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Obesity and overweight are the major risk factors for numerous chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases such as heart disease and stroke, which are the leading causes of death worldwide. The prevalence of obesity has dramatically risen in both developed and developing countries, making it a significant public health concern and a global crisis. Despite lifestyle modifications being the first-line treatment, the high risk of relapse has led to a growing interest in non-invasive pharmacotherapeutic interventions to achieve and maintain weight loss and reverse the growth of the obesity epidemic. Cardiovascular diseases and cancer account for the highest mortality rates among other comorbidities associated with obesity and overweight. Excess and abnormally deposited adipose tissue secretes various inflammatory mediators, leading to cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Weight loss of 5-10% significantly reduces cardiometabolic risk. Medications currently approved in the USA for long-term management of obesity are orlistat, naltrexone, bupropion, phentermine/topiramate, and Glucagon Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists such as liraglutide and semaglutide. The benefit-to-risk of medications, comorbidities, and individual responses should guide the treatment decisions. The article provides a comprehensive overview and discussion of several weight loss medications used previously and currently, including their efficacy, mechanisms of action, and side effects.

eISSN:
2501-062X
Langue:
Anglais
Périodicité:
4 fois par an
Sujets de la revue:
Medicine, Clinical Medicine, Internal Medicine, other, Cardiology, Gastroenterology, Rheumatology