1. bookVolume 224 (2022): Edition 1 (March 2022)
Détails du magazine
License
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2720-4286
Première parution
30 Mar 2016
Périodicité
1 fois par an
Langues
Anglais
Accès libre

The Assessment of Unmanned Vessel Operation in Heavy Traffic Areas. Case Study of the North Sea Crossing by Unmanned Surface Vessel Sea-Kit

Publié en ligne: 08 Mar 2022
Volume & Edition: Volume 224 (2022) - Edition 1 (March 2022)
Pages: 41 - 67
Détails du magazine
License
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2720-4286
Première parution
30 Mar 2016
Périodicité
1 fois par an
Langues
Anglais
Abstract

The continuous development of autonomous and unmanned technology is accelerating the adoption of unmanned vessels for various maritime operations. Despite the technological developments there is still a lack of clear regulatory and organizational frameworks for testing and exploiting the potential of unmanned surface vessels (USVs) in real-world maritime conditions. Such real-world testing becomes ever more complex when operating in multiple nations territorial waters. In May 2019 USV ‘Maxlimer’ crossed the North Sea from the United Kingdom to Belgium and back, carrying goods, to demonstrate the ability of unmanned surface vessels to interact with real marine traffic in an uncontrolled environment. The paper presents this mission in light of the current state of marine autonomy projects as well as the regulatory works conducted by various organizations worldwide.

Keywords

Allianz, 2018. Safety and Shipping Review, An annual review of trends and developments in shipping losses and safety. https://www.agcs.allianz.com/content/dam/onemarketing/agcs/agcs/reports/AGCS-Safety-Shipping-Review-2018.pdf. Search in Google Scholar

Advanced Autonomous Waterborne Applications Initiative (AAWA), 2016. Remote and Autonomous Ship – The Next Steps. https://www.rolls-royce.com/~/media/Files/R/Rolls-Royce/documents/customers/marine/ship-intel/aawa-whitepaper-210616.pdf. (07.01.2020). Search in Google Scholar

Bluebird, 2020. www.bluebird-electric.net/oceanography/Ocean_Plastic_International_Rescue/SeaVax_Ocean_Clean_Up_Robot_Drone_Ship_Sea_Vacuum.htm. (13.02.2020). Search in Google Scholar

Carey, L., 2017. All hands-off deck? The Legal Barriers to Autonomous Ships. NUS Centre for Maritime Law Working Paper 17/06. https://law.nus.edu.sg/cml/pdfs/wps/CML-WPS-1706.pdf. (05.02.2020). Search in Google Scholar

Congressional Research Service (CRS), 2019. Navy Large Unmanned Surface and Undersea Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress, https://fas.org/sgp/crs/weapons/R45757.pdf. (01.02.2020). Search in Google Scholar

Comité Maritime International (CMI), 2018. International Working Group Position Paper On Unmanned Ships And The International Regulatory Framework. https://comitemaritime.org/work/mass/. (04.02.2020). Search in Google Scholar

(COLREGs) Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea. 1972. Search in Google Scholar

Felski, A. and Jaskólski, K., 2012. Information unfitness as a factor constraining Automatic Identification System (AIS) application to anti-collision manoeuvring, Polish Maritime Research, 3(75) 2012 Vol 19.10.2478/v10012-012-0032-4 Search in Google Scholar

Felski, A., Jaskolski, K. and Banyś, P., 2015. Comprehensive Assessment of Automatic Identification System (AIS) Data Application to Anti-collision Manoeuvring. Journal of Navigation. 68. 10.1017/S0373463314000897.10.1017/S0373463314000897 Search in Google Scholar

Hartkopf-Mikkelsen, J., 2014. DNV GL: Unmanned container vessels could become reality in five years. https://shippingwatch.com/suppliers/article9024890.ece. (05.02.2020). Search in Google Scholar

Hertog, V., 2018. RAmora - New Possibilities for Ship Handling. British Tugowners Association Conference, 18 April 2018. https://www.ukchamberofshipping.com/documents/1030/Vince_denHertog_RAL_BTA_2018_v2.pdf. (03.02.2020). Search in Google Scholar

International Maritime Organization (IMO), 2018. IMO takes first steps to address autonomous ships. http://www.imo.org/en/MediaCentre/PressBriengs/Pages/08-MSC-99-MASS-scoping.aspx. (22.01.2020). Search in Google Scholar

International Maritime Organization Legal Committee (IMO LEG), 2018. IMO Legal Committee 105th session, 23-25 April 2018, http://www.imo.org/en/MediaCentre/MeetingSummaries/Legal/Pages/LEG-105th-session.aspx. (22.01.2020). Search in Google Scholar

International Maritime Organization Maritime Safety Committee (IMO MSC), 2017. Maritime Safety Committee 98th session, 7-16 June 2017, http://www.imo.org/en/MediaCentre/MeetingSummaries/MSC/Pages/MSC-98th-session. Search in Google Scholar

International Telecommunication Union (ITU), 2014. Recommendation ITU-R M.1371-5, ‘Technical characteristics for an automatic identification system using time division multiple access in the VHF maritime mobile frequency band’, https://www.itu.int/dms_pubrec/itu-r/rec/m/RREC-M.1371-5-201402-I!!PDF-E.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Jokioinen, E., 2016. Advanced Autonomous Waterborne Applications (AAWA) Initiative. MESA’s “The Connected Ship and Shipping”, Brussels 29.6.2016. https://www.waterborne.eu/media/18556/Advanced-Autonomous-Waterborne-Applications-AAWA-Initiative.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Koikas, G., Papoutsidakis, M., Nikitakos, N., 2019. New Technology Trends in the Design of Autonomous Ships, International Journal of Computer Applications. Volume 178, No. 25. https://www.ijcaonline.org/archives/volume178/number25/koikas-2019-ijca-919043.pdf10.5120/ijca2019919043 Search in Google Scholar

Kongsberg. 2020. Autonomous Ship Project, key facts about Yara Birkeland. The World’s First Zero-Emission, Autonomous Container Feeder. https://www.kongsberg.com/maritime/support/themes/autonomous-ship-project-key-facts-about-yara-birkeland/. (05.02.2020). Search in Google Scholar

Koziński, M., 2011. Wybrane problemy nowej regulacji przewozu ładunku w polskim prawie morskim, (in Polish), Prawo Morskie, No XXVII, p. 26. Search in Google Scholar

Loyd’s Register (LR), 2017. LR Code for Unmanned Marine Systems, London. Search in Google Scholar

MarineInsight, 2014. Dover Strait crossings: channel navigation information service (CNIS). https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/dover-strait-crossings-channel-navigation-information-service/dover-strait-crossings-channel-navigation-information-service-cnis. (03.01.2020). Search in Google Scholar

MarineInsight, 2019. The Strait Of Dover- The Busiest Shipping Route In The World. https://www.marineinsight.com/marine-navigation/the-strait-of-dover-the-busiest-shipping-route-in-the-world/. (03.01.2020). Search in Google Scholar

Miętkiewicz, R., 2018. Unmanned surface vehicles in maritime critical infrastructure protection applications - LNG Terminal in Świnoujście, Scientific Journal of Polish Naval Academy, 2018 (LIX) 2 (213). www.amw.gdynia.pl/images/AMW/Menu-zakladki/Nauka/Zeszyty_naukowe/Numery_archiwalne/2018/2018_2/Miętkiewicz.pdf10.2478/sjpna-2018-0012 Search in Google Scholar

MUNIN, 2016. Research in maritime autonomous systems: Project results and technology potentials, https://www.cml.fraunhofer.de/content/dam/cml/de/documents/Sonstiges/MUNIN%20-%20final%20brochure.pdf (07.02.2020). Search in Google Scholar

NATO Industrial Advisory Group (NIAG), 2004. Pre-Feasibility Study on UAV Autonomous Operations, NATO Industrial Advisory Group Special Group 75. (04.01.2020). Search in Google Scholar

Norwegian Forum for Autonomous Ships (NFAS), 20017. Definitions for Autonomous Merchant Ships, Norway, http://nfas.autonomous-ship.org/resources/autonom-defs.pdf. (05.02.2020). Search in Google Scholar

Oceanalpha, 2020. Autonomous Cargo Ship. https://www.oceanalpha.com/product-item/cloudborne/ (04.02.2020). Search in Google Scholar

Proctor, A.; Zarayskaya, Y.; Bazhenowa, E.; Sumiyoshi, M.; Wigley, R. A.; Roperez, J.; Zwolak, K.; Sattiabaruth, S.; Sade, H.; Tinmouth, N., 2018. Unlocking the Power of Combined Autonomous Operations with Underwater and Surface Vehicles: Success with a Deep-Water Survey AUV and USV Mothership. In OCEANS, Kobe.10.1109/OCEANSKOBE.2018.8558784 Search in Google Scholar

QinetiQ, 2016. Propeling maritime technology. HIS Fairplay. www.slideshare.net/ChristianAzolan/qinetiq2016. (13.02.2020) Search in Google Scholar

RAND, 2013. U.S. Navy Employment U.S. Navy Employment Options for Unmanned Surface Vehicles (USVs). https://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/research_reports/RR300/RR384/RAND_RR384.pdf (10.02.2020). Search in Google Scholar

Rodseth, Ø.J., Burmeister, H.C., 2012. Developments toward the unmanned ship, http://www.unmanned-ship.org/munin/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/R%C3%B8dseth-Burmeister-2012-Developments-toward-the-unmanned-ship.pdf (05.02.2020). Search in Google Scholar

Rudziński, D., 2019. Morski autonomiczny statek nawodny - MASS https://www.gospodarkamorska.pl/Porty,Transport/morski-autonomiczny-statek-nawodny-%E2%80%91-mass.html. (01.02.2020). Search in Google Scholar

Rymarz, W., 2004. Międzynarodowe prawo drogi morskiej w zarysie. Trademar. Gdynia (in Polish). Search in Google Scholar

Ship Technology, 2017. Hronn Autonomous Offshore Support Vessel. https://www.ship-technology.com/projects/hronn-autonomous-offshore-support-vessel/ Search in Google Scholar

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), 1983. Dec. 10, 1982, 1833 U.N.T.S. 397. Search in Google Scholar

Williams, A., 2019. The Mayflower Autonomous Ship. https://www.plymouth.ac.uk/news/a-mayflower-for-a-new-generation. (23.02.2020). Search in Google Scholar

Williams, R., 2008. Autonomous systems overview. BAE Systems. http://www.aircraftbuilders.com/files/2716/File/BAE_%20Systems_Text_Version.pdf. (18.02.2020). Search in Google Scholar

Zarayskaya, Y.; Wallace, C., Wigley, R. A.; Zwolak, K.; Bazhenova, E.; Bohan, A.; Elsaied, M.; Rope-rez, J.; Sumiyoshi, M.; Sattiabaruth, S.; Dorshow, W.; Ketter, T.; Sade, H.; Proctor, A.; Rhyzow, I.; Tinmouth, N.; Simpson, B.; Kristoffersen, S.M., 2019. GEBCO-NF Alumni Team Technology Solution for Shell Ocean Discovery XPRIZE Final Round. In OCEANS, Marseille.10.1109/OCEANSE.2019.8867201 Search in Google Scholar

Zwolak, K.; Simpson, B.; Anderson, R.; Bazhenowa, E.; Falconer, R.; Kearns, T.; Minami, H.; Rope-rez, J.; Rosedee, A.; Sade, H.; Tinmouth, N.; Wigley, R.A.; Zarayskaya, Y., 2017. An unmanned sea-floor mapping system: The concept of an AUV integrated with the newly designed USV SEA-KIT. In OCEANS, Aberdeen.10.1109/OCEANSE.2017.8084899 Search in Google Scholar

Articles recommandés par Trend MD

Planifiez votre conférence à distance avec Sciendo