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Magazine et Edition

Volume 11 (2022): Edition 1 (January 2022)

Volume 10 (2021): Edition 1 (January 2021)

Volume 9 (2020): Edition 1 (March 2020)

Volume 8 (2019): Edition 1 (June 2019)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2193-8997
Première publication
30 Apr 2019
Période de publication
1 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 11 (2022): Edition 1 (January 2022)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2193-8997
Première publication
30 Apr 2019
Période de publication
1 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

4 Articles
Accès libre

Enrolling at university and the social influence of peers

Publié en ligne: 01 Feb 2022
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

This article studies peer effects on the decision to enroll at university. To determine the social influence of peers, we use a measure encompassing the two major dimensions of social influence in the classroom: the ability and capacity of peers to exchange information about study options. This paper uses French administrative data on the universe of first year applicants to a single university over seven consecutive cohorts. We exploit idiosyncratic variations in the proportion of peers advised to change their educational choice. We find that our variable of interest has a small but negative and significant effect on the individual decision to attend university and observe stronger peer effects among groups of students of similar gender or socio-economic background. We also find a weaker impact of the proportion of peers advised to change their educational choice on the individuals of higher level of academic ability.

Mots clés

  • peer effects
  • higher education
  • university enrollment

JEL Classification

  • I21
  • I23
  • J24
Accès libre

Effects of work requirements for food assistance eligibility on disability claiming

Publié en ligne: 19 Feb 2022
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

Between 2010 and 2017, 42 U.S. states added work requirements as a food assistance eligibility criterion for Able-Bodied Adults Without Dependents (ABAWDs). Another U.S. public assistance program, Supplemental Security Income (SSI), provides food assistance without a work requirement, along with cash transfers and health insurance. Therefore, individuals for whom working is difficult may be induced to opt out of the labor force and into SSI in order to maintain access to food assistance. This study is the first to examine whether work requirements associated with food assistance eligibility lead to an increase in SSI applications and receipts. Based on difference-in-differences and event study analyses of comprehensive administrative claims data from the Social Security Administration and survey data from the Current Population Survey, this study finds evidence of lagged effects on SSI applications overall, and reduced Supplementary Nutritional Assistance Program (SNAP) receipts followed by a delayed smaller increase in SSI receipts among individuals with self-reported disabilities. While most SSI applications induced by SNAP-related work requirements appear to be unsuccessful, a small, vulnerable population may move out of the workforce and into SSI in response to the implementation of work requirements.

Mots clés

  • disability
  • public assistance
  • work requirement
  • food stamps
  • time limit waiver
  • welfare

JEL Classification

  • H53
  • I38
  • J22
Accès libre

The impact of COVID-19 on the gender division of housework and childcare: Evidence from two waves of the pandemic in Italy

Publié en ligne: 03 Aug 2022
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a dramatic impact on families’ lives because of the increased demands of housework and childcare. Much of the additional burden has been shouldered by women. Yet, the rise in remote working also has the potential to increase paternal involvement in family life and thus to reduce gender role inequalities. This effect depends on the working arrangements of each partner, whether working remotely, at their usual workplace, or ceasing work altogether. Using two waves of an ad-hoc survey conducted in April and November 2020, we show that the time spent by women in domestic activities did not depend on their partners’ working arrangements. Conversely, men spent fewer hours helping with housework and home schooling when their partners were at home. Although men who worked remotely or did not work at all devoted more time to household activities during the second wave of COVID-19, the increased time they spent at home did not seem to lead to a reallocation of couples’ time.

Mots clés

  • gender
  • housework
  • childcare
  • work arrangements
  • COVID-19

JEL Classification

  • J13
  • J16
  • J21
Accès libre

Beyond traditional academic degrees: The labor market returns to occupational credentials in the United States

Publié en ligne: 08 Aug 2022
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

Occupational credentials provide an additional—and, at times, alternative—path other than traditional academic degrees for individuals to increase productivity and demonstrate their abilities and qualifications to employers. In the United States, these credentials typically take the form of licenses and certifications. Although a critical part of the workforce landscape, the literature on the returns to credentials is inadequate, with prior research typically relying on Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regressions which do not sufficiently control for selection. Using questions that identify credential receipt from the 2015 and 2016 United States’ Current Population Surveys, we construct an instrumental variable of local peer influence using the within-labor market credential rate of individuals sharing the same sociodemographic characteristics, while controlling for the same group's average wages and a suite of demographic and geographic controls. We use this instrument in a marginal treatment effects estimator, which allows for estimation of the average treatment effect and determines the direction of selection, and we estimate the effects of credentials on labor market outcomes. We find large, meaningful returns in the form of increased probability of individual employment, an effect which is concentrated primarily among women. The effect of having a credential on log wages is higher for those in the sub-baccalaureate labor market, suggesting the potential role of occupational credentials as an alternative path to marketable human capital and a signal of skills in the absence of a bachelor's degree.

Mots clés

  • human capital
  • credentials
  • certifications
  • licenses

JEL Classification

  • J44
  • J24
  • J40
  • J01
4 Articles
Accès libre

Enrolling at university and the social influence of peers

Publié en ligne: 01 Feb 2022
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

This article studies peer effects on the decision to enroll at university. To determine the social influence of peers, we use a measure encompassing the two major dimensions of social influence in the classroom: the ability and capacity of peers to exchange information about study options. This paper uses French administrative data on the universe of first year applicants to a single university over seven consecutive cohorts. We exploit idiosyncratic variations in the proportion of peers advised to change their educational choice. We find that our variable of interest has a small but negative and significant effect on the individual decision to attend university and observe stronger peer effects among groups of students of similar gender or socio-economic background. We also find a weaker impact of the proportion of peers advised to change their educational choice on the individuals of higher level of academic ability.

Mots clés

  • peer effects
  • higher education
  • university enrollment

JEL Classification

  • I21
  • I23
  • J24
Accès libre

Effects of work requirements for food assistance eligibility on disability claiming

Publié en ligne: 19 Feb 2022
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

Between 2010 and 2017, 42 U.S. states added work requirements as a food assistance eligibility criterion for Able-Bodied Adults Without Dependents (ABAWDs). Another U.S. public assistance program, Supplemental Security Income (SSI), provides food assistance without a work requirement, along with cash transfers and health insurance. Therefore, individuals for whom working is difficult may be induced to opt out of the labor force and into SSI in order to maintain access to food assistance. This study is the first to examine whether work requirements associated with food assistance eligibility lead to an increase in SSI applications and receipts. Based on difference-in-differences and event study analyses of comprehensive administrative claims data from the Social Security Administration and survey data from the Current Population Survey, this study finds evidence of lagged effects on SSI applications overall, and reduced Supplementary Nutritional Assistance Program (SNAP) receipts followed by a delayed smaller increase in SSI receipts among individuals with self-reported disabilities. While most SSI applications induced by SNAP-related work requirements appear to be unsuccessful, a small, vulnerable population may move out of the workforce and into SSI in response to the implementation of work requirements.

Mots clés

  • disability
  • public assistance
  • work requirement
  • food stamps
  • time limit waiver
  • welfare

JEL Classification

  • H53
  • I38
  • J22
Accès libre

The impact of COVID-19 on the gender division of housework and childcare: Evidence from two waves of the pandemic in Italy

Publié en ligne: 03 Aug 2022
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a dramatic impact on families’ lives because of the increased demands of housework and childcare. Much of the additional burden has been shouldered by women. Yet, the rise in remote working also has the potential to increase paternal involvement in family life and thus to reduce gender role inequalities. This effect depends on the working arrangements of each partner, whether working remotely, at their usual workplace, or ceasing work altogether. Using two waves of an ad-hoc survey conducted in April and November 2020, we show that the time spent by women in domestic activities did not depend on their partners’ working arrangements. Conversely, men spent fewer hours helping with housework and home schooling when their partners were at home. Although men who worked remotely or did not work at all devoted more time to household activities during the second wave of COVID-19, the increased time they spent at home did not seem to lead to a reallocation of couples’ time.

Mots clés

  • gender
  • housework
  • childcare
  • work arrangements
  • COVID-19

JEL Classification

  • J13
  • J16
  • J21
Accès libre

Beyond traditional academic degrees: The labor market returns to occupational credentials in the United States

Publié en ligne: 08 Aug 2022
Pages: -

Résumé

Abstract

Occupational credentials provide an additional—and, at times, alternative—path other than traditional academic degrees for individuals to increase productivity and demonstrate their abilities and qualifications to employers. In the United States, these credentials typically take the form of licenses and certifications. Although a critical part of the workforce landscape, the literature on the returns to credentials is inadequate, with prior research typically relying on Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regressions which do not sufficiently control for selection. Using questions that identify credential receipt from the 2015 and 2016 United States’ Current Population Surveys, we construct an instrumental variable of local peer influence using the within-labor market credential rate of individuals sharing the same sociodemographic characteristics, while controlling for the same group's average wages and a suite of demographic and geographic controls. We use this instrument in a marginal treatment effects estimator, which allows for estimation of the average treatment effect and determines the direction of selection, and we estimate the effects of credentials on labor market outcomes. We find large, meaningful returns in the form of increased probability of individual employment, an effect which is concentrated primarily among women. The effect of having a credential on log wages is higher for those in the sub-baccalaureate labor market, suggesting the potential role of occupational credentials as an alternative path to marketable human capital and a signal of skills in the absence of a bachelor's degree.

Mots clés

  • human capital
  • credentials
  • certifications
  • licenses

JEL Classification

  • J44
  • J24
  • J40
  • J01

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