1. bookVolume 14 (2021): Edition 2 (December 2021)
Détails du magazine
License
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1338-4309
Première parution
03 Aug 2009
Périodicité
2 fois par an
Langues
Anglais
access type Accès libre

Leadership Discourses on Bureaucracy: Continuity over a Century

Publié en ligne: 02 Dec 2021
Volume & Edition: Volume 14 (2021) - Edition 2 (December 2021)
Pages: 111 - 133
Détails du magazine
License
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1338-4309
Première parution
03 Aug 2009
Périodicité
2 fois par an
Langues
Anglais
Abstract

Politicians in all types of regimes require bureaucracy to extend their rule over society. To prevent administrators from becoming too powerful and publicly signal independence, they seemingly arbitrarily criticize public officials. But when and how do political leaders blame bureaucracy – and when do they praise it ? This study uses Russia as a case to illustrate the complex and ambiguous politics-administration relationship in non-Western regimes. We argue that public statements about bureaucracy accommodate two different legitimation strategies. We provide a content analysis of 311 public statements, from 1917 – 2017, on the role of administration in the country’s development. We find that attention to administrative affairs coincides with major political changes and periods of political instability in the history of Soviet and post-Soviet Russia. Over a century, the rhetoric of Russian leaders oscillated between blaming and praising bureaucracy to secure stability and overcome obstacles in implementing governing strategies. The strategic interplay between assertive rhetoric and praising bureaucracy is part of an effective political leadership survival strategy.

Keywords

Aberbach, J. D. and B. A. Rockman. 1994. “Civil Servants and Policymakers: Neutral or Responsive Competence ?” Governance 7(4), 461 – 469. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0491.1994.tb00192.x10.1111/j.1468-0491.1994.tb00192.x Search in Google Scholar

Acemoglu, D., G. Egorov and K. Sonin. 2008. “Coalition Formation in Non-Democracies.” Review of Economic Studies 75(4), 987 – 1009. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-937X.2008.00503.x10.1111/j.1467-937X.2008.00503.x Search in Google Scholar

Armstrong, D., O. J. Reuter and G. B. Robertson. 2020. “Getting the Opposition together: Protest Coordination in Authoritarian Regimes.” Post-Soviet Affairs 36(1), 1 – 19. https://doi.org/10.1080/1060586X.2019.166594110.1080/1060586X.2019.1665941 Search in Google Scholar

Bai, Y. and T. Zhou. 2019. “‘Mao’s Last Revolution’: A Dictator’s Loyalty-Competence Tradeoff.” Public Choice 180(3), 469 – 500. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11127-019-00649-910.1007/s11127-019-00649-9 Search in Google Scholar

Barabashev, A. G. and A. Klimenko. 2018. “Russian Governance Changes and Performance.” Chinese Political Science Review 2(1), 22 – 39. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41111-017-0057-z10.1007/s41111-017-0057-z Search in Google Scholar

Barabashev, A. G. and J. D. Straussman. 2007. “Public Service Reform in Russia, 1991 – 2006.” Public Administration Review 67(3), 373 – 382. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6210.2007.00721.x10.1111/j.1540-6210.2007.00721.x Search in Google Scholar

Beissinger, M. R. 2020. “Conclusion: China, Russia, and the Authoritarian Embrace of Globalization.” In K. Koesel, V. Bunce and J. Weiss (eds). Citizens and the State in Authoritarian Regimes: Comparing China and Russia. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190093488.003.001210.1093/oso/9780190093488.003.0012 Search in Google Scholar

Bogdan, N., E. Boyko and I. Bushuyeva. 2016. “The Concept of Professionalism in the Public Human Resources Management in Russia: Evolution and Implementation.” International Journal of Civil Service Reform and Practice 1(1), 1 – 14. Search in Google Scholar

Breslauer, G. W. 2017. “Reforming Sacred Institutions: The Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Roman Catholic Church Compared.” Post-Soviet Affairs 33(3), 177 – 199. https://doi.org/10.1080/1060586x.2017.129672910.1080/1060586X.2017.1296729 Search in Google Scholar

Breslauer, G. W. 2019. “Reforming Sacred Institutions, Part II: The Soviet Party-State and the Roman Catholic Church Compared.” Post-Soviet Affairs 35(4), 338 – 357. https://doi.org/10.1080/1060586x.2019.162097710.1080/1060586X.2019.1620977 Search in Google Scholar

Brezhnev, L. 1971. Report of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union to the 24th Party Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House. Search in Google Scholar

Bushkovitch, P. 2011. A Concise History of Russia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9781139033206 Search in Google Scholar

Carpenter, D. P. and G. A. Krause. 2012. “Reputation and Public Administration.” Public Administration Review 72(1), 26 – 32. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6210.2011.02506.x10.1111/j.1540-6210.2011.02506.x Search in Google Scholar

Chilton, P. 2003. Analysing Political Discourse: Theory and Practice. London: Rout-ledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/978020356121810.4324/9780203561218 Search in Google Scholar

Colton, T. J. 2008. Yeltsin: A Life. New York: Basic Books. Search in Google Scholar

Dobrolyubova, E., L. Tatarinova and V. Yuzhakov. 2019. “Prospects for Improving the Competitiveness of Civil Servants’ Wages” [Перспективы Повышения Конкурентоспособности Оплаты Труда Гражданских Служащих]. Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration Working Paper 041929. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.339123510.2139/ssrn.3391235 Search in Google Scholar

Dollbaum, J. M. 2020. “Protest Trajectories in Electoral Authoritarianism: From Russia’s ‘For Fair Elections’ Movement to Alexei Navalny’s Presidential Campaign.” Post-Soviet Affairs 36(3), 192 – 210. https://doi.org/10.1080/1060586x.2020.175027510.1080/1060586X.2020.1750275 Search in Google Scholar

Egorov, G. and K. Sonin. 2011. “Dictators and their Viziers: Endogenizing the Lovalty-Competence Trade-off.” Journal of the European Economic Association 9(5), 903 – 930. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1542-4774.2011.01033.x10.1111/j.1542-4774.2011.01033.x Search in Google Scholar

Fairclough, N. 1989. Language and Power. London: Longman. Search in Google Scholar

Freeze, G. L. 2002. “From Stalinism to Stagnation, 1953 – 1985.” In G. L. Freeze (ed.). Russia: A History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 347 – 382. Search in Google Scholar

Geddes, B., J. Wright and E. Frantz. 2018. How Dictatorships Work: Power, Personalization, and Collapse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/978131633618210.1017/9781316336182 Search in Google Scholar

Gel’man, V. 2015. Authoritarian Russia: Analyzing Post-Soviet Regime Changes. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press.10.2307/j.ctt155jmv1 Search in Google Scholar

Glazer, A. 2002. “Allies as Rivals: Internal and External Rent Seeking.” Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 48(2), 155 – 162. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-2681(01)00230-X10.1016/S0167-2681(01)00230-X Search in Google Scholar

Golosov, G. V. 2014. “Co-Optation in the Process of Dominant Party System Building: The Case of Russia.” East European Politics 30(2), 271 – 285. https://doi.org/10.1080/21599165.2014.89921110.1080/21599165.2014.899211 Search in Google Scholar

Goncharov, D. and A. Shirikov. 2013. “Public Administration in Russia.” In S. Liebert (ed.). Public Administration in Post-Communist Countries: Former Soviet Union, Central and Eastern Europe, and Mongolia. New York: Taylor and Francis, 23 – 41. https://doi.org/10.4324/978131508930010.4324/9781315089300 Search in Google Scholar

Gorbachev, M. 1987. “Report to the Plenary Session of the CPSU Central Committee, January 27, 1987”. Pravda and Izvestiia, January 28, 1987. Available at https://salemcc.instructure.com/courses/451/pages/mikhail-gorbachev-report-tothe-plenary-session-of-the-cpsu-central-committee-january-27-1987 (last accessed 14 October 2021). Search in Google Scholar

Gorbachev, M. 1988. Report and speeches on 19th All-Union Conference of the CPSU. Moscow: Novosti Press Agency Publishing House. Search in Google Scholar

Harrison, M. and A. Markevich. 2012. “Russia’s National Income in War and Revolution, 1913 to 1928.” VoxEU & CEPR: Research-Based Policy Analysis and Commentary from Leading Economists. Available at https://voxeu.org/article/russia-s-national-income-war-and-revolution-1913-1928 (last accessed 14 October 2021). Search in Google Scholar

Hood, C. 2010. The Blame Game: Spin, Bureaucracy, and Self-Preservation in Government. Princeton: Princeton University Press.10.1515/9781400836819 Search in Google Scholar

Hood, C. 2020. “Discretion and Blame Avoidance.” In T. Evans and P. Hupe (eds). Discretion and the Quest for Controlled Freedom. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 23 – 40. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-19566-3_310.1007/978-3-030-19566-3_3 Search in Google Scholar

Jäkel, T. 2019. “Pay Dissatisfaction among Municipal Employees: Empirical Evidence from Russia’s Stavropol Region.” NISPAcee Journal of Public Administration and Policy 12(1), 69 – 89. https://doi.org/10.2478/nispa-2019-000310.2478/nispa-2019-0003 Search in Google Scholar

Jakobson, L. I. 2001. “Public Management in Russia: Changes and Inertia.” International Public Management Journal 4, 27 – 48. Search in Google Scholar

Khlevniuk, O. V. 2008. Master of the House: Stalin and his Inner Circle. New Haven: Yale University Press.10.12987/yale/9780300110661.001.0001 Search in Google Scholar

Klein, E. 2020. “The Fight Against Corruption: Much Ado About Nothing”. Dekoder Forschungsstelle Osteuropa: The President’s Words. Available at https://putin.dekoder.org/corruption (last accessed 14 October 2021). Search in Google Scholar

Koesel, K., V. Bunce and J. Weiss (eds.). 2020. Citizens and the State in Authoritarian Regimes: Comparing China and Russia. New York: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190093488.001.000110.1093/oso/9780190093488.001.0001 Search in Google Scholar

Krause, G. A. and K. J. Meier. 2003. Politics, Policy, and Organizations: Frontiers in the Scientific Study of Bureaucracy. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.10.3998/mpub.17809 Search in Google Scholar

Krippendorff, K. 2018. Content Analysis: An Introduction to its Methodology. 4th edn. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.10.4135/9781071878781 Search in Google Scholar

Khrushchev, N. 1956. Report of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union to the 20th Party Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House. Search in Google Scholar

Khrushchev, N. 1961. Report of the Central Committee of the CPSU to the 22nd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. New York: Crosscurrent Press. Search in Google Scholar

Lenin, V. 1917. State and Revolution. London: Penguin Books, 1993. Search in Google Scholar

Lenin, V. 1923. “How We Should Reorganise the Workers’ and Peasants’ Inspection. Recommendation to the 12th Party Congress.” In Lenin’s Collected Works. Vol. 33. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1965, 481 – 486. Available at https://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1923/jan/23.htm (last accessed 14 October 2021). Search in Google Scholar

McCauley, M. 2002. “From Perestroika towards a New Order, 1985 – 1993.” In G. L. Freeze (ed.). Russia: A History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 383 – 421. Search in Google Scholar

McSwite, O. C. 1997. Legitimacy in Public Administration: A Discourse Analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA.: SAGE. Search in Google Scholar

Maddison, A. 2001. The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective. Paris: OECD Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1787/1990029510.1787/19900295 Search in Google Scholar

Magaloni, B. 2008. “Credible Power-Sharing and the Longevity of Authoritarian Rule.” Comparative Political Studies 41(4 – 5), 715 – 741. https://doi.org/10.1177/001041400731312410.1177/0010414007313124 Search in Google Scholar

Matovski, A. 2020. “The Logic of Vladimir Putin’s Popular Appeal.” In K. Koesel, V. Bunce and J. Weiss (eds). Citizens and the State in Authoritarian Regimes: Comparing China and Russia. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190093488.003.000910.1093/oso/9780190093488.003.0009 Search in Google Scholar

Miller, C. 2016. The Struggle to Save the Soviet Economy: Mikhail Gorbachev and the Collapse of the USSR. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.10.5149/northcarolina/9781469630175.001.0001 Search in Google Scholar

Miller, C. 2018. Putinomics: Power and Money in Resurgent Russia. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.10.5149/northcarolina/9781469640662.001.0001 Search in Google Scholar

Mouritzen, P. E. and J. H. Svara. 2002. Leadership at the Apex: Politicians and Administrators in Western Local Governments. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh. Search in Google Scholar

Myerson, R. B. 2008. “The Autocrat’s Credibility Problem and Foundations of the Constitutional State.” American Political Science Review 102(1), 125 – 139. https://doi.org/10.1017/S000305540808007610.1017/S0003055408080076 Search in Google Scholar

Neuendorf, K. A. 2002. The Content Analysis Guidebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE. Search in Google Scholar

Noble, B. 2020. “Authoritarian Amendments: Legislative Institutions as Intraexecutive Constraints in Post-Soviet Russia.” Comparative Political Studies 53(9), 1417 – 1454. https://doi.org/10.1177/001041401879794110.1177/0010414018797941 Search in Google Scholar

Peters, B. G. and J. Pierre. 2004. “Politicization of the Civil Service: Concepts, Causes, Consequences.” In B. G. Peters and J. Pierre (eds.). Politicization of the Civil Service in Comparative Perspective: The Quest for Control. London: Routledge, 1 – 13. Search in Google Scholar

Pipes, R. 1995. Russia under the Old Regime. London: Penguin Books. Search in Google Scholar

Prior, L. 2020. “Content Analysis.” In P. Leavy (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Qualitative Research. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 541 – 566. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190847388.013.2510.1093/oxfordhb/9780190847388.013.25 Search in Google Scholar

Putin, V. 2001. The 8th Presidential Address to the Federal Assembly “There will be no revolutions, no counter-revolutions” (in Russian). Available at http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/bank/36350 (last accessed 14 October 2021). Search in Google Scholar

Putin, V. 2012. The 19th Presidential Address to the Federal Assembly (in Russian). Available at http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/bank/36699 (last accessed 14 October 2021). Search in Google Scholar

Richter, S. 2014. “German ‘Minor’ Thinkers ?” Administrative Theory & Praxis 36(1), 51 – 72. https://doi.org/10.2753/ATP1084-180636010410.2753/ATP1084-1806360104 Search in Google Scholar

Roberts, A. 2019a. Strategies for Governing: Reinventing Public Administration for a Dangerous Century. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. https://doi.org/10.7591/cornell/9781501714405.001.000110.7591/cornell/9781501714405.001.0001 Search in Google Scholar

Roberts, A. 2019b. “Bridging Levels of Public Administration: How Macro Shapes Meso and Micro.” Administration & Society 52(4), 631 – 656. https://doi.org/10.1177/009539971987716010.1177/0095399719877160 Search in Google Scholar

Sager, F., C. Rosser, C. Mavrot and P. Y. Hurni. 2018. A Transatlantic History of Public Administration. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing. https://doi.org/10.4337/978178811375510.4337/9781788113755 Search in Google Scholar

Schedler, A. 2013. The Politics of Uncertainty: Sustaining and Subverting Electoral Authoritarianism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199680320.001.0001 Search in Google Scholar

Schlaufer, C. 2021. “Why do Nondemocratic Regimes Promote e-Participation ? The Case of Moscow’s Active Citizen Online Voting Platform.” Governance 34(3), 821 – 836. https://doi.org/10.1111/gove.1253110.1111/gove.12531 Search in Google Scholar

Schlaufer, C. and T. Jäkel. 2022 (forthcoming). “The Politics of Public Administration in the Russian Federation.” In F. Sager and A. Ladner (eds). Handbook on the Politics of Public Administration. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing. Search in Google Scholar

Scollon, S. 2007. “Political and Somatic Alignment: Habitus, Ideology and Social Practice.” In G. Weiss and R. Wodak (eds). Critical Discourse Analysis: Theory and Interdisciplinarity. Palgrave Macmillan UK, 167 – 198. Search in Google Scholar

Sirotkina, E. and M. Zavadskaya. 2020. “When the Party’s over: Political Blame Attribution under an Electoral Authoritarian Regime.” Post-Soviet Affairs 36(1), 37 – 60. https://doi.org/10.1080/1060586x.2019.163938610.1080/1060586X.2019.1639386 Search in Google Scholar

Slapin, J. B. and S.-O. Proksch. 2014. “Words as Data: Content Analysis in Legislative Studies.” In S. Martin, T. Saalfeld and K. W. Strøm (eds). The Oxford Handbook of Legislative Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199653010.013.003310.1093/oxfordhb/9780199653010.013.0033 Search in Google Scholar

Slovik, M. W. 2012. The Politics of Authoritarian Rule. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Snegovaya, M. 2020. “Guns to Butter: Sociotropic Concerns and Foreign Policy Preferences in Russia.” Post-Soviet Affairs 36(3), 268 – 279. https://doi.org/10.1080/1060586x.2020.175091210.1080/1060586X.2020.1750912 Search in Google Scholar

Stalin, J. 1923. “The Organizational Report of the Central Committee to the 12th Congress of the R.C.P. (B.).” In Stalin, J. V. Works, Vol. 5: 1921 – 1923. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1954. Available at https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/stalin/works/1923/04/17.htm (last accessed 14 October 2021). Search in Google Scholar

Stalin, J. 1926. “The Economic Situation of the Soviet Union and the Policy of the Party. Report to the Active of the Leningrad Party Organisation on the Work of the Plenum of the C.C., C.P.S.U.(B.).” In Stalin, J. V. Works, Vol. 8: January–November 1926. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1954, 123 – 156. Available at https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/stalin/works/1926/04/13.htm (last accessed 14 October 2021). Search in Google Scholar

Stalin, J. 1929. “Emulation and Labor Enthusiasm of the Masses. Foreword to E. Mikulina’s Pamphlet ‘Emulation of the Masses’ ”. In Stalin, J. V. Works. Vol. 12: April 1929 – June 1930, Moscow, Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1954, 114 – 117. Available at https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/stalin/works/1929/05/11.htm (last accessed 14 October 2021). Search in Google Scholar

Stalin, J. 1934. “Questions of Organizational Leadership. Report to the Seventeenth Party Congress on the Work of the Central Committee of the C.P.S.U.(B.).” In Stalin, J. V. Works. Vol. 13: 1930 – January 1934. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1954. Available at https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/stalin/works/1934/01/26.htm (last accessed 14 October 2021). Search in Google Scholar

Van Dijk, T. A. 2009. Society and Discourse: How Social Contexts Influence Text and Talk. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511575273 Search in Google Scholar

Wallmeier, F., B. Helmig and M. K. Feeney. 2019. “Knowledge Construction in Public Administration: A Discourse Analysis of Public Value.” Public Administration Review 79(4), 488 – 499. https://doi.org/10.1111/puar.1300510.1111/puar.13005 Search in Google Scholar

White, S. 2010. “Russia.” In D. Nohlen and P. Stöver (eds). Elections in Europe: A Data Handbook. 1st edn. Baden-Baden: Nomos, 1623 – 1668). https://doi.org/10.5771/9783845223414-162310.5771/9783845223414-1623 Search in Google Scholar

Williamson, S. and B. Magaloni. 2020. “Legislatures and Policy Making in Authoritarian Regimes.” Comparative Political Studies 53(9), 1525 – 1543. https://doi.org/10.1177/001041402091228810.1177/0010414020912288 Search in Google Scholar

Xi, T. 2018. “All the Emperor’s Men ? Conflicts and Power-Sharing in Imperial China.” Comparative Political Studies 52(8), 1099 – 1130. https://doi.org/10.1177/001041401880653810.1177/0010414018806538 Search in Google Scholar

Yeltsin, B. 1996. The 3rd Presidential Address to the Federal Assembly “Russia for which we are responsible” (in Russian). Available at http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/bank/36349 (last accessed 14 October 2021). Search in Google Scholar

Yeltsin, B. 1997. The 4th Presidential Address to the Federal Assembly “Order in power — order in the country” (in Russian). Available at http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/bank/36355 (last accessed 14 October 2021). Search in Google Scholar

Zherebtsov, M. 2019. “Taking Stock of Russian eGovernment.” Europe-Asia Studies 71(4), 579 – 607. https://doi.org/10.1080/09668136.2019.159053510.1080/09668136.2019.1590535 Search in Google Scholar

Articles recommandés par Trend MD

Planifiez votre conférence à distance avec Sciendo