as factor contributing to this positive trend, despite the negative role of these categories in ecological stability. MPS and NumP show ongoing homogenization and unification of the landscape; however it differs between PLAs, with some having more favourable conditions and trends towards higher landscape heterogeneity.

To conclude, homogenous landscape structure remains present in Czech rural PLAs; however, there has been a huge shift to more extensive agricultural land cover, which is similar to some European protected areas.

Mots clés

  • Land cover change
  • Landscape structure
  • Land cover flows
  • Protected landscape area
  • Czechia
Accès libre

Landscape Painting in the Research of Landscape Changes

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2022
Pages: 110 - 127

Résumé

Abstract

The article analyses possibilities of using landscape paintings in the studies of land cover changes. It examines 112 paintings from 1728 till 1976 and compares them with existing topographic maps. It compares land cover depicted in the paintings with present landscape and it studies changes of landscape derived from topographic maps from several periods, ranging from 1764 till 2006. In order to make the analyses, all paintings had to be localised as precisely as possible. This was done with the help of present map and by field work. Field work was also necessary for identifying main land use/cover changes in comparison to landscape painting. A TopoLandUse database, consisting of land use vector data from five periods, based on vectorisation of topographical maps, was used for analysing land use/land cover changes, their rates and main trends.

Comparison of landscape paintings with topographic maps showed overall agreement between both types of sources. Paintings often capture details that cannot be found in the maps, thus enriching gained data. They can also serve as a source for periods from which no maps and other cartographic sources exist. However, paintings are as reliable as the painter makes them.

Comparison of landscape in the paintings with the present landscape showed general extensification and abandonment of the landscape, which manifested mainly in the increase of woody vegetation and decrease of arable land. Analyses of land cover changes in the surrounding cadastres in several periods confirmed general trends that can be seen in not only the Czech Republic but also elsewhere in Europe. These are mainly spread of both woody vegetation and permanent grassland at the detriment of arable land but also increase in built-up and recreational area in the settlements.

Mots clés

  • landscape painting
  • land cover change
  • Czech Republic
Accès libre

Assessing the Vulnerability to Land Degradation of (Not Only) Rural Landscapes Using the ESAI Index

Publié en ligne: 18 Jan 2022
Pages: 128 - 144

Résumé

Abstract

Determining the vulnerability of land to degradation is a crucial factor enabling policy makers to take targeted actions. The main aim of this work was to determine vulnerability to land degradation using the Environmentally Sensitive Area Index (ESAI) in the territory of 206 municipalities with extended power (MEPs), regions (NUTS 3) and in the Czech Republic (CR). The other two aims were found out i) whether land degradation is affected by land use characterized by landscape types according to Löw et al. (2006) and ii) whether land degradation occurred in larger territorial units (regions) or scattered across the CR (in individual isolated MEPs). The Environmentally Sensitive Area (ESA) method assesses the vulnerability of an area to land degradation using a composite index containing indicators divided into four thematic groups: human activity pressure and management intensity, vegetation cover and vegetation quality, climate, and soil in the assessed area. The ESAI index is expressed on a semi-quantitative scale ranging from the lowest levels of degradation (land not affected and land potentially affected by degradation) to the highest level of degradation (land at high risk). Most MEPs with a share of more than 70 % of their area were in the category "moderately critical areas" at risk of land degradation were located in the Central Bohemia region (15 MEPs) and in the South Moravia region (14 MEPs). For the whole territory of the Czech Republic, 51 % of the territory was found to be critically vulnerable to land degradation, and 38 % of the republic area was vulnerable to land degradation. Vulnerability to land degradation was strongly influenced by the landscape type. Almost all MEPs with a predominantly agricultural landscapes were critically vulnerable to land degradation, as were about half of the MEPs in the forest-agricultural and urban landscapes and only a few MEPs in the forest landscapes. Given the selected indicators, the MEP seems to be the appropriate smallest administrative unit to assess vulnerability to land degradation in the Czech Republic. The map of individual ESAI values can be viewed free of charge online at http://www.imalbes.cz/vysledek.php. We are currently preparing a proposal for appropriate measures to prevent and reduce land degradation throughout the territory of the Czech Republic, and our proposals are coordinated with representatives of the MEPs and regions.

Mots clés

  • land degradation
  • vulnerability
  • Environmentally Sensitive Area Index
  • region
  • municipality with extended power
  • Czech Republic

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