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Advantages and limitations of microscopy and molecular detections for diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths: An overview

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World Health Organization (WHO) reported that over 1.5 billion people are infected by soil-transmitted helminths (STH) worldwide in sub-Saharan Africa, the United States of America, China, and East Asia. Heavy infections and polyparasitism are associated with higher morbidity rates, and the patients are exposed to increased vulnerability to other diseases. Therefore, accurate diagnosis followed by mass treatment for morbidity control is necessary.STH diagnosis commonly involves the microscopic observation of the presence of the STH eggs and larvae in the faecal samples. Furthermore, molecular approaches are increasingly utilised in monitoring and surveillance as they show higher sensitivity. Their capability to differentiate hookworm species is an advantage over the Kato-Katz technique. This review discusses the advantages and limitations of microscopy and various molecular tools used for STH detection.