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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2585-8777
Première publication
16 Apr 2015
Période de publication
2 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 57 (2017): Edition 2 (November 2017)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2585-8777
Première publication
16 Apr 2015
Période de publication
2 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

5 Articles
Accès libre

Berlin 1936: The Creation of the “Myth” Jesse Owens

Publié en ligne: 08 Nov 2017
Pages: 98 - 110

Résumé

Abstract

Throughout the twentieth century, the sport has gained much importance in society and sparked interest from various sectors, including the political. Adolf Hitler used the XI 1936 Summer Olympic Games to show the world the strength of Nazi Germany and its rebirth after the defeat in World War I and the impositions of the Versailles Treaty. However, many of the facts historically reported on the 1936 Olympics are contested. The most famous and mythical case of these Olympic Games, and one of the most famous in the history of sport, relates to events that occurred between the American athlete Jesse Owens and the Nazi Führer. The aim of this work is to try to show, as faithfully as possible, as some important facts occurred during this event (the contest between Owens and Long in the long jump; if Hitler snubbed Owens; etc.) that helped create the “myth” around Owens; and to present reports of the global media coverage, analyzing the perpetuation of these mythical reports in current media. As methodology was conducted an ample bibliographical research: reports taken from newspapers of the time and current, books, scientific papers, master's thesis, documentaries, etc. Without claiming to prove a single fact, it is intended to provide insight to the reader to draw their own conclusions.

Mots clés

  • XI Olympic Games
  • Long jump
  • Battle of colors
  • Luz Long
  • Adolf Hitler
Accès libre

The Associations Between Socioeconomic Status and Lifestyle Factors in European Adolescents: A Population-based Study

Publié en ligne: 08 Nov 2017
Pages: 111 - 124

Résumé

Abstract

The main purpose of the present study was to determine the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and lifestyle factors. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 3,072 adolescents from two European countries of Lithuania and Serbia. The dependent variable was SES, while independent variables were gender, adherence to a Mediterranean diet, body-mass index, self-rated health, psychological distress, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behaviour. The associations between dependent and independent variables were analysed by using logistic regression analysis. In univariate model, middle/high SES was associated with higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet (ptrend = 0.003), good self-rated health (OR 1.51; 95 % CI 1.12 to 2.05) and meeting recommendations of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (OR 2.09; 95 % CI 1.45 to 3.00), yet inversely associated with psychological distress (OR 0.81; 95 % CI 0.66 to 0.99) and sedentary behaviour (OR 0.80; 95 % CI 0.68 to 0.94). No associations were found between SES and bodymass index and gender. In multivariate model, the same associations occurred between middle/high SES and lifestyle factors. In conclusion, special strategies and policies, based on more affordable nutrition and participation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, should be implemented within the system.

Mots clés

  • material status
  • physical activity
  • nutrition
  • adolescents
  • logistic regression
Accès libre

Performance Motivation of Elite Athletes, Recreational Athletes and Non-Athletes

Publié en ligne: 08 Nov 2017
Pages: 125 - 133

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to widen knowledge about motivation of elite, recreational athletes and non-athletes. Participants from the elite athletes group (n = 35, 16.7 ± .70 years old) were football players of the Slovak national team. Recreational athletes (n = 31, 16.8 ± .80 years old) and non-athletes (n = 29, 15.7 ± .60 years old) are visiting Grammar School in Zvolen. D-M-V standardized questionnaire was used to determine performance motivation. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov's test disconfirmed the null hypothesis on the normality of data. We used the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests to determine the statistical significance of the differences. The results showed that there were significant (p .0.01) differences with large effect size (η2 ≥ .14) in all the three (the performance motives scale, the anxiety inhibiting performance scale and the anxiety supporting performance scale) dimensions among the research groups. The motivation of elite athletes is significantly higher (p = .048; r = .25) compared to the recreational athletes. Also, compared to the non-athletes, the level of performance motivation is significantly higher (p = .002; r = .51) in the elite athletes. Based on the results of the study we can formulate the statement that the level of performance motivation is contingent on the level of sport activity.

Mots clés

  • performance motivation
  • sport activity
  • adolescence
Accès libre

Match Load of Soccer Players in Defensive Formation and Its Impact on the Level of Speed Abilities

Publié en ligne: 08 Nov 2017
Pages: 134 - 145

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the match load in soccer on the level of the selected speed abilities in the playing positions of the outside defender and central defender. Speed abilities in all their demonstrations are one of the most important fitness skills in today’s soccer. In our research, we assumed that the higher the match load players achieve, the greater the impact of this load on the level of the selected speed abilities would be. We carried out a cross-sectional ex post facto research. The monitored group consisted of the players of the team playing in the first league (Fortuna League). Their average age was 22.9 ± 4.5 years. We conducted the measurements in the preparation periods during pre-season matches. We carried out a total of 63 individual measurements. We measured the level of the match load and the performance in 10, 20 and 30 meter runs from a standing start before the match and after the match. Except of outside defenders in 30-meter run (W = 12; p = 0.02) we did not confirm a significant impact of the match load on the level of the selected speed (acceleration) abilities. Its effect size reached from d = 0.1 to d = 0.6. In addition, the correlations between match load and performance changes in all three tests were nonsignificant (p ≥ 0.5). Only 0.2 to 8.5 % of the variability in speed tests was shared with the level of match load.

Mots clés

  • soccer
  • fitness
  • match load
  • outside defender
  • central defender
  • speed abilities
Accès libre

Method of Observation and their Effects in the Selection of Potential Football Goalkeepers

Publié en ligne: 08 Nov 2017
Pages: 146 - 156

Résumé

Abstract

The criteria and methods for goalkeeper selection are more strict and complex than those of field players. Founded on its principles, the present study tried to examine the strengths and weaknesses of selection process practised by Algerian coaches. Interpret by Algerian scientists in their subjectivity in evaluating the amount of body fat and its effect on physical performance. Seen it's built with the naked eye. Confirmed by FIFA in two categories normal vs overweight, they should work harder under these conditions. For this proposal, eight teams from the leagues of Oran, Algeria Championship second division were involved in the study. Their goalkeepers were classified into the following groups: total (GK = 28), Main goalkeeper (MG = 14) and replacement goalkeeper (RG = 14). Tested at the end of the outward phase by penalty kicks test, ‘T’ Drill Test, Ruler Drop Test (TR) and anthropometric parameters (BH, BMI, BFP, BW). Backed on the applied statistical where our total sample is categorised in overweight, as well as no statistically significant differences between the two groups in all the comparisons practised. Our results confirm the weaknesses of traditional methods. Admit by similar studies in their subjective in evaluating the amount of body fat and its effect on physical performance correlate to anthropometric measurement.

Mots clés

  • observation method
  • selection procedure
  • potential goalkeeper
  • Algerian soccer game
5 Articles
Accès libre

Berlin 1936: The Creation of the “Myth” Jesse Owens

Publié en ligne: 08 Nov 2017
Pages: 98 - 110

Résumé

Abstract

Throughout the twentieth century, the sport has gained much importance in society and sparked interest from various sectors, including the political. Adolf Hitler used the XI 1936 Summer Olympic Games to show the world the strength of Nazi Germany and its rebirth after the defeat in World War I and the impositions of the Versailles Treaty. However, many of the facts historically reported on the 1936 Olympics are contested. The most famous and mythical case of these Olympic Games, and one of the most famous in the history of sport, relates to events that occurred between the American athlete Jesse Owens and the Nazi Führer. The aim of this work is to try to show, as faithfully as possible, as some important facts occurred during this event (the contest between Owens and Long in the long jump; if Hitler snubbed Owens; etc.) that helped create the “myth” around Owens; and to present reports of the global media coverage, analyzing the perpetuation of these mythical reports in current media. As methodology was conducted an ample bibliographical research: reports taken from newspapers of the time and current, books, scientific papers, master's thesis, documentaries, etc. Without claiming to prove a single fact, it is intended to provide insight to the reader to draw their own conclusions.

Mots clés

  • XI Olympic Games
  • Long jump
  • Battle of colors
  • Luz Long
  • Adolf Hitler
Accès libre

The Associations Between Socioeconomic Status and Lifestyle Factors in European Adolescents: A Population-based Study

Publié en ligne: 08 Nov 2017
Pages: 111 - 124

Résumé

Abstract

The main purpose of the present study was to determine the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and lifestyle factors. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 3,072 adolescents from two European countries of Lithuania and Serbia. The dependent variable was SES, while independent variables were gender, adherence to a Mediterranean diet, body-mass index, self-rated health, psychological distress, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and sedentary behaviour. The associations between dependent and independent variables were analysed by using logistic regression analysis. In univariate model, middle/high SES was associated with higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet (ptrend = 0.003), good self-rated health (OR 1.51; 95 % CI 1.12 to 2.05) and meeting recommendations of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (OR 2.09; 95 % CI 1.45 to 3.00), yet inversely associated with psychological distress (OR 0.81; 95 % CI 0.66 to 0.99) and sedentary behaviour (OR 0.80; 95 % CI 0.68 to 0.94). No associations were found between SES and bodymass index and gender. In multivariate model, the same associations occurred between middle/high SES and lifestyle factors. In conclusion, special strategies and policies, based on more affordable nutrition and participation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, should be implemented within the system.

Mots clés

  • material status
  • physical activity
  • nutrition
  • adolescents
  • logistic regression
Accès libre

Performance Motivation of Elite Athletes, Recreational Athletes and Non-Athletes

Publié en ligne: 08 Nov 2017
Pages: 125 - 133

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to widen knowledge about motivation of elite, recreational athletes and non-athletes. Participants from the elite athletes group (n = 35, 16.7 ± .70 years old) were football players of the Slovak national team. Recreational athletes (n = 31, 16.8 ± .80 years old) and non-athletes (n = 29, 15.7 ± .60 years old) are visiting Grammar School in Zvolen. D-M-V standardized questionnaire was used to determine performance motivation. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov's test disconfirmed the null hypothesis on the normality of data. We used the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests to determine the statistical significance of the differences. The results showed that there were significant (p .0.01) differences with large effect size (η2 ≥ .14) in all the three (the performance motives scale, the anxiety inhibiting performance scale and the anxiety supporting performance scale) dimensions among the research groups. The motivation of elite athletes is significantly higher (p = .048; r = .25) compared to the recreational athletes. Also, compared to the non-athletes, the level of performance motivation is significantly higher (p = .002; r = .51) in the elite athletes. Based on the results of the study we can formulate the statement that the level of performance motivation is contingent on the level of sport activity.

Mots clés

  • performance motivation
  • sport activity
  • adolescence
Accès libre

Match Load of Soccer Players in Defensive Formation and Its Impact on the Level of Speed Abilities

Publié en ligne: 08 Nov 2017
Pages: 134 - 145

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the match load in soccer on the level of the selected speed abilities in the playing positions of the outside defender and central defender. Speed abilities in all their demonstrations are one of the most important fitness skills in today’s soccer. In our research, we assumed that the higher the match load players achieve, the greater the impact of this load on the level of the selected speed abilities would be. We carried out a cross-sectional ex post facto research. The monitored group consisted of the players of the team playing in the first league (Fortuna League). Their average age was 22.9 ± 4.5 years. We conducted the measurements in the preparation periods during pre-season matches. We carried out a total of 63 individual measurements. We measured the level of the match load and the performance in 10, 20 and 30 meter runs from a standing start before the match and after the match. Except of outside defenders in 30-meter run (W = 12; p = 0.02) we did not confirm a significant impact of the match load on the level of the selected speed (acceleration) abilities. Its effect size reached from d = 0.1 to d = 0.6. In addition, the correlations between match load and performance changes in all three tests were nonsignificant (p ≥ 0.5). Only 0.2 to 8.5 % of the variability in speed tests was shared with the level of match load.

Mots clés

  • soccer
  • fitness
  • match load
  • outside defender
  • central defender
  • speed abilities
Accès libre

Method of Observation and their Effects in the Selection of Potential Football Goalkeepers

Publié en ligne: 08 Nov 2017
Pages: 146 - 156

Résumé

Abstract

The criteria and methods for goalkeeper selection are more strict and complex than those of field players. Founded on its principles, the present study tried to examine the strengths and weaknesses of selection process practised by Algerian coaches. Interpret by Algerian scientists in their subjectivity in evaluating the amount of body fat and its effect on physical performance. Seen it's built with the naked eye. Confirmed by FIFA in two categories normal vs overweight, they should work harder under these conditions. For this proposal, eight teams from the leagues of Oran, Algeria Championship second division were involved in the study. Their goalkeepers were classified into the following groups: total (GK = 28), Main goalkeeper (MG = 14) and replacement goalkeeper (RG = 14). Tested at the end of the outward phase by penalty kicks test, ‘T’ Drill Test, Ruler Drop Test (TR) and anthropometric parameters (BH, BMI, BFP, BW). Backed on the applied statistical where our total sample is categorised in overweight, as well as no statistically significant differences between the two groups in all the comparisons practised. Our results confirm the weaknesses of traditional methods. Admit by similar studies in their subjective in evaluating the amount of body fat and its effect on physical performance correlate to anthropometric measurement.

Mots clés

  • observation method
  • selection procedure
  • potential goalkeeper
  • Algerian soccer game

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