In recent years, VLSI (very large scale integration) and MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical systems) technologies have developed rapidly. This makes it possible to deploy international wireless sensor networks (WSNs) with a large number of small nodes . WSNs nodes composed of sensors with sensors, information processing capabilities, and short-term wireless communication capabilities have broad application prospects in military defense, environmental monitoring, target tracking, biomedicine, emergency disaster relief, and commercial use . Compared with other typical wireless networks, WSNs are also quite different. Although WSNs are indeed the classic representative of American Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs), they are quite different from MANETs themselves. WSNs nodes usually do not move, or move very rarely . Because the data packet size of WSNs is smaller. The computing, storage, and communication capabilities of WSNs nodes are also limited. Therefore, WSNs are generally networked separately. It is mainly used for monitoring functions. It is also a data-centric networking system. Although the number of WSNs nodes can be as many as thousands. But it is much larger than dozens of nodes of MANETs . WSNs are usually quite cumbersome and even impossible to replace batteries on installed nodes . This also leads to optimal network survivability, which is the main design goal of WSNs. Due to the characteristics of WSNs, the MAC (mediu maccess) technology of many fixed networks and MANETs cannot reasonably use WSNs.
In this paper, according to the basic characteristics of WSNs network, several classic MAC protocols are expounded. On this basis, we provide a schedule-based sensor MAC (SSMAC), a MAC protocol for WSNs based on reservation scheduling. This protocol can provide protection of QoS service (quality of service) of data while saving energy. We can use the simulation analysis to obtain the characteristics of the SSMAC protocol.
The energy consumption in wireless sensor network system is generally manifested in many important technical aspects such as collision, crosstalk, control packet overhead, idle listening and premature transmission . However, the MAC protocol in the current sensor network system has achieved the purpose of reducing energy by restricting the energy consumption in one or several ways . On the other hand, in the structure of the sensor computer network, there is a kind of sink node. The node usually has a higher ability to transmit and process data. It produces more energy. And the ability to send data back to a remote processing center . While other nodes adopt more hop relay method to send the received data to sink node. Therefore, the communication modes of nodes in WSNs can also include broadcast, centralized transmission, local communication and multicast communication . The MAC protocol should also support this communication mode with lower energy consumption. It is also convenient for nodes to cooperate with each other to complete the tasks of monitoring and data communication .
The goal of the MAC protocol is to minimize network lifetime and protocol expansion. This change mainly involves the scale and topology of the network, the density of nodes, the addition of new nodes, and the demise of old nodes . In addition, network characteristics such as throughput, delay and bandwidth utilization are also indicators that need to be considered. At present, researchers have designed many MAC protocols to serve WSNs. We can classify MAC layer agreements into contention establishment and reservation scheduling according to the characteristics of the agreement . So, people provide a S-MAC (sensor-MAC) which can be carried out by 802.11DCF mechanism. The S-MAC protocol divides the clock into frames. The frame length is determined by the application . The frame includes the working process and the sleep phase. It reduces idle listening time by periodically listening and sleeping with a stable time. It reduces conflicts of interest by adopting RTS/CTS/DATA/ACK methods. It reduces packet transmission costs by employing message passing. However, the broadcast data message cannot use the RTS/CTS method. This increases the chance of conflict. In addition, crosstalk also consumes some energy . A fixed-length working time can impair the reliability of the protocol even under the premise of variable load. The main purpose of the T-MAC (timeout-MAC) we provide is to improve the characteristics of the S-MAC protocol under variable load, and to dynamically adjust the frame length of the working process to meet the needs of the variable load. However, it also raises a kind of “early bed” question. It is called early sleep, which means that when several sensor nodes transmit data information to a single or a few sink nodes, the nodes will not be triggered by events and fall into sleep. At this time, the node will not be able to detect the next data transmission, and there will be a communication delay. Therefore, the WiseMAC protocol must use non-persistent CSMA to transmit data packets. Idle nodes can periodically monitor the channel for short periods of time while determining the current channel condition . In addition, the WiseMAC protocol can also use the data acknowledgment packet to carry the next channel monitoring time of the node. It adds a wake-up preamble combined with the clock skew rate before sending out a data frame. In this way, the connecting node can join the normal working condition and receive the data before the various data information parts in the frame are sent out. However, the short channel listening time stored in all adjacent nodes will waste precious space, thus increasing the complexity of the protocol implementation. Especially in the network system with high node density coefficient, this kind of problem is particularly obvious. Non-persistent, CSMA does not overcome the contradictions caused by hidden terminals. The Data-gathering MAC (D-MAC) agreement is an improved agreement of a time slot Aloha. Time slots are assigned to a tree from sensor nodes to sink nodes to form a data information aggregation tree. The data information in the tree is one-way. The data information message is sent from the child node to the parent node. Working/sleep state transition technology is used between nodes . This makes the forwarding time of the child node overlap with the acceptance time of the parent node. In the best case, the forwarding of data information will be completed continuously without any delay. Because D-MAC cannot adapt to the situation of two-way data communication in the Internet, it cannot realize all the communication modes in WSNs. The TRAMA (traffic-adaptive MA Cprotocol) agreement refers to the technological progress in the field of energy saving based on the traditional TDMA agreement. It divides time into alternating random visit times and scheduled visit times. It uses the messages of all neighbor nodes in the local two-hop, and uses the allocation election mechanism to determine the conflict-free message senders in all time slots. Also, its use avoids allocating all slot messages to nodes with no traffic. It keeps the non-transmitting and receiving nodes in a dormant state to achieve the purpose of saving power. At the same time, the TRAMA protocol increases the network throughput, and also solves the defect of poor scalability of the MAC protocol using TDMA. However, the random use period of the TRAMA agreement is correspondingly longer. It occupies at least 12.5 percent of the entire time frame. However, due to the complicated time distribution election mechanism, the large data packet waiting in the queue has a large delay. Therefore, people generally think that the TRAMA protocol is more suitable for use scenarios that are not sensitive to delay.
In the Adhoc network system, there are many classic MAC layer protocols used in the synchronization network system. Such as FPRP (five-phase reservation protocol) and E (evolutionary)-TDMA and so on. FPRP is a set of distributed reservation adjustment mechanisms that can use five-way handshakes for high-probability and non-contradiction within the two-hop area. It is also a broadcast regulation protocol. But once the unicast is adjusted, its effect will not be high. The E-TDMA is a modified version of FPRP used. It, like FPRP, requires a five-way handshake to connect between nodes. Therefore, although this agreement can ensure the transmission of real-time services without conflict, it can also prevent delay jitter. But its control cost is very high and the realization process is complicated. So the efficiency of this method is not high. The use of the scheduled MAC protocol can ensure that the nodes transmit data packets without contradiction under the condition that the agreed tasks are completed. This contract property depends on the cost of the reservation calculation. At the same time, it can also obtain QoS protection. This paper will design a scheduling MAC protocol based on energy constraints and differentiated services in WSNs. This aspect overcomes the traditional hidden port and exposed port problems. In addition, we also fully consider the energy-saving features and have less multimedia connection delay, because these can provide some QoS protection for the data.
The SSMAC protocol can be applied to the wireless sensor network in which the whole network synchronously divides time slots. There may also be two implementation methods in the system at the same time. a) Use GPS receiver to obtain certain precise frequency criterion in the air. It can work with controlled moments. Nodes are also able to obtain time synchronization based on a moment referenced to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). b) Use the method of automatic time calibration to perform time synchronization with a certain accuracy. Since the data transmission rate of the sensor network is relatively small, the duration of each time slot is much larger than the typical time offset. At the speed of 115.2kbps, we can send a data packet of 512 Bytes using a time slot of up to 46 ms. At the same time, we can also perform node synchronization in WSNs by using a simple timestamp mechanism. The SSMAC protocol adopts a high-probability, non-contradictory distributed reservation scheduling management mechanism with multiple handshakes and two-hop range. It implements the QoS of the service according to the requirement of capability restriction and fully considering the support of the real-time service.
At the beginning of the booming development of wireless network, it was deeply influenced by the hardware and software environment at that time. It mainly utilizes a single channel. Therefore, some classical and practical MAC protocols have been further developed. In the civil field, the most commonly used is the IEEE 802.1 series. While the traditional TDMA classification method is simpler to implement in hardware when it solves the synchronization problem of the whole network, it becomes the most effective classification method.
As shown in Figure 1, Each scheduling connection component of a time frame has K information frames. And each information frame contains N message time slots. The soft setting part in the random connection is generally used for the node that successfully reserved the message time slot last time. According to the specific calculation method, there is no need to compete for the connection. And the message time slot with the same sequence number is reserved again. In the connection phase of each competition, it will determine how nodes agree to schedule information frames. The appointment process includes N appointment time slots. It will in turn appoint service time slots with the same sequence numbers. And each successful appointment will make it occupy K relevant information time slots with the same sequence number in the subsequent scheduling access channel. Each appointment time slot will include M1+M2 appointment cycles (Figure 2). Its main purpose is to reduce the impact on the terminal environment and avoid exposing terminal problems. In this way, the Internet can carry larger parallel transmission of information and increase the success rate of reservation.
The TDMA protocol based on the principle of dynamic allocation focuses on two aspects of channel distribution and connection management. The former is generally responsible for relatively distributing appropriate channels for communication nodes. This enables as many nodes as possible to communicate simultaneously without conflict with each other. The latter is responsible for determining when nodes connect to channels, conflict resolution methods, and processing methods. Therefore, the SSMAC agreement basically completed the above two main functions. A channel allocation method in a TDMA network system is to assign transmission time slots to nodes in the network system. The collision-free transmission of packets between adjacent nodes is performed by means of repeated handshakes or agreements. This enables the highest possible wireless channel efficiency and space reuse. At the same time, the nodes that have nothing to do with this network system enter the dormant state to save power.
QoS is a kind of controllable pre-definition that users need to realize when transmitting end-to-end data information in computer network, according to the service attributes of end-to-end characteristics. It is usually divided into delay, delay jitter, bandwidth usage and packet loss rate. The prioritization of services and the reservation of resources are mainly used in two ways to ensure QoS in wireless networks. As long as the characteristics of the user service can meet the standard, it can be used as a QoS guarantee. The QoS guarantee requires multiple coordinations at each level to achieve business requirements. The business priority is mainly to classify the guaranteed services into the following categories. Usually we do it through different access priority levels and transmission probability. This ensures that high-priority services can occupy the channel with a high probability. The method of resource reservation is mainly to save some data of the channel. Only in this way can the channel use right of the constant bit rate and high priority service be ensured. Because then the real-time service can always provide the transmission channel.
The SSMAC protocol realizes QoS protection by means of differentiated services. The data packets generated by the upper layer are divided into two categories. Its contents are placed in two distinct data buffers in turn. These two kinds of data buffers are the real-time service area and the general service area in turn. When providing reservation service for data packets in the protocol, we will take completely different countermeasures for the number of packets in each buffer in our own queue. Assuming that the number of real-time service packets still exists in the buffer when the next time frame arrives, the software reservation mechanism is enabled to preempt time slots with the same sequence number. At the same time, the reservation process can be started only when the ordinary service meets the number of K data packets. At the same time, the number of packets in the cache must meet the corresponding number before the software reservation mechanism can be enabled.
The header of each time frame has a soft reserved time slot with a length of N bits. It is sequentially relative to the next N normal message time slots. If the node sees the real-time ordinary message to be sent in the real-time service buffer after the new time frame is started. Or there are 3×K ordinary message packets to be sent. The node sets the bit of the soft reserved part of the corresponding sequence number to one. At this point, the node has been successfully soft-reserved. But if the bit seen by another node is set to one, the set message time slot is no longer reserved. It only receives the broadcast message from the successful soft reservation link from a predetermined cycle of the corresponding reservation time slot. In this way, it is determined whether it is its recipient. The purpose is to maintain the fairness of the access channel transmission between nodes. So we can allow the node to use the soft reservation for the third time to reserve the information time slot. After reaching three, the node can use the reservation service to complete the occupation of the slot space.
The SSMAC protocol adopts the basic idea of FPRP five-way handshake. It uses multiple handshakes to make it possible to reserve unicast, multicast and broadcast, and supports QoS. Its reservation process is usually only included in sites within the second-hop area. This is also a local process. It can also support channel multiplexing in space. The states that a node may have in the agreement are the transmit state (TX), the receive state (RX), and the sleep state (SL). And when the computer network system is initialized, the nodes are in the TX and RX states. When networking, the agreement generally selects the reservation process after the network system reaches a steady state. Figure 3 shows the packet format of the competition packet.
The node will be at i of the current reservation slot. When there are real-time service data packets or K general service data packets in the node cache, the node will request to reserve resources for use. At this time, it includes the following three situations: a) The node has used the soft reservation method and obtained the ownership of the current time slot. The node will broadcast the RR packet of the agreed resource usage requirement to one-hop neighbor nodes once. In the RR packet, it should contain the ID of the sending node, the ID of the destination node in the K data packets, and the flag bit. This means that the node acquires the ownership of this time slot through soft reservation. b) The node listens to the soft reservation part. When we see that this slot has been soft-reserved by other nodes. At this time, it respects the reservation of other nodes and joins the RX state, and listens for RR packets sent by other nodes. C) No node soft setting. Neither is the node in the slot that successfully reserved the slot from the previous appointment period. At this time, the node transmits an RR packet of a reservation request to the one-hop neighbor node with the connection probability PRR. The connection probability PRR is determined by the multi-hop pseudo-Baysian method. In the RR packet, it should contain the ID of the forwarding node or the ID of the destination node of the K data packets. The nodes that cannot send RR packets should switch to the RX state and start listening at this moment. The node that sends out the RR packet is called the Reservation Node (RN) in the technology.
The node is in part ii of the reserved slot. Therefore nodes also have their own time slot table. It records the utilization and reservation status of the current time slot between nodes and neighbors. At this time, once the data packet of the neighbor node needs to be forwarded, it will detect the status of each neighbor. Each neighbor destination node of the forwarded neighbor node is not in the RX state, and the RR packet is sent only when the destination node that wants to send the message data is not in the RX state.
Assuming that the node accepts two or more agreed request packets in phase 1, the node will detect the contradiction. At this time, in the appointment period, several appointment nodes need to compete for appointment service. When the node is in the transmission report phase of the I part of the appointed time slot, once it detects the contradiction of the RR group, the node will broadcast a contradiction and report the CR group in the second phase. Otherwise it is silent. When the node is in the transmission report stage of the ii part of the appointed time slot, once the contradiction of the RR group is detected, the node will also broadcast a contradiction and report the CR group. When a node accepts an RR packet only once, the node will analyze its content. However, only when it is one of the destination address fields in the RR packet and it is in an idle state, it can accept the opponent's contract application. Otherwise, CR packets will be broadcast simultaneously. After listening to the CR at this stage, the RN determines whether its RR is in contact with other recipients. Once the CR is not received, the RN confirms that the RR sent by it has been accurately accepted by all neighboring nodes. This RN node also becomes a transfer node (TN). RR/CR interaction solves the hidden port problem. The interaction of the reservation process between the two parts exploits the power of exposed nodes to be able to teleport in parallel with neighboring nodes. This may also increase spatial multiplexing.
In this stage, the convention is established. In this state, the TN broadcasts a set of contract confirmation RC packets. And inform a hop adjacent node that the corresponding time slot has been agreed. And every time, the one-hop neighbor node that actually receives these RC messages knows that the time slot has been agreed. Non-transmitting nodes will modify their own time slot list. It will also add the source node ID of the RC packet to the corresponding slot in the slot list. It will also receive the message from the TN in the corresponding time slot of the service channel. At the same time, it will no longer compete for the slot.
The node that sent the Reservation Confirmation RC packet received the Reservation Confirmation RA packet. And tell TN and TN's two-hop neighbors to succeed. Both the two hop neighbor nodes find that the node two hops away has successfully reserved resources. Assuming that the TN is not a connecting node, it also does not receive an acknowledgment packet for the reservation. It can be seen that TN is a closed node. Therefore, there is no need for TN to transmit messages.
When the node performs a reservation cycle after the four-way handshake phase, it will enter the next reservation cycle. Once a node has been successfully reserved, it will enter the SL state to save energy. Until it enters the reserved time slot ii, or enters the next reserved time slot. The possible states of the nodes after performing the above-mentioned complete reservation process include: all the nodes after the reservation is completed will be in the TX state in the corresponding information time slot. The destination node in its one-hop neighbor node will be in the RX state in the corresponding information time slot. The other nodes will be in the SL state in the corresponding information time slot. Only nodes that reach the TX state can complete data transmission in the corresponding information time slot.
The SSMAC protocol uses a distributed scheduling connection method. The contradiction of its data message and Chongqing media appear in the random connection stage. When entering the stage of scheduling connection, then the node will switch itself between the states of TX, RX and SL according to the restrictions set by the time slot table. In this way, data message exchange is realized. In the random connection phase, the data packet conflict and Chongqing media are generally grouped through RR. This is generally limited by the multi-hop Pseudo-Baysian algorithm. It uses both allocation and discrete conflict methods. The application of this calculation in FPRP has been shown to be feasible. The packet widths of the four handshakes in the reserved time slot are all different. Therefore, the width of the TR, RC and RA messages can be shortened to only pass the two message fields of the message class and the source address. According to the requirements and changes of the superior service, we can also set the basic parameters of the SSMAC protocol. Modify the ratio of the instant frame occupied by the random access part to meet various types of network services.
The initial energy of the nodes is the same as
According to the assumptions, we can get the expected number
If the communication between two cognitive nodes with distance
Taking the derivation of
The optimal cluster head probability
The minimum energy consumption per unit time in the network is not the case with the least number of cluster head nodes in the network. This is because nodes need to consume a certain amount of energy to send and receive data. And each cluster head manages (1 −
We assume that the communication distance between common nodes in the cluster and the cluster head is not greater than the communication radius
From this, it can be obtained that the total energy consumption of cognitive network processing
Therefore, the expectation
When the network stops working, the remaining energy (
Then the total energy
Among them, (
Therefore, the cluster head energy when the second energy threshold is triggered is:
Since the cognitive nodes are not uniformly distributed in the circular area, the number of common nodes managed by each cluster head is different, and the data forwarded by them will also be different depending on their location. The cluster head node still needs to process
Therefore, when the first energy threshold is triggered, the energy consumption of the cluster head node to process the optional processing data is not greater than
After the cognitive node reaches the threshold
M1=six and M2=3 are used in the simulation. Here, the value of N is generally related to the node density. The K value is generally related to the business mode of the node. The adjustment of these two parameters can limit the time ratio between the random access time and the scheduled network access period, and then directly affect and adjust the delay and energy consumption. In this way, various types of service requirements are met and the QoS function is improved. In the experiment, the characteristics of balanced media access delay, sleep time ratio, and balanced packet connection success rate were mainly tested.
The multimedia access delay of the message is the difference between the time when the message is correctly accessed and the time when the MAC layer receives the message delivered by the upper layer, s. The sleep time ratio refers to the total number of time slots that the node maintains the SL state in all time slots. The average packet reception success rate is the number of correctly received packets among all the normally received packets. The packet is counted as a normally received packet only when each neighbor node receives the packet normally.
The main purpose of the simulation is to test the characteristics of the SSMAC protocol. Because all nodes in the network system are in a state of having service packets to be transmitted. It is assumed that the number of service packets generated by the node conforms to the exponential distribution, so the balanced arrival time interval of the packets is 0.4~2.5s. The MAC protocol generally focuses on the data packet transmission of the local node. When a node transmits a message, it will randomly select a destination address from its neighbors as the next hop.
The protocol designed in this paper is completed through the OPNET simulation platform. It is assumed that the wireless communication module at the physical layer uses the network controller chip TR1000 of RFM Company. The chip is a low-to-medium-range, low-power and low-data-rate low-level module for wireless sensor network applications. Its average power during transmit, receive and sleep is 24.75, 13.5 and 15 μW, respectively. The maximum state change time is 20 μs. The fifty nodes in the network are uniformly distributed in the × test environment. And the average propagation 0.5 path of each node is 100m. Thus, the average number of neighbors per node is six. The average number of two-hop neighbors is seventeen. The average simulation time is 400s. The characteristics of the protocol in unicast and broadcast modes can be obtained through multiple simulations. 5~7 in the figure are the simulation result graphs of the success rate of the message, the proportion of sleep time and the access delay of multimedia equipment respectively.
The simulation results show that the success rate of SSMAC packet reception has been kept below 90%. TRAMA has a very high connection success rate only in the case of light load. For the random connection of SSMAC, the overhead of the competition sector is larger than that of TRAMA at light load, so TRAMA has better energy saving than SSMAC at light load. The percentage of time occupied by the random connection period and the scheduled connection period of SSMAC is generally adjusted by two basic parameters, N and K. When N and K are fixed, the power consumption of the SSMAC agreement is basically the same, but the total power of the SSMAC agreement is basically the same under light and heavy loads. Because both SSMAC and TRAMA agreements are agreements issued according to scheduling. The success rate of traditional packet collection of competitors is lower than that of the new agreement using scheduling. However, the transmission delay of the new protocol using contention is relatively short. However, the end-to-end delay of packet transmission in the CSMA protocol is generally in the order of magnitude of 10-2 s. However, the end-to-end delay of multimedia access in SSMAC and TRAMA is generally larger than that in the competition agreement. However, the high packet reception efficiency based on the scheduling protocol can also reduce the retransmission of higher-layer packets. The reduction of Chongqing media also means that energy consumption can be reduced. Therefore, the increased end-to-end delay brought by the scheduling algorithm can be accepted in general business environments. The end-to-end delay of multimedia access of SSMAC protocol has great advantages under heavy load. Moreover, the delay of TRAMA is acceptable when the network load is light. In addition, the SSMAC protocol also stipulates that the data packets must meet the corresponding number before participating in the competition agreement. Moreover, when the parameter K is specified, when the network load is light, the packets need to wait longer in the node cache to obtain the total amount of packets participating in the agreement. This will increase the delay. In unicast mode, exposed terminals can also join the competition. Exposing ports can also improve the parallel transmission capability of the network. In the broadcast mode, since the adjacent nodes are all destination addresses, the exposed ports cannot join the competition. This will greatly affect the ability of the handshake competition between the two parts. Therefore, the parallel transmission speed of the entire Internet will be reduced, and the Internet throughput efficiency will also be lower than the traditional unicast mode.
The SSMAC protocol is a MAC protocol designed for wireless sensor networks. It not only supports the traditional peer-to-peer transmission mode, but also supports the management mode of centralized transmission. This modeling can be abstractly defined as a schema of a data aggregation tree. The sink node is regarded as the root node, while other nodes are regarded as the central node of the tree (Figure 8). The sink node is the only data aggregation node, and the data of other sensor nodes all take the sink node as the destination address. It adopts a multi-hop forwarding method, and periodically gathers the sensed data to this root node. Assuming that there is only one sink node in the simulation environment, the data of other sensor nodes are sent to the sink node hop by hop through a simple shortest path routing method. All business data of sensor nodes are generated periodically. A large data packet is generated every specified time. The simulation time still uses 400s. We can consider the successful access probability and average delay of the SSMAC protocol. Figures 9 and 10 are schematic diagrams of the simulation results of the packet access success rate and the media access delay, respectively.
The simulation results also show that the SSMAC protocol in the aggregate transmission mode still maintains the characteristic that the end-to-end delay of data access is relatively reduced when the load is heavier. Moreover, the SSMAC protocol can also ensure a greater success rate of packet access. And the end-to-end delay of multimedia connection when TRAMA agreement is in the aggregate transmission mode is relatively less. Moreover, it can quickly forward data packets to the sinK node when reducing the load. Therefore, by adjusting the basic parameter K of the SSMAC protocol, the end-to-end delay of the packet can be significantly reduced. And these basic parameters also determine the time judgment threshold for the SSMAC agreement to start the reservation process. The smaller the value of K, the smaller the ratio of the entire time slot occupied in the scheduling access cycle. The more frequent the reservation process is opened by the SSMAC protocol, the smaller the end-to-end delay of the packet. Because the SSMAC protocol can achieve a smaller or the same packet delay than the TRAMA protocol when the value of K is small. The experimental results show that the SSMAC protocol can be adapted to work in the convergent transmission mode of wireless sensor networks.
This paper mainly studies the MAC technology in wireless sensor network system. On the basis of analyzing the existing MAC layer technology, this paper presents a new MAC technology-SSMAC technology in wireless sensor network system based on scheduling technology. The technique incorporates energy-limiting and reservation scheduling techniques in WSNs. On the other hand, it fully considers the energy-saving characteristics of the network system, and has less multimedia access delay. The packet access success rate is basically the same under different loads. On the other hand, it overcomes the problems of hidden ports and exposed terminals. It realizes the QoS guarantee capability of differentiating services on the data link layer. Under the configuration of similar physical layer and simulation, the performance of SSMAC technology is also improved compared with TRAMA technology which adopts the same scheduling technology. Especially in the case of heavy load, it can bring more stable packet access success rate and sleep time ratio, and less network access delay.
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of VOC Some classes of complete permutation polynomials in the form of ( x p m− x+ δ) s+ ax p m+ bxover F p2 m The consistency method of linguistic information and other four preference information in group decision-making Statistical Model of College Ideological and Political Learning Based on Fractional Differential Equations Research on the driving principle and guiding strategy of the public's collaborative supervision of the sharing economy in my country Research on the willingness of Forest Land’s Management Rights transfer under the Beijing Forestry Development Nonlinear Differential Equation in Anti-aging Test of Polymer Nanomaterials A mathematical model of the fractional differential method for structural design dynamics simulation of lower limb force movement step structure based on Sanda movement Fractal structure of magnetic island in tokamak plasma Mechanics of Building Structural Materials Based on Lagrangian Mathematical Model Analysis Numerical calculation and study of differential equations of muscle movement velocity based on martial articulation body ligament tension Study on the maximum value of flight distance based on the fractional differential equation for calculating the best path of shot put The Mental Health Education Management of Higher Vocational Students Based on Fractional Differential Equations Sports intensity and energy consumption based on fractional linear regression equation Application of regression function model based on panel data in financial risk management of bank resource allocation University Ideological and Political Learning Model Based on Statistical Memory Curve Mathematical Equation Analysis of the properties of matrix rank and the relationship between matrix rank and matrix operations Research on Resonance Properties of Semantic Wave Fractal Fractals Based on Quantitative Analysis of English Corpus Research on urban landscape big data information processing system based on ordinary differential equations Modeling of fractional differential equation in cloud computing image fusion algorithm Study on Establishment and Improvement Strategy of Aviation Equipment Research on Financial Risk Early Warning of Listed Companies Based on Stochastic Effect Mode Nonlinear strategic human resource management based on organisational mathematical model Conventional Algorithms in Sports Training Based on Fractional Differential Equations Dynamic Nonlinear System Based on Complex System Theory in the Development of Vocational Education The Algorithm Accuracy of Mathematical Model to Improve the Transmission Speed of E-commerce Platform The Security of Database Network Model Based on Fractional Differential Equations Electric Vehicle Mechanical Transmission System Based on Fractional Differential Equations The Practice System of Physics and Electronics Courses in Higher Vocational Colleges Based on Fractional Differential Equations The Economic Model of Rural Supply and Demand Under the Data Analysis Function Based on Ordered Probit 3D Modeling System of Indoor Environment Art Landscape Design under Statistical Equation Electronic Information Security Model of Nonlinear Differential Equations The Optimization Model of College Students' Physical Exercise Motivation and Self-control Ability Based on the Mathematical Model of Probability Theory A new variety from Sichuan, China— Paris polyphyllavar. nullopetalina(Trilliaceae) Impact of ASEAN-China free trade area on fishery value chain based on difference-in-difference method Spatial–temporal graph neural network based on node attention A contrastive study on the production of double vowels in Mandarin Mathematical analysis of civil litigation and empirical research of corporate governance Health monitoring of Bridges based on multifractal theory Health status diagnosis of the bridges based on multi-fractal de-trend fluctuation analysis Application and risk assessment of the energy performance contracting model in energy conservation of public buildings Sensitivity analysis of design parameters of envelope enclosure performance in the dry-hot and dry-cold areas TOPSIS missile target selection method supported by the posterior probability of target recognition The incentive contract of subject librarians in university library under the non-linear task importance Research on indoor environment design of comprehensive commercial shopping center based on numerical simulation Empirical analysis of the economic absolute income hypothesis based on mathematical statistics Realization of Book Collaborative Filtering Personalized Recommendation System Based on Linear Regression Equation Study on Interactive Relations between Enterprise Social Media and Decision Style Based on a vector Autoregressive Model Research on Dynamics of Flexible Multibody System with Deployable Antenna Based on Static Lagrangian Function The Optimization of Mathematics Teaching Models in Colleges and Universities Based on Nonlinear Differential Equations Study on spatial planning and design of learning commons in university libraries based on fuzzy matrix model The Stability Model of Piano Tone Tuning Based on Ordinary Differential Equations Construction and application of automobile user portrait based on k-mean clustering model The Homework Model of Screening English Teaching Courses Based on Fractional Differential Equations Research on a method of completeness index based on complex model Fake online review recognition algorithm and optimisation research based on deep learning Research on the sustainable development and renewal of Macao inner harbour under the background of digitisation Support design of main retracement passage in fully mechanised coal mining face based on numerical simulation Study on the crushing mechanism and parameters of the two-flow crusher Interaction design of financial insurance products under the Era of AIoT Modeling the pathway of breast cancer in the Middle East ARMA analysis of the green innovation technology of core enterprises under the ecosystem – Time series data Image design and interaction technology based on Fourier inverse transform Calculus Logic Function in Integrated Manufacturing Automation of Single Chip Microcomputer Football Offense Training Strategy Based on Fractional Differential Mathematical Modeling Research on China interregional industrial transformation slowdown and influencing factors of industrial transformation based on numerical simulation The medical health venture capital network community structure, information dissemination and the cognitive proximity The Mathematical Analysis Model of Educational System in Music Courses in Colleges and Universities Continuing Education Network Data Center Model Based on Fractional Differential Mathematical Equations A generative design method of building layout generated by path Analysis of the causes of the influence of the industrial economy on the social economy based on multiple linear regression equation Research of neural network for weld penetration control Computer Art Design Model Based on Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equations The Optimization Model of Public Space Design Teaching Reform Based on Fractional Differential Equations The Approximate Solution of Nonlinear Vibration of Tennis Based on Nonlinear Vibration Differential Equation Graphical Modular Power Technology of Distribution Network Based on Machine Learning Statistical Mathematical Equation Employment and Professional Education Training System of College Graduates Based on the Law of Large Numbers Economic Research on Multiple Linear Regression in Fruit Market inspection and Management Nonlinear Differential Equations in Preventing Financial Risks Lagrange’s Mathematical Equations in the Sports Training of College Students Simulation Research of Electrostatic Precipitator Power Supply Voltage Control System Based on Finite Element Differential Equation Research on the effect of generative adversarial network based on wavelet transform hidden Markov model on face creation and classification Research on Lightweight Injection Molding (CAE) and Numerical Simulation Calculate of New Energy Vehicle Power Flow Calculation in Smart Distribution Network Based on Power Machine Learning Based on Fractional Differential Equations Demonstration of application program of logistics public information management platform based on fuzzy constrained programming mathematical model Basketball Shooting Rate Based on Multiple Regression Logical-Mathematical Algorithm The Optimal Application of Lagrangian Mathematical Equations in Computer Data Analysis Similarity Solutions of the Surface Waves Equation in (2+1) Dimensions and Bifurcation Research on predictive control of students’ performance in PE classes based on the mathematical model of multiple linear regression equation Beam control method for multi-array antennas based on improved genetic algorithm The influence of X fuzzy mathematical method on basketball tactics scoring Optimal decisions and channel coordination of a green supply chain with marketing effort and fairness concerns Application of regression function model based on panel data in bank resource allocation financial risk management Game theoretic model for low carbon supply chain under carbon emissions reduction sensitive random demand Research on aerobics training posture motion capture based on mathematical similarity matching statistical analysis Limit cycles of a generalised Mathieu differential system Application of Sobolev-Volterra projection and finite element numerical analysis of integral differential equations in modern art design Influence of displacement ventilation on the distribution of pollutant concentrations in livestock housing Research on motion capture of dance training pose based on statistical analysis of mathematical similarity matching Application of data mining in basketball statistics Application of B-theory for numerical method of functional differential equations in the analysis of fair value in financial accounting Research on the influence of fuzzy mathematics simulation model in the development of Wushu market Study on audio-visual family restoration of children with mental disorders based on the mathematical model of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of differential equation Difference-in-differences test for micro effect of technological finance cooperation pilot in China Application of multi-attribute decision-making methods based on normal random variables in supply chain risk management Exploration on the collaborative relationship between government, industry, and university from the perspective of collaborative innovation The impact of financial repression on manufacturing upgrade based on fractional Fourier transform and probability AtanK-A New SVM Kernel for Classification Validity and reliability analysis of the Chinese version of planned happenstance career inventory based on mathematical statistics Visual positioning system for marine industrial robot assembly based on complex variable function Mechanical behaviour of continuous girder bridge with corrugated steel webs constructed by RW Study of a linear-physical-programming-based approach for web service selection under uncertain service quality The Relationship Between College Students’ Taekwondo Courses and College Health Based on Mathematical Statistics Equations A mathematical model of plasmid-carried antibiotic resistance transmission in two types of cells Fractional Differential Equations in the Exploration of Geological and Mineral Construction AdaBoost Algorithm in Trustworthy Network for Anomaly Intrusion Detection Burnout of front-line city administrative law-enforcing personnel in new urban development areas: An empirical research in China Enterprise Financial Risk Early Warning System Based on Structural Equation Model A Study on the Application of Quantile Regression Equation in Forecasting Financial Value at Risk in Financial Markets Fractional Differential Equations in the Model of Vocational Education and Teaching Practice Environment Information transmission simulation of Internet of things communication nodes under collision free probability equation Image denoising model based on improved fractional calculus mathematical equation Random Fourier Approximation of the Kernel Function in Programmable Networks The Complexity of Virtual Reality Technology in the Simulation and Modeling of Civil Mathematical Models University Library Lending System Model Based on Fractional Differential Equations Calculation and Performance Evaluation of Text Similarity Based on Strong Classification Features Intelligent Matching System of Clauses in International Investment Arbitration Cases Based on Big Data Statistical Model Evaluation and Verification of Patent Value Based on Combination Forecasting Model Financial Institution Prevention Financial Risk Monitoring System Under the Fusion of Partial Differential Equations Prediction and Analysis of ChiNext Stock Price Based on Linear and Non-linear Composite Model Calculus Logic Function in Tax Risk Avoidance in Different Stages of Enterprises The Psychological Memory Forgetting Model Based on the Analysis of Linear Differential Equations Optimization Simulation System of University Science Education Based on Finite Differential Equations The Law of Large Numbers in Children's Education Optimization System of Strength and Flexibility Training in Aerobics Course Based on Lagrangian Mathematical Equation Data structure simulation for the reform of the teaching process of university computer courses Calculating university education model based on finite element fractional differential equations and macro-control analysis Educational research on mathematics differential equation to simulate the model of children's mental health prevention and control system Analysis of enterprise management technology and innovation based on multilinear regression model Verifying the validity of the whole person model of mental health education activities in colleges based on differential equation RETRACTION NOTE Research on the mining of ideological and political knowledge elements in college courses based on the combination of LDA model and Apriori algorithm Research on non-linear visual matching model under inherent constraints of images Good congruences on weakly U-abundant semigroups Can policy coordination facilitate unimpeded trade? An empirical study on factors influencing smooth trade along the Belt and Road Research on the processing method of multi-source heterogeneous data in the intelligent agriculture cloud platform Internal control index and enterprise growth: An empirical study of Chinese listed-companies in the automobile manufacturing industry Determination of the minimum distance between vibration source and fibre under existing optical vibration signals: a study Nonlinear differential equations based on the B-S-M model in the pricing of derivatives in financial markets Fed-UserPro: A user profile construction method based on federated learning A multi-factor Regression Equation-based Test of Fitness Maximal Aerobic Capacity in Athletes Garment Image Retrieval based on Grab Cut Auto Segmentation and Dominate Color Method Financial Risk Prediction and Analysis Based on Nonlinear Differential Equations Constructivist Learning Method of Ordinary Differential Equations in College Mathematics Teaching Multiple Effects Analysis of Hangzhou Issuing Digital Consumer Coupons Based on Simultaneous Equations of CDM Model Response Model of Teachers’ Psychological Education in Colleges and Universities Based on Nonlinear Finite Element Equations A Hybrid Computational Intelligence Method of Newton's Method and Genetic Algorithm for Solving Compatible Nonlinear Equations Pressure Image Recognition of Lying Positions Based on Multi-feature value Regularized Extreme Learning Algorithm English Intelligent Question Answering System Based on elliptic fitting equation Precision Machining Technology of Jewelry on CNC Machine Tool Based on Mathematical Modeling Application Research of Mathematica Software in Calculus Teaching Computer Vision Communication Technology in Mathematical Modeling Skills of Music Creation Based on Homogeneous First-Order Linear Partial Differential Equations Mathematical Statistics Technology in the Educational Grading System of Preschool Students Music Recommendation Index Evaluation Based on Logistic Distribution Fitting Transition Probability Function Children's Educational Curriculum Evaluation Management System in Mathematical Equation Model Query Translation Optimization and Mathematical Modeling for English-Chinese Cross-Language Information Retrieval The Effect of Children’s Innovative Education Courses Based on Fractional Differential Equations Fractional Differential Equations in the Standard Construction Model of the Educational Application of the Internet of Things Optimization research on prefabricated concrete frame buildings based on the dynamic equation of eccentric structure and horizontal-torsional coupling Optimization in Mathematics Modeling and Processing of New Type Silicate Glass Ceramics Green building considering image processing technology combined with CFD numerical simulation MCM of Student’s Physical Health Based on Mathematical Cone Sports health quantification method and system implementation based on multiple thermal physiology simulation Research on visual optimization design of machine–machine interface for mechanical industrial equipment based on nonlinear partial equations Research on identifying psychological health problems of college students by logistic regression model based on data mining Abnormal Behavior of Fractional Differential Equations in Processing Computer Big Data Mathematical Modeling Thoughts and Methods Based on Fractional Differential Equations in Teaching A mathematical model of PCNN for image fusion with non-sampled contourlet transform Nonlinear Differential Equations in Computer-Aided Modeling of Big Data Technology The Uniqueness of Solutions of Fractional Differential Equations in University Mathematics Teaching Based on the Principle of Compression Mapping Financial customer classification by combined model Influence of displacement ventilation on the distribution of pollutant concentrations in livestock housing Recognition of Electrical Control System of Flexible Manipulator Based on Transfer Function Estimation Method Automatic Knowledge Integration Method of English Translation Corpus Based on Kmeans Algorithm Real Estate Economic Development Based on Logarithmic Growth Function Model Design of Tennis Mobile Teaching Assistant System Based on Ordinary Differential Equations Financial Crisis Early Warning Model of Listed Companies Based on Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis High Simulation Reconstruction of Crowd Animation Based on Optical Flow Constraint Equation Construction of Intelligent Search Engine for Big Data Multimedia Resource Subjects Based on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation 3D Animation Simulation of Computer Fractal and Fractal Technology Combined with Diamond-Square Algorithm Analysis of the Teaching Quality of Physical Education Class by Using the Method of Gradient Difference The Summation of Series Based on the Laplace Transformation Method in Mathematics Teaching Optimal Solution of the Fractional Differential Equation to Solve the Bending Performance Test of Corroded Reinforced Concrete Beams under Prestressed Fatigue Load Animation VR scene mosaic modeling based on generalized Laplacian equation Radial Basis Function Neural Network in Vibration Control of Civil Engineering Structure Optimal Model Combination of Cross-border E-commerce Platform Operation Based on Fractional Differential Equations The influence of accounting computer information processing technology on enterprise internal control under panel data simultaneous equation Research on Stability of Time-delay Force Feedback Teleoperation System Based on Scattering Matrix BIM Building HVAC Energy Saving Technology Based on Fractional Differential Equation Construction of comprehensive evaluation index system of water-saving irrigation project integrating penman Montei the quation Human Resource Management Model of Large Companies Based on Mathematical Statistics Equations Data Forecasting of Air-Conditioning Load in Large Shopping Malls Based on Multiple Nonlinear Regression Analysis of technical statistical indexes of college tennis players under the win-lose regression function equation Automatic extraction and discrimination of vocal main melody based on quadratic wave equation Analysis of wireless English multimedia communication based on spatial state model equation Optimization of Linear Algebra Core Function Framework on Multicore Processors Optimisation of Modelling of Finite Element Differential Equations with Modern Art Design Theory Mathematical function data model analysis and synthesis system based on short-term human movement Human gait modelling and tracking based on motion functionalisation The Control Relationship Between the Enterprise's Electrical Equipment and Mechanical Equipment Based on Graph Theory Financial Accounting Measurement Model Based on Numerical Analysis of Rigid Normal Differential Equation and Rigid Functional Equation Mathematical Modeling and Forecasting of Economic Variables Based on Linear Regression Statistics Nonlinear Differential Equations in Cross-border E-commerce Controlling Return Rate Differential equation model of financial market stability based on Internet big data 3D Mathematical Modeling Technology in Visualized Aerobics Dance Rehearsal System Children’s cognitive function and mental health based on finite element nonlinear mathematical model Fractional Differential Equations in Electronic Information Models BIM Engineering Management Oriented to Curve Equation Model Leakage control of urban water supply network and mathematical analysis and location of leakage points based on machine learning Analysis of higher education management strategy based on entropy and dissipative structure theory Prediction of corporate financial distress based on digital signal processing and multiple regression analysis Mathematical Method to Construct the Linear Programming of Football Training Multimedia sensor image detection based on constrained underdetermined equation The Size of Children's Strollers of Different Ages Based on Ergonomic Mathematics Design Application of Numerical Computation of Partial Differential Equations in Interactive Design of Virtual Reality Media Stiffness Calculation of Gear Hydraulic System Based on the Modeling of Nonlinear Dynamics Differential Equations in the Progressive Method Knowledge Analysis of Charged Particle Motion in Uniform Electromagnetic Field Based on Maxwell Equation Relationship Between Enterprise Talent Management and Performance Based on the Structural Equation Model Method Term structure of economic management rate based on parameter analysis of estimation model of ordinary differential equation Influence analysis of piano music immersion virtual reality cooperation based on mapping equation Chinese painting and calligraphy image recognition technology based on pseudo linear directional diffusion equation Label big data compression in Internet of things based on piecewise linear regression Animation character recognition and character intelligence analysis based on semantic ontology and Poisson equation Design of language assisted learning model and online learning system under the background of artificial intelligence Application of machine learning in stock selection Comparative analysis of CR of ideological and political education in different regions based on improved fuzzy clustering Action of Aut( G) on the set of maximal subgroups of p-groups The internal mechanism of corporate social responsibility fulfillment affecting debt risk in China: analysis of intermediary transmission effect based on degree of debt concentration and product market competitive advantage Study on transmission characteristics in three kinds of deformed finlines based on edge-based finite element method Asymptotic stability problem of predator–prey system with linear diffusion Research on loyalty prediction of e-commerce customer based on data mining Algebraic Equations in Educational Model of College Physical Education Course Education Professional English Translation Corpus Under the Binomial Theorem Coefficient Geometric Tolerance Control Method for Precision Machinery Based on Image Modeling and Novel Saturation Function Retrieval and Characteristic Analysis of Multimedia Tester Based on Bragg Equation Semiparametric Spatial Econometric Analysis of Household Consumption Based on Ordinary Linear Regression Model Video adaptive watermark embedding and detection algorithm based on phase function equation English Learning Motivation of College Students Based on probability Distribution Scientific Model of Vocational Education Teaching Method in Differential Nonlinearity Research on mobile Awareness service and data privacy Protection based on Linear Equations computing protocol Vocal Music Teaching Model Based on Finite Element Differential Mathematical Equations Research on threat assessment problems of island air defence system based on the leader-follower model Studying a matching method combining distance proximity and buffer constraints The trend and influence of media information Propagation based on nonlinear Differential equation Research on the construction of early warning model of customer churn on e-commerce platform Study on inefficient land use determination method for cities and towns from a city examination perspective A sentiment analysis method based on bidirectional long short-term memory networks Evaluation of ecosystem health in Futian mangrove wetland based on the PSR-AHP model A study of local smoothness-informed convolutional neural network models for image inpainting Towards more efficient control of the ironmaking blast furnace: modelling gaseous reduction of iron ores in H2-N2 atmosphere Algorithm of overfitting avoidance in CNN based on maximum pooled and weight decay Mathematical Calculus Modeling in Improving the Teaching Performance of Shot Put Application of Nonlinear Differential Equation in Electric Automation Control System Higher Mathematics Teaching Curriculum Model Based on Lagrangian Mathematical Model Decisions of competing supply chain with altruistic retailer under risk aversion Optimization of Color Matching Technology in Cultural Industry by Fractional Differential Equations The Marketing of Cross-border E-commerce Enterprises in Foreign Trade Based on the Statistics of Mathematical Probability Theory Application of Linear Partial Differential Equation Theory in Guiding Football Scientific Training The Evolution Model of Regional Tourism Economic Development Difference Based on Spatial Variation Function System Model of Shipping Enterprise Safety Culture Based on Dynamic Calculation Matrix Model The Inner Relationship between Students' Psychological Factors and Physical Exercise Based on Structural Equation Model (SEM) Analysis and Research on Influencing Factors of Ideological and Political Education Teaching Effectiveness Based on Linear Equation Fractional Differential Equations in Sports Training in Universities Examination and Countermeasures of Network Education in Colleges and Universities Based on Ordinary Differential Equation Model Higher Education Agglomeration Promoting Innovation and Entrepreneurship Based on Spatial Dubin Model Chinese-English Contrastive Translation System Based on Lagrangian Search Mathematical Algorithm Model