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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1178-5608
Première publication
01 Jan 2008
Période de publication
1 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 9 (2016): Edition 1 (January 2016)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1178-5608
Première publication
01 Jan 2008
Période de publication
1 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

20 Articles
Accès libre

On Mass Sensing Using Micro/Nano Resonators - Approaches, Challenges And Directions

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 1 - 20

Résumé

Abstract

Micro/Nano electromechanical systems based Mass sensors are being increasingly used for detecting very low masses, with significant applications in bio-sensing as well as environmental sensing. A number of different shapes, excitation mechanisms as well as materials have been suggested for these sensors. In addition, with reducing dimensions due to improvement in fabrication, these sensors have the potential to measure bacterial level masses. This paper reviews some of the research directions in this field. Various sensing and actuation strategies for these resonators are discussed. In addition, three important challenges, which have the potential of providing new directions of research are also explored. These include quality factor, increasing nonlinearity and coupling. Coupling of sensors can provide a unique opportunity to build several resonant sensors on the same chip and reduce the number of contacts required as well as the potential bandwidth

Mots clés

  • Microelectromechanical systems
  • Mass sensors
  • damping
  • nonlinearity
  • coupled systems
Accès libre

Electrodermal Activity-Based Feasibility Study On The Relationship Between Attention And Blinking

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 21 - 31

Résumé

Abstract

Various factors are believed to cause blinking. One of these factors is attention. However, the relationship between blinking and attention has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we focus on electrodermal activity (EDA) to demonstrate this relationship. EDA is an electrical phenomenon involving the glandular releasing of sweat that is caused by mental excitement or strain. We employ EDA to quantify attention as a means to elucidate the blinking–attention relationship. We conduct an experiment based on EDA and present the results to verify this relationship

Mots clés

  • Skin conductance level
  • skin conductance response
  • precueing method
  • blink rate
Accès libre

Identification Of Electro-Hydraulic Actuator Using Fractional Model

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 32 - 48

Résumé

Abstract

Electro-hydraulic actuator (EHA system) identification is to describe the characteristic of the system that useful for prediction or control system design. There are numerous methods of EHA modeling but there has not been much model using fractional-order (FO) model. In this work, integer-order (IO) model and FO model are developed to model EHA system. Output-error method is used as the estimator for both model. The coefficient of IO model was first estimated and using the estimated coefficient, the derivative order of FO model is estimated. These models has been validated by comparison of error, coefficient of determination (R2), mean square error (MSE) and correlation function. The results for the proposed model show improvement compared to the IO model.

key word

  • system identification
  • EHA
  • modeling
  • fractional-order model
  • continuous-time transfer function
Accès libre

Effects Of Low Frequency Weak Magnetic Field On The Cardiovascular System Through The Brain Cortex

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 50 - 66

Résumé

Abstract

In order to study the effect of low frequency weak magnetic field on the cardiovascular system through the central nervous system, this paper design the experiment that is using a rotating magnetic field acts on the cerebral cortex, the different frequency when different parts of the brain, collecting and analysis ECG and blood pressure signal, and discussing the effect of low frequency rotating magnetic field on cardiovascular system through the brain cortex. It proved that a rotating magnetic field can affect blood pressure through cerebral cortex, has different effects on blood pressure by using different frequencies, the effects on blood pressure is not the same because a different position focused on by magnetic field. The results show the frequency and location stimulated with rotating magnetic field may have certain therapeutic effect for controlling hypertension.

Mots clés

  • low frequency magnetic field
  • cardiovascular system
  • blood pressure
  • biological effect of magnetic field
Accès libre

Application Of Boundary Layer Theory In Open Channel Flume Design

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 67 - 88

Résumé

Abstract

In accordance with the problem of the need for calculation formula of the straight wall flume flow in open channel by experiment, the method of thee boundary layer is proposed; Analysis with boundary layer displacement thickness is studied, and the energy equation, continuous equation and the theory and critical depth of flume flow coefficient, velocity coefficient is deduced using the boundary layer theory and the flow calculation formula is given; Through iterative algorithm, the flow can be calculated theoretically. With four different kinds of parameters in the U-shaped channel flume algorithm are verified, the results show that the theoretical calculation corresponds to the actual observation. Therefore, the boundary layer theory to calculate the flow of the flume is not only studied the amount of water problems in theory, simplifies the complicated test calibration, but also has important practical value.

Mots clés

  • Boundary layer theory
  • Open channel
  • Flow measurement
  • Flow calculation
Accès libre

Automatic Measurement Of Shape Parameters For Hydraulic Torque Converter

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 89 - 107

Résumé

Abstract

In this paper, the automatic measurement method of the Hydraulic Torque Converter shape parameters is studied. Aiming at the defects of the traditional manual measurement method, the solution for measuring the shape parameters of Hydraulic Torque Converter with the automatic measurement system is proposed on the basis of in-depth analysis for the Hydraulic Torque Converter shape parameters’ characteristics. Automatic measurement system mainly contains two parts, the Hardware Measurement System and the Software Measurement System. The working principle of the automatic measurement system are as follows: firstly, as system starting, the arm upper Measuring Fixture put the Hydraulic Torque Converter work piece into the Measuring Fixture, and then the Measuring Fixture make the Pump Hub Axle and Cover Hub Axle of the measured work piece fixed; secondly, the measured work piece start to rotate, at the same times, s the work piece is measured by MARPOSS displacement sensor. The measuring stop as soon as the measured work piece completes rotating 360 degrees. Lastly, measurement data is collects by the Software Measurement System based on LabVIEW development platform using NI acquisition card. The Moving Average Filter and Butterworth approximation method is mainly used during processing the measurement data. The tolerance measuring value of each shape parameter can be obtained, after the measurement data processed. The external dimensions of the measured work piece have been qualified by the data obtained. Under practical test, this method fit the industrial production demand very well; it can help to improve the production efficiency greatly used in the industrial production

Mots clés

  • Hydraulic Torque Converter
  • automatic measurement
  • shape parameters
  • data acquisition
Accès libre

Face Detection In Profile Views Using Fast Discrete Curvelet Transform (Fdct) And Support Vector Machine (Svm)

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 108 - 123

Résumé

Abstract

Human face detection is an indispensable component in face processing applications, including automatic face recognition, security surveillance, facial expression recognition, and the like. This paper presents a profile face detection algorithm based on curvelet features, as curvelet transform offers good directional representation and can capture edge information in human face from different angles. First, a simple skin color segmentation scheme based on HSV (Hue - Saturation - Value) and YCgCr (luminance - green chrominance - red chrominance) color models is used to extract skin blocks. The segmentation scheme utilizes only the S and CgCr components, and is therefore luminance independent. Features extracted from three frequency bands from curvelet decomposition are used to detect face in each block. A support vector machine (SVM) classifier is trained for the classification task. In the performance test, the results showed that the proposed algorithm can detect profile faces in color images with good detection rate and low misdetection rate

Mots clés

  • face detection
  • curvelet transform
  • HSV
  • YCgCr
  • SVM
Accès libre

Vision Based Multi-Feature Hand Gesture Recognition For Indian Sign Language Manual Signs

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 124 - 147

Résumé

Abstract

Indian sign language (ISL) is the main communication medium among deaf Indians. An ISL vocabulary show that the hand plays a significant role in ISL. ISL includes static and dynamic hand gesture recognition. The main aim of this paper is to present multi-feature static hand gesture recognition for alphabets and numbers. Here, comparative analysis of various feature descriptors such as chain code, shape matrix, Fourier descriptor, 7 Hu moments, and boundary moments is done. Multi-feature fusion descriptor is designed using contour (Boundary moments, Fourier descriptor) and region based (7Hu moments) descriptors. Analysis of this new multi-feature descriptor is done in comparison with other individual descriptors and it showed noteworthy results over other descriptors. Three classification methods such as, Nearest Mean Classifier (NMC), k-Nearest Neighborhood (k-NN) and Naive Bayes classifier are used for classification and comparison. New Multi-feature fusion descriptor shows high recognition rate of 99.61% among all with k-NN. Real time recognition for number signs 0-9, of fusion descriptor with NMC gave 100% accuracy

Mots clés

  • Indian sign language interpretation
  • k-nearest neighborhood classifier
  • nearest mean Classifier
  • Boundary moments
  • Fourier descriptor
  • 7 Hu moments
  • Chain code
  • Shape matrix
  • Naïve Bayes
Accès libre

Adaptive Intelligent Inverse Control Of Nonlinear Systems With Regard To Sensor Noise And Parameter Uncertainty (Magnetic Ball Levitation System Case Study)

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 148 - 169

Résumé

Abstract

Type-2 Fuzzy Neural Networks have tremendous capability in identification and control of nonlinear, time-varying and uncertain systems. In this paper the procedure of designing inverse adaptive type-2 fuzzy neural controller for online control of nonlinear dynamical systems will be presented. At first the structure of a novel class of Interval Type-2 Nonlinear Takagi-Sugeno-Keng Fuzzy Neural Networks (IT2-NTSK-FNN) will be presented. There is a class of nonlinear function of inputs in the consequent part of fuzzy rules. This IT2-NTSK-FNN comprises seven layers and the fuzzification is done in two first layers including type-2 fuzzy neurons with uncertainties in the mean of Gaussian membership functions. Third layer is rule layer and model reduction occurs in fourth layer via adaptive nodes. Fifth, sixth and seventh layers are consequent layer, centroid rules’ calculation layer and output layer respectively. For training the network backpropagation (steepest descend) method with adaptive training rate is used. Finally, three methods including online adaptive inverse controller based on IT2-NTSK-FNN, IT2-TSK-FNN (linear consequent part) and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) are employed to control of a magnetic ball levitation system. External disturbances and uncertainty in parameters are considered in the model of magnetic ball levitation system. Simulation results show the efficacy of the proposed method

Mots clés

  • Nonlinear Type-2 Fuzzy
  • Adaptive Inverse control
  • Magnetic ball levitation System
Accès libre

High Precision Target Localization Method Based On Compensation Of Attitude Angle Errors

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 169 - 190

Résumé

Abstract

The attitude angles of UAV, as the input parameters of the target localization process, influence the accuracy of geo-targeting. In order to improve the accuracy of target localization, this paper compensates the attitude angle errors of the UAV based on learning prediction compensation. Firstly, considering the airborne equipment and the metadata provided by the UAV, we combine rear intersection with GPS/INS to calculate the error of each platform and aircraft attitude angle. Then the error prediction model to compensate each platform and aircraft attitude error is derived by analyzing the error distribution and polynomial regression. Afterwards, because of the limit of the UAV aerial image amount and the similar influence of each attitude angle error on targeting and geometric correction, we use equivalent optical axis angle to represent platform and aircraft attitudes. Furthermore, we also predict and compensate the error of the equivalent angle. In this process, we adopt SVM and regression to classify and obtain error prediction model of equivalent optical axis angle. Finally, the actual data is used to verify the compensation algorithm. The results show that the method can improve the accuracy of target localization efficiently, and has a certain value of engineering guidance and practical application

Mots clés

  • UAV
  • Geo-targeting technology
  • Attitude Angles
  • Rear intersection
  • Regression
  • Learning
Accès libre

A Study Of Cost And Emissions Considering Speed Optimization In Trans Eurasia Transportation Based On Intelligent Transportation

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 191 - 214

Résumé

Abstract

People attach much importance to greenhouse gas emissions, and there is an increasing concern on cost and emissions on account of speed reduction for international shipping. Low steaming encountered these challenges of time constraint and technical requirements, while the cost and emissions of railway transportation distinctly differentiate from international shipping and it is a good substitute for international shipping to some extent. Intelligent transportation system (ITS) has proven to be a useful tool in providing efficient, environmentally friendly and safe transportation systems within inland and shipping. The paper focus on the selection and cooperative process between the shipping and railway, and discusses the cost and emissions by speed optimization for international shipping and railway transport aiming to select effective and environmental transportation mode based on ITS infrastructure. Firstly this paper reviews ITS and investigates the relationship of cost and speed along with the relationship of energy consumption and speed respectively for shipping and railway transportation, and then presents the speed optimization both shipping and railway transportation based on ITS so as to minimize cost and emissions. Subsequently it compared and analyzed the cost and emissions for mode selections, and it found that it is more effective and environmental to employ railway transport to some route leg. Finally A numerical case is presented and the results showed that it is necessary to shift model from sea to land on some section

Mots clés

  • cost effectiveness
  • CO2 emission
  • intelligent transportation
  • railway transportation
  • international shipping
  • green logistics
Accès libre

Vibration Based Health Monitoring Of Honeycomb Core Sandwich Panels Using Support Vector Machine

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 215 - 232

Résumé

Abstract

Honeycomb sandwich structures are extensively used in aerospace, aeronautic, marine and automotive industries due to their high strength-to-weight ratios, high energy absorption capability and effective acoustic insulation. Unfortunately, either presence of disbond along the skin-core interface or emergence of disbond due to repeated loading, aging or an intensive load can jeopardize the integrity and safety of the whole structure The current work presents a new array based technique for health monitoring of these structures using support vector machine (SVM). The proposed technique is first used on simulated mode shape data of the structure and then the technique is validated using experimental mode shape data. The experimental set up has been developed in laboratory and Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) is used to extract the experimental mode shapes. The results have been obtained using both support vector classification and regression analysis and it is found that that the former is better at prediction of debond location

Mots clés

  • Support vector machine
  • Structural health monitoring
  • Laser Doppler Vibrometer
  • Mode Shape Data
  • Honeycomb core sandwich panel
Accès libre

A New Three-Dimension Spatial Location Algorithm Of Wireless Sensor Network

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 233 - 255

Résumé

Mots clés

  • wireless sensor network
  • three-dimensional location
  • perception radius
  • centroid algorithm
Accès libre

A Novel Grid Intersection Point Detection And Matching Method In The Binocular Pulse Measurement System

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 256 - 273

Résumé

Abstract

To improve the accuracy of binocular 3D image reconstruction, the grid-pattern structure lines are printed on the detected objects and the grid lines intersection points are adopted as feature points and primitives in matching process. In this paper, a novel method for detecting the intersection points of the grid lines based on image segmentation and ridge line fitting is proposed. Firstly, the set of line segments on the border of the grid lines are extracted using the Canny edge detector and Hough transformation. Then, the global structure parameters are acquired through cluster analysis. Secondly, the grayscale image is divided into several detection regions (each of which includes one intersection point to be detected) in accordance to the obtained global structure parameters and the intersection points in the detection regions are accurately located using the ridge line fitting method. Finally, the intersection points in the left and right images are matched based on their distributions. To examine the detection performance of the proposed method, experiments have been conducted on actual and polluted images, respectively. The experimental results have demonstrated that the recognition ratio of the intersection points by the proposed ridge line fitting-based method is as high as 100%, the false positive ratio is 0 and the matching accuracy is up to 100%. Compared with the results obtained using traditional methods, the proposed method detection results are characterized by high accuracy, stability, uniqueness and invariability. Hence, the proposed method can meet the demands of 3D image reconstruction

Mots clés

  • Grid image
  • intersection point detection
  • image segmentation
  • ridge line fitting
  • global feature
  • cluster analysis
Accès libre

Detection Of Moving Object By Fusion Of Color And Depth Information

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 274 - 288

Résumé

Abstract

Moving object detection based on color information is easily affected by illumination changes and shadows in complex scenes. Depth information can provide complementary information. In the paper, a novel method is presented by using color and depth information. Firstly, we improve the codebook algorithm by fusing the depth information as the fourth channel in the code word. Next, a compensation factor algorithm is presented to make the edges accurate. So the final detection result can be obtained by logic operation. Experiments adapt the public datasets, and experimental results show that the proposed method can successfully cope with the limitations of color-based or depth-based detection

Mots clés

  • Object detection
  • codebook
  • edges
  • color information
  • depth information
Accès libre

Base Band Resource Distribution Under C-Ran

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 289 - 308

Résumé

Abstract

Aim to cost of wireless operators constantly increases but income increases slowly, this paper researches cloud wireless access network (C-RAN) based on concentrated resources pool, proposes a dynamic projection model combined with base band processing unit (Building Base band Unit, BBU) and remote radio unit (Radio Remote Unit, RRU), designs base band resource allocation method, according to cloud calculation and C-RAN technology which introduced in this paper, through calculation and analysis, results show that using heuristic order-decreasing first-fit algorithm as the preallocation algorithm can distribute base band resource properly and realize dynamic scheduling under C-RAN, which is practical and feasible to improve utilization of base band resource and reduce power consumption

Mots clés

  • Dynamic projection
  • resource scheduling
  • C-RAN
  • BBU
  • RRU
Accès libre

Quadrotors Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: A Review

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 309 - 333

Résumé

Abstract

Quadrotors are Vertical Take-Off and Landing aerial vehicles with many potential applications ranging from mapping to supporting rescue operations. This paper aims to provide an overview on various works carried out on the quadrotor, from the perspective of control and dynamic modelling. Also in this paper, based on the information summarized from 160 researches available, different control targets and flight missions are analysed and classified, and according to it, a general flight mission map is introduced. In addition, history of advances in development of quadrotors and set-ups proposed when performing experimental researches on quadrotors is presented

Mots clés

  • Quadrotor
  • review
  • history of advances
  • dynamic modelling
  • assumptions
  • control
  • flight missions
  • setup
Accès libre

Analysis Of The Multi-Channel Three Dimensional Probability Csma Protocol With Monitoring Function For Wsn

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 334 - 352

Résumé

Abstract

For the wireless sensor networks (WSNs), MAC layer protocol, relating to system throughput, involving functions of system, concerning the consumption of system energy efficiency, etc. other system indicators, is very important. With the development of WSN, involving vary businesses, the amount and style of data which the sensor nodes detecting is large and divertive. Based on threedimensional probability CSMA protocol, the proposed protocol, multi-channel three-dimensional probability CSMA protocol with monitoring function (MATP-CSMA), is providing the sensor nodes owning different task with diversified throughput, meeting the quality of services (QoS) of diversiform business. The paper analyses the protocol from three aspects: the system throughput, system delay and energy efficiency. Through rigorous mathematical derivation, get the exact expression of relevant indicators; with the use of simulation tools, verify the accuracy of the model and expressions

Mots clés

  • Throughput
  • priority
  • multi-channel
  • three-dimensional probability CSMA
  • energy efficiency
Accès libre

Image Processing and Recognition Algorithm for Target Tracking

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 353 - 376

Résumé

Abstract

to improve target tracking performance in dynamic target track system, this paper propose the processing method of positive and negative difference image to extract target information; research target image preprocessing algorithm, the separation and segmentation processing algorithm of target and background, target edge detection and extraction based on the collected images; use Laplace operator, Canny operator. Gauss-Laplace operator to gain target information and improved recognition target image effect, analyze the positive and negative difference image measure to solve the background subtraction interference between two sequence images. Through the actual image processing, The results shows the proposed processing method can clear gain target marginal information and target image particle center, control tracking platform can stably track the target, and give the comparison results

Mots clés

  • Target tracking
  • OUSU
  • Canny
  • difference image
Accès libre

New Adaptive Sliding-Mode Observer Design For Sensorless Control Of Pmsm In Electric Vehicle Drive System

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 377 - 396

Résumé

Abstract

In this study, a new adaptive sliding-mode observer is proposed to estimate the rotor position and speed for sensorless control of permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) in an electric vehicle drive system. This observer can effectively reduce the estimation errors caused by the inherent chattering phenomenon for a conventional sliding-mode observer and the stator resistance uncertainty due to the variation of motor temperature. This new sliding-mode observer is designed by using a hyperbolic tangent function instead of sign function together with a variable boundary layer, and the new adaptive law is constructed according to the back electromotive force model to reinforce dynamic performance and the robustness of system. Meanwhile, a stator resistance identification algorithm is raised and guaranteed to be stable by using a Lyapunov method. The performance of the developed observer is compared with the conventional sliding-mode controller. Both simulation and experimental results confirm that the chattering phenomenon is effectively eliminated and the estimation accuracy for position and velocity is apparently improved when applying the developed observer in the electric vehicle drive system

Mots clés

  • PMSM
  • adaptive sliding-mode observer
  • sensorless control
  • electric vehicle drive system
  • resistance identification
20 Articles
Accès libre

On Mass Sensing Using Micro/Nano Resonators - Approaches, Challenges And Directions

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 1 - 20

Résumé

Abstract

Micro/Nano electromechanical systems based Mass sensors are being increasingly used for detecting very low masses, with significant applications in bio-sensing as well as environmental sensing. A number of different shapes, excitation mechanisms as well as materials have been suggested for these sensors. In addition, with reducing dimensions due to improvement in fabrication, these sensors have the potential to measure bacterial level masses. This paper reviews some of the research directions in this field. Various sensing and actuation strategies for these resonators are discussed. In addition, three important challenges, which have the potential of providing new directions of research are also explored. These include quality factor, increasing nonlinearity and coupling. Coupling of sensors can provide a unique opportunity to build several resonant sensors on the same chip and reduce the number of contacts required as well as the potential bandwidth

Mots clés

  • Microelectromechanical systems
  • Mass sensors
  • damping
  • nonlinearity
  • coupled systems
Accès libre

Electrodermal Activity-Based Feasibility Study On The Relationship Between Attention And Blinking

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 21 - 31

Résumé

Abstract

Various factors are believed to cause blinking. One of these factors is attention. However, the relationship between blinking and attention has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we focus on electrodermal activity (EDA) to demonstrate this relationship. EDA is an electrical phenomenon involving the glandular releasing of sweat that is caused by mental excitement or strain. We employ EDA to quantify attention as a means to elucidate the blinking–attention relationship. We conduct an experiment based on EDA and present the results to verify this relationship

Mots clés

  • Skin conductance level
  • skin conductance response
  • precueing method
  • blink rate
Accès libre

Identification Of Electro-Hydraulic Actuator Using Fractional Model

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 32 - 48

Résumé

Abstract

Electro-hydraulic actuator (EHA system) identification is to describe the characteristic of the system that useful for prediction or control system design. There are numerous methods of EHA modeling but there has not been much model using fractional-order (FO) model. In this work, integer-order (IO) model and FO model are developed to model EHA system. Output-error method is used as the estimator for both model. The coefficient of IO model was first estimated and using the estimated coefficient, the derivative order of FO model is estimated. These models has been validated by comparison of error, coefficient of determination (R2), mean square error (MSE) and correlation function. The results for the proposed model show improvement compared to the IO model.

key word

  • system identification
  • EHA
  • modeling
  • fractional-order model
  • continuous-time transfer function
Accès libre

Effects Of Low Frequency Weak Magnetic Field On The Cardiovascular System Through The Brain Cortex

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 50 - 66

Résumé

Abstract

In order to study the effect of low frequency weak magnetic field on the cardiovascular system through the central nervous system, this paper design the experiment that is using a rotating magnetic field acts on the cerebral cortex, the different frequency when different parts of the brain, collecting and analysis ECG and blood pressure signal, and discussing the effect of low frequency rotating magnetic field on cardiovascular system through the brain cortex. It proved that a rotating magnetic field can affect blood pressure through cerebral cortex, has different effects on blood pressure by using different frequencies, the effects on blood pressure is not the same because a different position focused on by magnetic field. The results show the frequency and location stimulated with rotating magnetic field may have certain therapeutic effect for controlling hypertension.

Mots clés

  • low frequency magnetic field
  • cardiovascular system
  • blood pressure
  • biological effect of magnetic field
Accès libre

Application Of Boundary Layer Theory In Open Channel Flume Design

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 67 - 88

Résumé

Abstract

In accordance with the problem of the need for calculation formula of the straight wall flume flow in open channel by experiment, the method of thee boundary layer is proposed; Analysis with boundary layer displacement thickness is studied, and the energy equation, continuous equation and the theory and critical depth of flume flow coefficient, velocity coefficient is deduced using the boundary layer theory and the flow calculation formula is given; Through iterative algorithm, the flow can be calculated theoretically. With four different kinds of parameters in the U-shaped channel flume algorithm are verified, the results show that the theoretical calculation corresponds to the actual observation. Therefore, the boundary layer theory to calculate the flow of the flume is not only studied the amount of water problems in theory, simplifies the complicated test calibration, but also has important practical value.

Mots clés

  • Boundary layer theory
  • Open channel
  • Flow measurement
  • Flow calculation
Accès libre

Automatic Measurement Of Shape Parameters For Hydraulic Torque Converter

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 89 - 107

Résumé

Abstract

In this paper, the automatic measurement method of the Hydraulic Torque Converter shape parameters is studied. Aiming at the defects of the traditional manual measurement method, the solution for measuring the shape parameters of Hydraulic Torque Converter with the automatic measurement system is proposed on the basis of in-depth analysis for the Hydraulic Torque Converter shape parameters’ characteristics. Automatic measurement system mainly contains two parts, the Hardware Measurement System and the Software Measurement System. The working principle of the automatic measurement system are as follows: firstly, as system starting, the arm upper Measuring Fixture put the Hydraulic Torque Converter work piece into the Measuring Fixture, and then the Measuring Fixture make the Pump Hub Axle and Cover Hub Axle of the measured work piece fixed; secondly, the measured work piece start to rotate, at the same times, s the work piece is measured by MARPOSS displacement sensor. The measuring stop as soon as the measured work piece completes rotating 360 degrees. Lastly, measurement data is collects by the Software Measurement System based on LabVIEW development platform using NI acquisition card. The Moving Average Filter and Butterworth approximation method is mainly used during processing the measurement data. The tolerance measuring value of each shape parameter can be obtained, after the measurement data processed. The external dimensions of the measured work piece have been qualified by the data obtained. Under practical test, this method fit the industrial production demand very well; it can help to improve the production efficiency greatly used in the industrial production

Mots clés

  • Hydraulic Torque Converter
  • automatic measurement
  • shape parameters
  • data acquisition
Accès libre

Face Detection In Profile Views Using Fast Discrete Curvelet Transform (Fdct) And Support Vector Machine (Svm)

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 108 - 123

Résumé

Abstract

Human face detection is an indispensable component in face processing applications, including automatic face recognition, security surveillance, facial expression recognition, and the like. This paper presents a profile face detection algorithm based on curvelet features, as curvelet transform offers good directional representation and can capture edge information in human face from different angles. First, a simple skin color segmentation scheme based on HSV (Hue - Saturation - Value) and YCgCr (luminance - green chrominance - red chrominance) color models is used to extract skin blocks. The segmentation scheme utilizes only the S and CgCr components, and is therefore luminance independent. Features extracted from three frequency bands from curvelet decomposition are used to detect face in each block. A support vector machine (SVM) classifier is trained for the classification task. In the performance test, the results showed that the proposed algorithm can detect profile faces in color images with good detection rate and low misdetection rate

Mots clés

  • face detection
  • curvelet transform
  • HSV
  • YCgCr
  • SVM
Accès libre

Vision Based Multi-Feature Hand Gesture Recognition For Indian Sign Language Manual Signs

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 124 - 147

Résumé

Abstract

Indian sign language (ISL) is the main communication medium among deaf Indians. An ISL vocabulary show that the hand plays a significant role in ISL. ISL includes static and dynamic hand gesture recognition. The main aim of this paper is to present multi-feature static hand gesture recognition for alphabets and numbers. Here, comparative analysis of various feature descriptors such as chain code, shape matrix, Fourier descriptor, 7 Hu moments, and boundary moments is done. Multi-feature fusion descriptor is designed using contour (Boundary moments, Fourier descriptor) and region based (7Hu moments) descriptors. Analysis of this new multi-feature descriptor is done in comparison with other individual descriptors and it showed noteworthy results over other descriptors. Three classification methods such as, Nearest Mean Classifier (NMC), k-Nearest Neighborhood (k-NN) and Naive Bayes classifier are used for classification and comparison. New Multi-feature fusion descriptor shows high recognition rate of 99.61% among all with k-NN. Real time recognition for number signs 0-9, of fusion descriptor with NMC gave 100% accuracy

Mots clés

  • Indian sign language interpretation
  • k-nearest neighborhood classifier
  • nearest mean Classifier
  • Boundary moments
  • Fourier descriptor
  • 7 Hu moments
  • Chain code
  • Shape matrix
  • Naïve Bayes
Accès libre

Adaptive Intelligent Inverse Control Of Nonlinear Systems With Regard To Sensor Noise And Parameter Uncertainty (Magnetic Ball Levitation System Case Study)

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 148 - 169

Résumé

Abstract

Type-2 Fuzzy Neural Networks have tremendous capability in identification and control of nonlinear, time-varying and uncertain systems. In this paper the procedure of designing inverse adaptive type-2 fuzzy neural controller for online control of nonlinear dynamical systems will be presented. At first the structure of a novel class of Interval Type-2 Nonlinear Takagi-Sugeno-Keng Fuzzy Neural Networks (IT2-NTSK-FNN) will be presented. There is a class of nonlinear function of inputs in the consequent part of fuzzy rules. This IT2-NTSK-FNN comprises seven layers and the fuzzification is done in two first layers including type-2 fuzzy neurons with uncertainties in the mean of Gaussian membership functions. Third layer is rule layer and model reduction occurs in fourth layer via adaptive nodes. Fifth, sixth and seventh layers are consequent layer, centroid rules’ calculation layer and output layer respectively. For training the network backpropagation (steepest descend) method with adaptive training rate is used. Finally, three methods including online adaptive inverse controller based on IT2-NTSK-FNN, IT2-TSK-FNN (linear consequent part) and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) are employed to control of a magnetic ball levitation system. External disturbances and uncertainty in parameters are considered in the model of magnetic ball levitation system. Simulation results show the efficacy of the proposed method

Mots clés

  • Nonlinear Type-2 Fuzzy
  • Adaptive Inverse control
  • Magnetic ball levitation System
Accès libre

High Precision Target Localization Method Based On Compensation Of Attitude Angle Errors

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 169 - 190

Résumé

Abstract

The attitude angles of UAV, as the input parameters of the target localization process, influence the accuracy of geo-targeting. In order to improve the accuracy of target localization, this paper compensates the attitude angle errors of the UAV based on learning prediction compensation. Firstly, considering the airborne equipment and the metadata provided by the UAV, we combine rear intersection with GPS/INS to calculate the error of each platform and aircraft attitude angle. Then the error prediction model to compensate each platform and aircraft attitude error is derived by analyzing the error distribution and polynomial regression. Afterwards, because of the limit of the UAV aerial image amount and the similar influence of each attitude angle error on targeting and geometric correction, we use equivalent optical axis angle to represent platform and aircraft attitudes. Furthermore, we also predict and compensate the error of the equivalent angle. In this process, we adopt SVM and regression to classify and obtain error prediction model of equivalent optical axis angle. Finally, the actual data is used to verify the compensation algorithm. The results show that the method can improve the accuracy of target localization efficiently, and has a certain value of engineering guidance and practical application

Mots clés

  • UAV
  • Geo-targeting technology
  • Attitude Angles
  • Rear intersection
  • Regression
  • Learning
Accès libre

A Study Of Cost And Emissions Considering Speed Optimization In Trans Eurasia Transportation Based On Intelligent Transportation

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 191 - 214

Résumé

Abstract

People attach much importance to greenhouse gas emissions, and there is an increasing concern on cost and emissions on account of speed reduction for international shipping. Low steaming encountered these challenges of time constraint and technical requirements, while the cost and emissions of railway transportation distinctly differentiate from international shipping and it is a good substitute for international shipping to some extent. Intelligent transportation system (ITS) has proven to be a useful tool in providing efficient, environmentally friendly and safe transportation systems within inland and shipping. The paper focus on the selection and cooperative process between the shipping and railway, and discusses the cost and emissions by speed optimization for international shipping and railway transport aiming to select effective and environmental transportation mode based on ITS infrastructure. Firstly this paper reviews ITS and investigates the relationship of cost and speed along with the relationship of energy consumption and speed respectively for shipping and railway transportation, and then presents the speed optimization both shipping and railway transportation based on ITS so as to minimize cost and emissions. Subsequently it compared and analyzed the cost and emissions for mode selections, and it found that it is more effective and environmental to employ railway transport to some route leg. Finally A numerical case is presented and the results showed that it is necessary to shift model from sea to land on some section

Mots clés

  • cost effectiveness
  • CO2 emission
  • intelligent transportation
  • railway transportation
  • international shipping
  • green logistics
Accès libre

Vibration Based Health Monitoring Of Honeycomb Core Sandwich Panels Using Support Vector Machine

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 215 - 232

Résumé

Abstract

Honeycomb sandwich structures are extensively used in aerospace, aeronautic, marine and automotive industries due to their high strength-to-weight ratios, high energy absorption capability and effective acoustic insulation. Unfortunately, either presence of disbond along the skin-core interface or emergence of disbond due to repeated loading, aging or an intensive load can jeopardize the integrity and safety of the whole structure The current work presents a new array based technique for health monitoring of these structures using support vector machine (SVM). The proposed technique is first used on simulated mode shape data of the structure and then the technique is validated using experimental mode shape data. The experimental set up has been developed in laboratory and Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) is used to extract the experimental mode shapes. The results have been obtained using both support vector classification and regression analysis and it is found that that the former is better at prediction of debond location

Mots clés

  • Support vector machine
  • Structural health monitoring
  • Laser Doppler Vibrometer
  • Mode Shape Data
  • Honeycomb core sandwich panel
Accès libre

A New Three-Dimension Spatial Location Algorithm Of Wireless Sensor Network

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 233 - 255

Résumé

Mots clés

  • wireless sensor network
  • three-dimensional location
  • perception radius
  • centroid algorithm
Accès libre

A Novel Grid Intersection Point Detection And Matching Method In The Binocular Pulse Measurement System

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 256 - 273

Résumé

Abstract

To improve the accuracy of binocular 3D image reconstruction, the grid-pattern structure lines are printed on the detected objects and the grid lines intersection points are adopted as feature points and primitives in matching process. In this paper, a novel method for detecting the intersection points of the grid lines based on image segmentation and ridge line fitting is proposed. Firstly, the set of line segments on the border of the grid lines are extracted using the Canny edge detector and Hough transformation. Then, the global structure parameters are acquired through cluster analysis. Secondly, the grayscale image is divided into several detection regions (each of which includes one intersection point to be detected) in accordance to the obtained global structure parameters and the intersection points in the detection regions are accurately located using the ridge line fitting method. Finally, the intersection points in the left and right images are matched based on their distributions. To examine the detection performance of the proposed method, experiments have been conducted on actual and polluted images, respectively. The experimental results have demonstrated that the recognition ratio of the intersection points by the proposed ridge line fitting-based method is as high as 100%, the false positive ratio is 0 and the matching accuracy is up to 100%. Compared with the results obtained using traditional methods, the proposed method detection results are characterized by high accuracy, stability, uniqueness and invariability. Hence, the proposed method can meet the demands of 3D image reconstruction

Mots clés

  • Grid image
  • intersection point detection
  • image segmentation
  • ridge line fitting
  • global feature
  • cluster analysis
Accès libre

Detection Of Moving Object By Fusion Of Color And Depth Information

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 274 - 288

Résumé

Abstract

Moving object detection based on color information is easily affected by illumination changes and shadows in complex scenes. Depth information can provide complementary information. In the paper, a novel method is presented by using color and depth information. Firstly, we improve the codebook algorithm by fusing the depth information as the fourth channel in the code word. Next, a compensation factor algorithm is presented to make the edges accurate. So the final detection result can be obtained by logic operation. Experiments adapt the public datasets, and experimental results show that the proposed method can successfully cope with the limitations of color-based or depth-based detection

Mots clés

  • Object detection
  • codebook
  • edges
  • color information
  • depth information
Accès libre

Base Band Resource Distribution Under C-Ran

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 289 - 308

Résumé

Abstract

Aim to cost of wireless operators constantly increases but income increases slowly, this paper researches cloud wireless access network (C-RAN) based on concentrated resources pool, proposes a dynamic projection model combined with base band processing unit (Building Base band Unit, BBU) and remote radio unit (Radio Remote Unit, RRU), designs base band resource allocation method, according to cloud calculation and C-RAN technology which introduced in this paper, through calculation and analysis, results show that using heuristic order-decreasing first-fit algorithm as the preallocation algorithm can distribute base band resource properly and realize dynamic scheduling under C-RAN, which is practical and feasible to improve utilization of base band resource and reduce power consumption

Mots clés

  • Dynamic projection
  • resource scheduling
  • C-RAN
  • BBU
  • RRU
Accès libre

Quadrotors Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: A Review

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 309 - 333

Résumé

Abstract

Quadrotors are Vertical Take-Off and Landing aerial vehicles with many potential applications ranging from mapping to supporting rescue operations. This paper aims to provide an overview on various works carried out on the quadrotor, from the perspective of control and dynamic modelling. Also in this paper, based on the information summarized from 160 researches available, different control targets and flight missions are analysed and classified, and according to it, a general flight mission map is introduced. In addition, history of advances in development of quadrotors and set-ups proposed when performing experimental researches on quadrotors is presented

Mots clés

  • Quadrotor
  • review
  • history of advances
  • dynamic modelling
  • assumptions
  • control
  • flight missions
  • setup
Accès libre

Analysis Of The Multi-Channel Three Dimensional Probability Csma Protocol With Monitoring Function For Wsn

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 334 - 352

Résumé

Abstract

For the wireless sensor networks (WSNs), MAC layer protocol, relating to system throughput, involving functions of system, concerning the consumption of system energy efficiency, etc. other system indicators, is very important. With the development of WSN, involving vary businesses, the amount and style of data which the sensor nodes detecting is large and divertive. Based on threedimensional probability CSMA protocol, the proposed protocol, multi-channel three-dimensional probability CSMA protocol with monitoring function (MATP-CSMA), is providing the sensor nodes owning different task with diversified throughput, meeting the quality of services (QoS) of diversiform business. The paper analyses the protocol from three aspects: the system throughput, system delay and energy efficiency. Through rigorous mathematical derivation, get the exact expression of relevant indicators; with the use of simulation tools, verify the accuracy of the model and expressions

Mots clés

  • Throughput
  • priority
  • multi-channel
  • three-dimensional probability CSMA
  • energy efficiency
Accès libre

Image Processing and Recognition Algorithm for Target Tracking

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 353 - 376

Résumé

Abstract

to improve target tracking performance in dynamic target track system, this paper propose the processing method of positive and negative difference image to extract target information; research target image preprocessing algorithm, the separation and segmentation processing algorithm of target and background, target edge detection and extraction based on the collected images; use Laplace operator, Canny operator. Gauss-Laplace operator to gain target information and improved recognition target image effect, analyze the positive and negative difference image measure to solve the background subtraction interference between two sequence images. Through the actual image processing, The results shows the proposed processing method can clear gain target marginal information and target image particle center, control tracking platform can stably track the target, and give the comparison results

Mots clés

  • Target tracking
  • OUSU
  • Canny
  • difference image
Accès libre

New Adaptive Sliding-Mode Observer Design For Sensorless Control Of Pmsm In Electric Vehicle Drive System

Publié en ligne: 01 Mar 2016
Pages: 377 - 396

Résumé

Abstract

In this study, a new adaptive sliding-mode observer is proposed to estimate the rotor position and speed for sensorless control of permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) in an electric vehicle drive system. This observer can effectively reduce the estimation errors caused by the inherent chattering phenomenon for a conventional sliding-mode observer and the stator resistance uncertainty due to the variation of motor temperature. This new sliding-mode observer is designed by using a hyperbolic tangent function instead of sign function together with a variable boundary layer, and the new adaptive law is constructed according to the back electromotive force model to reinforce dynamic performance and the robustness of system. Meanwhile, a stator resistance identification algorithm is raised and guaranteed to be stable by using a Lyapunov method. The performance of the developed observer is compared with the conventional sliding-mode controller. Both simulation and experimental results confirm that the chattering phenomenon is effectively eliminated and the estimation accuracy for position and velocity is apparently improved when applying the developed observer in the electric vehicle drive system

Mots clés

  • PMSM
  • adaptive sliding-mode observer
  • sensorless control
  • electric vehicle drive system
  • resistance identification

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