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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1875-855X
Première publication
01 Jun 2007
Période de publication
6 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 16 (2022): Edition 1 (February 2022)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1875-855X
Première publication
01 Jun 2007
Période de publication
6 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

6 Articles

Editorial

Accès libre

Optimal diagnosis and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Publié en ligne: 28 Feb 2022
Pages: 1 - 2

Résumé

Review

Accès libre

PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA): a narrative review of its biogenesis, function, and emerging role in lung cancer

Publié en ligne: 28 Feb 2022
Pages: 3 - 14

Résumé

Abstract

Cancer remains elusive in many aspects, especially in its causes and control. After protein profiling, genetic screening, and mutation studies, scientists now have turned their attention to epigenetic modulation. This new arena has brought to light the world of noncoding RNA (ncRNA). Although very complicated and often confusing, ncRNA domains are now among the most attractive molecular markers for epigenetic control of cancer. Long ncRNA and microRNA (miRNA) have been studied best among the noncoding genome and huge data have accumulated regarding their inhibitory and promoting effects in cancer. Another sector of ncRNAs is the world of PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Initially discovered with the asymmetric division of germline stem cells in the Drosophila ovary, piRNAs have a unique capability to associate with mammalian proteins analogous to P-element induced wimpy testis (PIWI) in Drosophila and are capable of silencing transposons. After a brief introduction to its discovery timelines, the present narrative review covers the biogenesis, function, and role of piRNAs in lung cancer. The effects on lung cancer are highlighted under sections of cell proliferation, stemness maintenance, metastasis, and overall survival, and the review concludes with a discussion of recent discoveries of another class of small ncRNAs, the piRNA-like RNAs (piR-Ls).

Mots clés

  • PIWI protein
  • Drosophila
  • RNA
  • small interfering
  • Argonaute proteins
  • lung neoplasms
  • epigenetic repression

Original article

Accès libre

Association between serum uric acid level and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Koreans

Publié en ligne: 28 Feb 2022
Pages: 15 - 22

Résumé

Abstract Background

The association between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is controversial.

Objectives

We compared the association of SUA levels with NAFLD, abnormal alanine transferase (ALT), and the degree of liver fibrosis to clarify the association of SUA levels with NAFLD.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study. Adult patients who underwent a health check-up (N = 1,343) were included for analysis. Fatty liver was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography. The degree of liver fibrosis was determined using the NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS). Pearson correlation analysis showed a stronger correlation of SUA level with the fatty liver index (r = 0.40, P < 0.001) than the correlation with serum ALT level (r = 0.28, P < 0.001), or NFS (r = 0.018, P = 0.51). SUA levels in patients with NAFLD and an abnormal liver function test (LFT) result were significantly higher than levels in patients without NAFLD and abnormal LFT results. By contrast, there was no significant association of SUA level with NFS grade. When age, male sex, body mass index, the presence of hypertension, diabetic mellitus, and NAFLD, abnormality of ALT level, and SUA level were included in binary logistic regression to evaluate risk factors for elevated NFS grade, hyperuricemia was not significantly associated with NFS grade (OR = 0.94, P = 0.75).

Conclusion

Pearson correlation and logistic regression together indicated SUA level is more closely associated with hepatic steatosis than abnormal liver function test or hepatic fibrosis.

Mots clés

  • gastroenterology
  • hepatic fibrosis
  • hepatic steatosis
  • non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
  • serum uric acid
Accès libre

Neurological manifestations and etiological risk factors in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Turkey

Publié en ligne: 28 Feb 2022
Pages: 23 - 30

Résumé

Abstract Background

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can affect the neurological as well as the respiratory system. Neurological manifestations may involve the central or peripheral nervous systems, or musculoskeletal system. Findings can range from mild presentations, such as headache and anosmia, to severe complications, such as stroke and seizure.

Objectives

To evaluate the neurological findings and to determine etiological risk factors for mortality in patients hospitalized for COVID-19.

Methods

Medical records of patients with COVID-19 who were hospitalized and sought neurological consultation between March 2020 and March 2021 at a reference pandemic hospital in Turkey were reviewed retrospectively in a cross-sectional study design.

Result

We included data from 150 (94 male) patients. Their mean age ± standard deviation was 68.56 ± 16.02 (range 21–97) years. The patients were categorized into 2 groups according to any acute neurological event or progression of neurological disease. Ischemic cerebrovascular events, seizures, and encephalopathy were the most common acute neurological events, while deterioration in consciousness, epileptic seizures, and Parkinson disease were observed in those with progression of neurological disease. Abnormal neurological findings were found at a mean of 7.8 ± 9.7 days following COVID-19 diagnosis and 50 (a third of) patients died. A logistic regression model found that advanced age, increased Modified Charlson Comorbidity Index (MCCI) score, and prolonged duration of hospitalization were factors significantly associated with increased mortality; however, sex and day of abnormal neurological findings after COVID-19 diagnosis were not. Common conditions accompanying neurological events were hypertension, coronary artery disease–heart failure, and diabetes mellitus.

Conclusion

COVID-19 may present with neurological symptoms in our Turkish patients and comorbidities are often present.

Mots clés

  • COVID-19
  • neurological manifestations
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • seizure
  • Turkey
Accès libre

Multivariable analysis of clinical and laboratory data manifestations predicting severity and mortality risk in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 in the mountainous west of Iran: a retrospective single-center study

Publié en ligne: 28 Feb 2022
Pages: 31 - 42

Résumé

Abstract Background

Few reports have addressed the clinical and laboratory features of patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in mountainous areas, especially in Iran.

Objectives

To report the clinical and laboratory data and manifestations predicting mortality of patients with COVID-19 in the west of Iran.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 286 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 between 25 February 2020 and 12 May 2020 to describe their clinical symptoms and laboratory test findings when they were admitted at the Hajar Hospital affiliated with the Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, and a multivariable analysis of factors that predict their disease severity and mortality.

Results

After hospital admission, 18 patients died and 268 were discharged. Older age [odds ratio (OR) = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01–1.04, P = 0.001], presence of underlying diseases (OR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.01–3.45, P = 0.04), elevated hematocrit (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.03–1.13, P = 0.002), and increase in red blood cell distribution width (RDW) coefficient of variation (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.02–1.36, P = 0.02) were significantly associated with disease severity. Older age (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 1.00–1.07, P = 0.03), hypocalcemia (OR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.09–0.58, P = 0.002), hypophosphatemia (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.26–1.02, P = 0.04), and increase in platelet-larger cell ratio (P-LCR; OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.00–1.15, P = 0.04) were significantly associated with mortality. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were as follows: calcium 0.759; lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) 0.731; phosphorus 0.725; bilirubin 0.689; C-reactive protein 0.679; and RDW – standard deviation (RDW-SD) 0.624.

Conclusions

Those who did not survive tended to be elderly and had a greater incidence of comorbidities. Elevated LDH, decreased levels of calcium and phosphorus, and anemia at diagnosis were associated with greater risk of death for these Iranian patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Regular assessment of these markers would help to manage patients with COVID-19.

Mots clés

  • COVID-19
  • clinical decision-making
  • clinical laboratory techniques
  • Iran
  • pneumonia

Brief Communication (original)

Accès libre

Diagnostic accuracy of complete blood cell count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte, lymphocyte-to-monocyte, and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios for neonatal infection

Publié en ligne: 28 Feb 2022
Pages: 43 - 52

Résumé

Abstract Background

Complete blood cell (CBC) counts and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte (NLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte (LMR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios (PLR) are simple measurements that are conducted as part of routine diagnostic procedures.

Objective

To determine the diagnostic importance, specificity, and sensitivity of these measurements for the diagnosis of neonatal infections and in discriminating between neonatal sepsis and various other infections.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective study of data from a consecutive series of 232 neonatal patients admitted to Yildirim Beyazit University Yenimahalle Training and Research Hospital in Ankara for 2 years from 2016 to 2018. We included patients with a diagnosis of or clinically suspected infection, and healthy neonates were included as controls. Data included CBC counts, and bacterial culture results, considered the criterion standard for the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. NLR, LMR, and PLR were calculated. We compared data using independent Student t and Mann–Whitney U tests and determined the sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio (LHOR) of the characteristics for neonatal sepsis using receiver operating characteristic curve analyses.

Results

We included data from 155 neonatal patients with a diagnosis or suspicion of infection and 77 healthy neonates. NLR was significantly higher in neonates with sepsis or fever due to dehydration (P < 0.001) than in neonates with other infections or healthy neonates. LMR was significantly higher in neonates with sepsis or viral infection than in those with other infections or healthy controls (P = 0.003). In neonates with early-onset sepsis (EOS), we found cut-off values of ≥4.79 [area under curve (AUC) 0.845, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76–0.93, LHOR 11.6, specificity 98.7%, sensitivity 15%] for NLR, ≥1.24 (AUC 0.295; CI 0.18–0.41, LHOR 1.02, specificity 2.6%, sensitivity 100%) for LMR, and ≥37.72 (AUC 0.268; CI 0.15–0.39, LHOR 0.86, specificity 7.8%, sensitivity 80%) for PLR. We found cut-off values of ≥4.94 (AUC 0.667; CI 0.56–0.77, LHOR 4.16, specificity 98.7%, sensitivity 5.4%) for NLR and ≥10.92 (AUC 0.384; CI 0.26–0.51, LHOR 6.24, specificity 98.7%, sensitivity 8.1%) for LMR in those with late-onset sepsis (LOS).

Conclusions

CBCs, NLR, LMR, and PLR may be useful for the differential diagnosis of EOS and LOS, and neonates with sepsis from those with other infection. NLR may be a useful diagnostic test to identify neonatal patients with septicemia more quickly than other commonly used diagnostic tests such as blood cultures. NLR has high specificity and LHOR, but low sensitivity.

Mots clés

  • infant, newborn
  • infections
  • lymphocytes
  • monocytes
  • neutrophils
  • sepsis
6 Articles

Editorial

Accès libre

Optimal diagnosis and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Publié en ligne: 28 Feb 2022
Pages: 1 - 2

Résumé

Review

Accès libre

PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA): a narrative review of its biogenesis, function, and emerging role in lung cancer

Publié en ligne: 28 Feb 2022
Pages: 3 - 14

Résumé

Abstract

Cancer remains elusive in many aspects, especially in its causes and control. After protein profiling, genetic screening, and mutation studies, scientists now have turned their attention to epigenetic modulation. This new arena has brought to light the world of noncoding RNA (ncRNA). Although very complicated and often confusing, ncRNA domains are now among the most attractive molecular markers for epigenetic control of cancer. Long ncRNA and microRNA (miRNA) have been studied best among the noncoding genome and huge data have accumulated regarding their inhibitory and promoting effects in cancer. Another sector of ncRNAs is the world of PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). Initially discovered with the asymmetric division of germline stem cells in the Drosophila ovary, piRNAs have a unique capability to associate with mammalian proteins analogous to P-element induced wimpy testis (PIWI) in Drosophila and are capable of silencing transposons. After a brief introduction to its discovery timelines, the present narrative review covers the biogenesis, function, and role of piRNAs in lung cancer. The effects on lung cancer are highlighted under sections of cell proliferation, stemness maintenance, metastasis, and overall survival, and the review concludes with a discussion of recent discoveries of another class of small ncRNAs, the piRNA-like RNAs (piR-Ls).

Mots clés

  • PIWI protein
  • Drosophila
  • RNA
  • small interfering
  • Argonaute proteins
  • lung neoplasms
  • epigenetic repression

Original article

Accès libre

Association between serum uric acid level and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Koreans

Publié en ligne: 28 Feb 2022
Pages: 15 - 22

Résumé

Abstract Background

The association between serum uric acid (SUA) levels and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is controversial.

Objectives

We compared the association of SUA levels with NAFLD, abnormal alanine transferase (ALT), and the degree of liver fibrosis to clarify the association of SUA levels with NAFLD.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study. Adult patients who underwent a health check-up (N = 1,343) were included for analysis. Fatty liver was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography. The degree of liver fibrosis was determined using the NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS). Pearson correlation analysis showed a stronger correlation of SUA level with the fatty liver index (r = 0.40, P < 0.001) than the correlation with serum ALT level (r = 0.28, P < 0.001), or NFS (r = 0.018, P = 0.51). SUA levels in patients with NAFLD and an abnormal liver function test (LFT) result were significantly higher than levels in patients without NAFLD and abnormal LFT results. By contrast, there was no significant association of SUA level with NFS grade. When age, male sex, body mass index, the presence of hypertension, diabetic mellitus, and NAFLD, abnormality of ALT level, and SUA level were included in binary logistic regression to evaluate risk factors for elevated NFS grade, hyperuricemia was not significantly associated with NFS grade (OR = 0.94, P = 0.75).

Conclusion

Pearson correlation and logistic regression together indicated SUA level is more closely associated with hepatic steatosis than abnormal liver function test or hepatic fibrosis.

Mots clés

  • gastroenterology
  • hepatic fibrosis
  • hepatic steatosis
  • non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
  • serum uric acid
Accès libre

Neurological manifestations and etiological risk factors in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Turkey

Publié en ligne: 28 Feb 2022
Pages: 23 - 30

Résumé

Abstract Background

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can affect the neurological as well as the respiratory system. Neurological manifestations may involve the central or peripheral nervous systems, or musculoskeletal system. Findings can range from mild presentations, such as headache and anosmia, to severe complications, such as stroke and seizure.

Objectives

To evaluate the neurological findings and to determine etiological risk factors for mortality in patients hospitalized for COVID-19.

Methods

Medical records of patients with COVID-19 who were hospitalized and sought neurological consultation between March 2020 and March 2021 at a reference pandemic hospital in Turkey were reviewed retrospectively in a cross-sectional study design.

Result

We included data from 150 (94 male) patients. Their mean age ± standard deviation was 68.56 ± 16.02 (range 21–97) years. The patients were categorized into 2 groups according to any acute neurological event or progression of neurological disease. Ischemic cerebrovascular events, seizures, and encephalopathy were the most common acute neurological events, while deterioration in consciousness, epileptic seizures, and Parkinson disease were observed in those with progression of neurological disease. Abnormal neurological findings were found at a mean of 7.8 ± 9.7 days following COVID-19 diagnosis and 50 (a third of) patients died. A logistic regression model found that advanced age, increased Modified Charlson Comorbidity Index (MCCI) score, and prolonged duration of hospitalization were factors significantly associated with increased mortality; however, sex and day of abnormal neurological findings after COVID-19 diagnosis were not. Common conditions accompanying neurological events were hypertension, coronary artery disease–heart failure, and diabetes mellitus.

Conclusion

COVID-19 may present with neurological symptoms in our Turkish patients and comorbidities are often present.

Mots clés

  • COVID-19
  • neurological manifestations
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • seizure
  • Turkey
Accès libre

Multivariable analysis of clinical and laboratory data manifestations predicting severity and mortality risk in patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 in the mountainous west of Iran: a retrospective single-center study

Publié en ligne: 28 Feb 2022
Pages: 31 - 42

Résumé

Abstract Background

Few reports have addressed the clinical and laboratory features of patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in mountainous areas, especially in Iran.

Objectives

To report the clinical and laboratory data and manifestations predicting mortality of patients with COVID-19 in the west of Iran.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 286 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 between 25 February 2020 and 12 May 2020 to describe their clinical symptoms and laboratory test findings when they were admitted at the Hajar Hospital affiliated with the Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, and a multivariable analysis of factors that predict their disease severity and mortality.

Results

After hospital admission, 18 patients died and 268 were discharged. Older age [odds ratio (OR) = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01–1.04, P = 0.001], presence of underlying diseases (OR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.01–3.45, P = 0.04), elevated hematocrit (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.03–1.13, P = 0.002), and increase in red blood cell distribution width (RDW) coefficient of variation (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.02–1.36, P = 0.02) were significantly associated with disease severity. Older age (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 1.00–1.07, P = 0.03), hypocalcemia (OR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.09–0.58, P = 0.002), hypophosphatemia (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.26–1.02, P = 0.04), and increase in platelet-larger cell ratio (P-LCR; OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.00–1.15, P = 0.04) were significantly associated with mortality. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were as follows: calcium 0.759; lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) 0.731; phosphorus 0.725; bilirubin 0.689; C-reactive protein 0.679; and RDW – standard deviation (RDW-SD) 0.624.

Conclusions

Those who did not survive tended to be elderly and had a greater incidence of comorbidities. Elevated LDH, decreased levels of calcium and phosphorus, and anemia at diagnosis were associated with greater risk of death for these Iranian patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Regular assessment of these markers would help to manage patients with COVID-19.

Mots clés

  • COVID-19
  • clinical decision-making
  • clinical laboratory techniques
  • Iran
  • pneumonia

Brief Communication (original)

Accès libre

Diagnostic accuracy of complete blood cell count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte, lymphocyte-to-monocyte, and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios for neonatal infection

Publié en ligne: 28 Feb 2022
Pages: 43 - 52

Résumé

Abstract Background

Complete blood cell (CBC) counts and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte (NLR), lymphocyte-to-monocyte (LMR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios (PLR) are simple measurements that are conducted as part of routine diagnostic procedures.

Objective

To determine the diagnostic importance, specificity, and sensitivity of these measurements for the diagnosis of neonatal infections and in discriminating between neonatal sepsis and various other infections.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective study of data from a consecutive series of 232 neonatal patients admitted to Yildirim Beyazit University Yenimahalle Training and Research Hospital in Ankara for 2 years from 2016 to 2018. We included patients with a diagnosis of or clinically suspected infection, and healthy neonates were included as controls. Data included CBC counts, and bacterial culture results, considered the criterion standard for the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. NLR, LMR, and PLR were calculated. We compared data using independent Student t and Mann–Whitney U tests and determined the sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio (LHOR) of the characteristics for neonatal sepsis using receiver operating characteristic curve analyses.

Results

We included data from 155 neonatal patients with a diagnosis or suspicion of infection and 77 healthy neonates. NLR was significantly higher in neonates with sepsis or fever due to dehydration (P < 0.001) than in neonates with other infections or healthy neonates. LMR was significantly higher in neonates with sepsis or viral infection than in those with other infections or healthy controls (P = 0.003). In neonates with early-onset sepsis (EOS), we found cut-off values of ≥4.79 [area under curve (AUC) 0.845, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76–0.93, LHOR 11.6, specificity 98.7%, sensitivity 15%] for NLR, ≥1.24 (AUC 0.295; CI 0.18–0.41, LHOR 1.02, specificity 2.6%, sensitivity 100%) for LMR, and ≥37.72 (AUC 0.268; CI 0.15–0.39, LHOR 0.86, specificity 7.8%, sensitivity 80%) for PLR. We found cut-off values of ≥4.94 (AUC 0.667; CI 0.56–0.77, LHOR 4.16, specificity 98.7%, sensitivity 5.4%) for NLR and ≥10.92 (AUC 0.384; CI 0.26–0.51, LHOR 6.24, specificity 98.7%, sensitivity 8.1%) for LMR in those with late-onset sepsis (LOS).

Conclusions

CBCs, NLR, LMR, and PLR may be useful for the differential diagnosis of EOS and LOS, and neonates with sepsis from those with other infection. NLR may be a useful diagnostic test to identify neonatal patients with septicemia more quickly than other commonly used diagnostic tests such as blood cultures. NLR has high specificity and LHOR, but low sensitivity.

Mots clés

  • infant, newborn
  • infections
  • lymphocytes
  • monocytes
  • neutrophils
  • sepsis

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