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An Analysis of Regional Snow Assessments at Selected Hydrological Stations on the Danube and Tisza Rivers

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Precipitation falling on a land surface is one of the most important elements of the hydrological cycle, and it is the only input term of the water balance on the Earth´s surface. On those areas of the Earth where a part of the annual precipitation falls in the form of snow, the rhythm of the hydrological cycle, i.e., the water balance within a year, follows a pattern that deviates from that of the precipitation record. Precipitation falling in a solid state enters the hydrological cycle with a time lag that might be as much as several months after the precipitation event. Therefore, instead of considering the observed values of precipitation when describing the various elements of the hydrological cycle, it is more expedient to take the surface water input into account. This is a fraction of the precipitation which is present on the land surface in a liquid state. Consequently, the most important task of the various snow models within the rainfall - runoff and water budget schemes is to transform the precipitation values observed into surface water input values. Spring time runoff largely depends on the snowmelt component, and it gives the possibility of estimating the expected seasonal volume of the flow and flood peaks. Seasonal forecasts based on the relationship between snow resources and expected precipitation during the spring months have been analyzed for the Danube and Tisza rivers.

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