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The Relationship Between College Students’ Taekwondo Courses and College Health Based on Mathematical Statistics Equations

Publié en ligne: 15 Jul 2022
Volume & Edition: AHEAD OF PRINT
Pages: -
Reçu: 28 Apr 2022
Accepté: 30 Jun 2022
Détails du magazine
License
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2444-8656
Première parution
01 Jan 2016
Périodicité
2 fois par an
Langues
Anglais
Introduction

Physical self-conscious emotions are self-conscious emotions generated by individuals based on the evaluation of their physical state. Research has found that dieting behaviors in young adults are positively associated with negative body emotions. Most adults feel that they have more negative body self-consciousness emotions and less positive body self-consciousness emotions [1]. Scholars’ research focuses on the connotation and related research of body self-consciousness and emotion. The research on cultivating and improving the individual's self-conscious emotion is still blank.

Taekwondo is a fighting technique that cooperates with upper body defense and lower body footwork. It achieves the effect of strengthening the body by exercising the sensitivity and coordination of the limbs. Some scholars believe that taekwondo training has a positive effect on the physical quality of college students. Some scholars believe that Taekwondo has a positive effect on the physical self-concept of primary school students. Some scholars believe that self-concept has a significant moderating effect on some factors of perfectionism [2].

This study explores the effects of taekwondo exercises on physical self-awareness emotions and negative perfectionism in college students. We expect to reduce the negative perfectionism of college students through the exercise of Taekwondo. This increases the emotional level of physical self-awareness. At the same time, the method provides the basis for the cultivation and intervention of college students’ physical and mental health.

Research objects and methods
Research objects

We randomly selected 300 college students in the first and second years of the university as the survey objects [3]. There are 150 people in the experimental group and 150 people in the control group, aged 17 to 19 years old. None of the selected college students has participated in any practice or training related to Taekwondo.

Research tools

The physical self-awareness emotional scale adopts the Chinese version of the “physical self-awareness emotional scale” compiled by Canadian scholar Andree L. Castonguay in 2014. The scale includes 16 items. It is divided into four subscales [4]. The contents are body shame, body guilt, body truth pride, and body arrogance pride. Each subscale contains four items. We use a 5-point scale: “never” “rarely” “occasionally” “often” “always”. Scores range from 1 to 5. Higher scores represent a higher propensity to be correlated. The alpha coefficients of the Chinese version of the scale are 0.839, 0.767, 0.855, and 0.877. The split-half reliability was 0.774, 0.750, 0.791, and 0.901.

The negative perfectionism questionnaire adopts the “negative perfectionism questionnaire” compiled by Professor Zifei in 2007. The questionnaire includes 38 items. The content is divided into five dimensions: hesitation, fear of failure, excessive caution and carefulness, excessive planning and control, and extremely high goals and standards. We use a 5-point scale: “never” “rarely” “occasionally” “often” “always”. Scores range from 1 to 5. Higher scores represent a higher propensity to be correlated. The questionnaire mainly measures the degree of individual negative perfectionism [5]. The internal consistency coefficients of each dimension of the negative perfectionism questionnaire ranged from 0.75 to 0.82. Test-retest reliability ranged from 0.61 to 0.81. The cumulative contribution rate of the five factors is 49.9%.

Research methods

One hundred fifty college students in the experimental group conducted a one-semester taekwondo teaching experiment. The control group did not receive relevant teaching. The experimental group offered taekwondo courses for 2 hours per week. The period is 18 weeks. The teaching content includes taekwondo etiquette, footwork, straight boxing, lower block, middle block, upper block, forward kick, horizontal kick, and Tai Chi. Taught by the same professional taekwondo teacher [6]. The students in the control group did not receive taekwondo teaching.

Pre-experimental test: We distribute the “Physical Self-Awareness Emotion Scale” and the “Negative Perfectionism Scale.” In this way, the physical self-awareness emotions and harmful perfectionism levels of college students in the experimental and control groups were tested. Later, we conducted post-experimental tests on the experimental and control groups.

The two assessments use the same guidelines. A real-name system administered the questionnaire. Before the experiment, we distributed a total of 300 questionnaires. We obtained 300 valid questionnaires, and the effective recovery rate was 100%. After the experiment, we distributed a total of 300 questionnaires. Three hundred valid questionnaires were obtained, and the effective recovery rate was 100%. We took 300 questionnaires that were both valid before and after the experiment. We used spices 16.0 statistical software for statistical analysis of the data.

Sports synthesis of taekwondo athletes based on the second-order inverted pendulum

It is assumed that the center of mass motion of Taekwondo athletes can be decomposed into two-dimensional motion in the XZ plane and one-dimensional motion in the ZX plane. The center of mass of the taekwondo athlete coincides with the root joint of the chain rod structure of the taekwondo athlete [7]. The ankle joint is used as the origin of the second-order inverted pendulum in supporting the foot on the ground. Its position will not change. We reduce the dimensionality of the movement of Taekwondo athletes in two planes to obtain the movement of the low-dimensional model.

The XZ plane is shown in Figure 1. We use a second-order inverted pendulum system to describe the motion of the center of mass of a Taekwondo athlete in the XZ plane. L1 andL2 are the lengths of the thigh and calf of a kickboxer. O1, O2, corresponds to the center of the ankle joint and the center of the knee joint of the supporting leg, respectively. A second-order inverted pendulum system is a system of motion in a two-dimensional plane. There are 2 degrees of freedom [8]. The state of the second-order inverted pendulum system can be determined by the projection [O1x, O1z] of the origin O1 of the first-order pendulum rod on the plane XZ and the two swing angles θ, φ, a total of four variables, and their derivatives. The corresponding relationship between its motion parameters and the motion data of taekwondo athletes is as follows: O1x=Panklex_;O˙1x=P˙anklex_O1z=Panklez_;O˙1z=P˙anklez_φ=qhipy_;φ˙=q˙hipy_θ=qhipy_+qkneey;q˙=q˙hipy_+q˙kneey_ \matrix{{{O_{1x}} = {P_{ankle\underline{x}}};\,{{\dot O}_{1x}} = {{\dot P}_{ankle\underline{x}}}} \hfill \cr {{O_{1z}} = {P_{ankle\underline{z}}};\,{{\dot O}_{1z}} = {{\dot P}_{ankle\underline{z}}}} \hfill \cr {\varphi = - {q_{hip\underline{y}}};\,\dot \varphi = - {{\dot q}_{hip\underline{y}}}} \hfill \cr {\theta = - {q_{hip\underline{y}}} + {q_{knee\underline{y}}};\,\dot q = - {{\dot q}_{hip\underline{y}}} + {{\dot q}_{knee\underline{y}}}} \hfill \cr }

Figure 1

Second-Order Inverted Pendulum Simulating Lateral Movement Front XZ Plane)

O1 = [O1x, O1y, O1z]T, O˙1=[ O˙1x,O˙1y,O˙1z ]T {\dot O_1} = {\left[ {{{\dot O}_{1x}},\,{{\dot O}_{1y}},\,{{\dot O}_{1z}}} \right]^T} is the position and velocity of the origin of the first-order pendulum in the world coordinate system of the second-order inverted pendulum. Pankle = [Panklex, Pankley, Panklez]T, P˙ankle=[ P˙anklex_,P˙ankley_,P˙anklez_ ]T {\dot P_{ankle}} = {\left[ {{{\dot P}_{ankle{\underline{x}}}},\,{{\dot P}_{ankle{\underline{y}}}},\,{{\dot P}_{ankle{\underline{z}}}}} \right]^T} is the position and velocity of the center of the supporting ankle joint in the world coordinate system. qhipy_,q˙hipy_ {q_{hip{\underline{y}}}},{\dot q_{hip{\underline{y}}}} represents the joint angle and joint angular velocity of the hip joint of the supporting leg around the Y-axis. qkneey_,q˙kneey_ {q_{knee{\underline{y}}}},{\dot q_{knee{\underline{y}}}} represents the joint angle and joint angular velocity of the knee joint of the supporting leg around the Y-axis.

Since the knee joint has no degree of freedom in the X direction, the motion of the center of mass of the lower limb in the X − Z plane can be described using the first-order inverted pendulum model. X − Z First-order inverted pendulum is a system of motion in a two-dimensional plane. The degree of freedom is 1. At any time, its state can be determined by the projection [O1y, O1z] of the swing origin O1 of the first-level pendulum on the X − Z plane and the swing angle γ, a total of three variables, and their derivatives (Fig. 2). The corresponding relationship between its motion parameters and the motion data of taekwondo athletes is as follows: O1y=Pankley_;O˙ly=P˙ankley_O1z=Panklez_;O˙lz=P˙anklez_g=qhipx_;g˙=q˙hipx_ \matrix{{{O_{1y}} = {P_{ankle{\underline{y}}}};{{\dot O}_{ly}} = {{\dot P}_{ankle{\underline{y}}}}} \hfill \cr {{O_{1z}} = {P_{ankle{\underline{z}}}};{{\dot O}_{lz}} = {{\dot P}_{ankle{\underline{z}}}}} \hfill \cr {g = - {q_{hip{\underline{x}}}};\dot g = - {{\dot q}_{hip{\underline{x}}}}} \hfill \cr }

Figure 2

The first-order inverted pendulum model simulates the frontal motion of the center of mass

qhipx_,q˙hipx_ {q_{hip{\underline{x}}}},{\dot q_{hip{\underline{x}}}} represents the joint angle and angular velocity of the supporting leg hip joint around the X axis, respectively. We call the four variables of the second-order inverted pendulum state and their derivatives the state quantity S. User control and environment variables are control variables U. S=[ O1x,O˙1x,O1z,O˙1z,φ,φ˙,θ,θ˙ ]U=[ Tstep,Bstep,Lstep,Hstep ] \matrix{ {S = \left[ {{O_{1x}},\,{{\dot O}_{1x}},{O_{1z}},\,{{\dot O}_{1z}},\,\varphi ,\dot \varphi ,\,\theta ,\dot \theta } \right]} \hfill \cr {U = \left[ {{T_{step}},\,{B_{step}},\,{L_{step}},\,{H_{step}}} \right]} \hfill \cr }

φ˙ \dot \varphi represents the secondary pendulum angular velocity. θ˙ \dot \theta represents the primary swing angular velocity. Tstep, Bstep, Lstep, Hstep represents the time when the swinging leg hits the ground, the distance between the two feet, the stride length, and the height of the landing point, respectively. We calculate the state quantity Sk+1 of the next frame and the joint moment of the second-order inverted pendulum according to the motion control quantity U and the state quantity Sk of the second-order inverted pendulum in this frame. The dynamic equation of the second-order inverted pendulum model is as follows: φ¨gL1×φ+O¨1L1τφm×L12=0θ¨gL2×θ+O¨2L2(τφτθ)m×L22=0 \matrix{ {\ddot \varphi - {g \over {{L_1}}} \times \varphi + {{{{\ddot O}_1}} \over {{L_1}}} - {{{\tau _\varphi }} \over {m \times L_1^2}} = 0} \hfill \cr {\ddot \theta - {g \over {{L_2}}} \times \theta + {{{{\ddot O}_2}} \over {{L_2}}} - {{\left( {{\tau _\varphi } - {\tau _\theta }} \right)} \over {m \times L_2^2}} = 0} \hfill \cr }

τφ, ττ is the joint moment at the O2, O1 joint. Ö1, Ö2, represents the acceleration of the O1, O2 joint center in the X direction in the world coordinate system. m, g represents the mass and gravitational acceleration of the taekwondo athlete. The knee joints of taekwondo athletes are passive joints during walking [9]. We assume that τφ is 0. In addition, the two swing angles of taekwondo athletes are small. Let's assume: φ¨=L1/L2×K×θ \ddot \varphi = {L_1}/{L_2} \times K \times \theta Where K is the undetermined coefficient. The general solution of the second-order inverted pendulum dynamic equation (4) is: θ(t)=A1×eλ×t+A2×eλ×tφ(t)=B1×eλ×t+B2×eλ×t+C1×t+C2 \matrix{ {\theta \left( t \right) = {A_1} \times {e^{\lambda \times t}} + {A_2} \times {e^{ - \lambda \times t}}} \hfill \cr {\varphi \left( t \right) = {B_1} \times {e^{\lambda \times t}} + {B_2} \times {e^{ - \lambda \times t}} + {C_1} \times t + {C_2}} \hfill \cr } Where t represents the time variable. A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2, λ are all undetermined coefficients. It is jointly determined by the state quantity Sk, the control quantity U, and the joint torque τθ of this frame. We can calculate the value θ0 (Tstep), φ0 (Tstep) of the swing angle at the time of landing according to the control variable U. We can use the following optimization model (7) to determine the undetermined coefficients in the general solution equation (6) of the second-order inverted pendulum motion equation. At the same time, we calculate the joint moment τθ of the second-order inverted pendulum model at this moment. minτθ,K θ(t)θ0(t) 2+ φ(t)φ0(t) 2subjecttoθ(t)=A1×eλ×t+A2×eλ×tφ(t)=B1×eλ×t+B2×eλ×t+C1×t+C2t=Tstep \matrix{ {\mathop {\min}\limits_{{\tau _\theta },K} {{\left\| {\theta \left( t \right) - {\theta _0}\left( t \right)} \right\|}^2} + {{\left\| {\varphi \left( t \right) - {\varphi _0}\left( t \right)} \right\|}^2}} \hfill \cr {subject\,to} \hfill \cr {\theta \left( t \right) = {A_1} \times {e^{\lambda \times t}} + {A_2} \times {e^{ - \lambda \times t}}} \hfill \cr {\varphi \left( t \right) = {B_1} \times {e^{\lambda \times t}} + {B_2} \times {e^{ - \lambda \times t}} + {C_1} \times t + {C_2}} \hfill \cr {t = {T_{step}}} \hfill \cr }

Results and Analysis
Homogeneity test between the experimental group and the control group before the experiment

Neither the experimental group nor the control group had participated in any taekwondo practice or training before the experiment [10]. The pre-test data can be seen in Table 1. It can be seen from Table 1 that there was no significant difference in the factors of shyness and physical self-concept between the experimental group and the control group before the experiment. This indicates that the subjects are homogeneous.

Homogeneity test of the experimental class and the control class before the experiment

Test group Control group T value P value
Body shame 9.5049±2.0724 9.0202±2.1576 1.099 0.277
Body guilt 9.9972±2.9906 9.7272±2.4657 0.215 0.752
Arrogant pride 9.2077±2.6119 9.0000±2.5991 0.595 0.554
True pride 9.9946±2.2565 9.9091±2.9224 −0.041 0.969
Physical and emotional total score 2.2970±0.5029 2.2292±0.4255 0.622 0.524
Hesitant 27.2606±6.5559 29.9495±6.9222 −1.202 0.221
Afraid of failure 17.4221±5.9649 17.5759±5.6460 −0.129 0.991
Overly cautious 29.7991±6.0221 29.7272±5.2401 0.064 0.949
Over planning 22.5962 ± 4.1761 22.2121 ± 4.0292 0.492 0.622
Extremely high goals 19.9567±4.7092 19.7576±2.1921 0.209 0.759
Negative Perfect Overall Average 2.1099±0.4557 2.1249±0.2659 −0.212 0.756
Differences in physical self-awareness emotion and negative perfectionism between the experimental group and the control group before and after the test

From Table 2, it can be seen that the changes of physical self-consciousness, emotion, and negative perfectionism of college students in the experimental group before and after the experiment are very significant. Significant differences were found in the overall mean scores of body shame, hesitation, fear of failure, over-planning, and negative perfectionism. The results showed that the mean score after the experiment was significantly lower than before [11]. This shows that after the intervention of taekwondo training, the above factors of the college students in the experimental group are significantly lower than those before the experiment. There are significant differences in physical guilt, arrogant pride, proper pride, physical self-consciousness, and emotional total average factor. The results showed that the mean scores after the experiment were significantly higher than those before. It was not significantly different on the overcautious and extremely high target factors, but the mean score after the experiment was lower than before.

Comparison of physical self-awareness emotion and negative perfectionism before and after the experimental group

Test group After the experiment T P
Body shame 8.5048±4.0824 8.4558±4.1498 5.828 0
Body guilt 8.8942±2.8806 10.0684±2.8105 −5.88 0
Arrogant pride 9.4088±4.6118 10.4802±4.4508 −5.188 0
True pride 9.8846±4.2565 10.6981±4.4808 −4.605 0
Total body score 2.2880±0.5048 2.4056±0.5954 −4.245 0.001
Hesitant 28.4606±6.5556 26.5818±5.6861 2.24 0.028
Afraid of failure 18.4241±5.9648 16.5818±5.9282 2.4 0.022
Overly cautious 29.8981±6.0241 29.8115±5.5884 0.24 0.81
Over planning 24.5962 ± 4.1861 22.6446±4.4421 4.456 0.001
Extremely high goals 19.9568±4.8082 19.5448±4.4681 1.528 0.128
Negative Perfect Overall Average 4.1088±0.4558 4.0285±0.4444 4.025 0.004

It can be seen from Table 3 that there is a slight difference in the average score of the test data before and after the control group, but it has not yet reached a significant level. This shows no significant difference between the control group before and after the test.

Comparison of physical self-awareness emotion and negative perfectionism before and after the control group

Test group After the experiment T P
Body shame 8.0404±2.1566 9.4444±4.6884 −1.866 0.06
Body guilt 8.6264±2.4656 9.4848±4.4289 −1.244 0.226
Arrogant pride 9.0000±2.5981 9.1818±4.1668 −0.281 0.68
True pride 9.9091±2.8424 10.0606±4.2962 −0.204 0.841
Total body score 2.2292±0.4455 2.4688±0.6651 −1.09 0.284
Hesitant 28.8485±6.9444 28.5152±4.4482 0.466 0.61
Afraid of failure 16.5658±5.6460 19.0909±6.4414 −1.606 0.118
Overly cautious 29.6264±5.4401 29.9091±4.8446 −0.209 0.846
Over planning 24.2121±4.0294 22.2424±4.6840 1.4 0.161
Extremely high goals 19.6566±4.1921 19.4040±4.8669 0.58 0.566
Negative Perfect Overall Average 4.1448±0.4658 4.1442±0.4869 0.024 0.982
Taekwondo improves the gender differences of college students’ physical self-awareness and emotion

Due to the innate physiological characteristics of men and women and the influence of social and cultural environment, there may be specific gender differences in their physical self-awareness and emotions. The pre-test data of this study also confirm this. The author uses the difference between “post-test data” and “pre-test data” to explore the gender differences in Taekwondo in improving college students’ physical self-awareness and emotion. The experimental data of gender differences in Taekwondo improving college students’ physical self-awareness and emotion are shown in Table 4. It can be seen from Table 4 that there are significant differences between boys and girls in the difference of body shame and body guilt. Women are higher than men on the body shame difference. Men are higher than women on the physical guilt difference. There were no significant differences in arrogant pride, genuine pride, and absolute mean difference.

Comparison table of physical self-awareness emotion and negative perfectionism before and after the control group

The difference between males in the experimental group The difference of women in the experimental group T P
Body shame −0.5053±3.1887 −1.6803±3.4018 3.053 0.003
Body guilt 1.8311±3.3156 0.6383±3.5503 3.883 0.003
Arrogant pride 0.8633±3.8803 1.3301±3.0088 0.731 0.373
True pride 0.8363±3.5106 0.7168±3.0381 0.463 0.645
Total body score 0.1841±0.5746 0.0553±0.4811 0.18 0.058
Discussion

The effects of Taekwondo on college students’ physical self-consciousness, emotion, and negative perfectionism are very significant. Significant differences were found in body shame, hesitation, fear of failure, over-planning, and negative perfectionism. Taekwondo is a high-intensity competitive sport. The sport requires practitioners to increase their momentum by continuously vocalizing during the confrontation. This requires practitioners to restrain their shyness and express their emotions [12]. The cultivation of self-control and tenacity also positively affects an individual's over-planning and negative perfectionism. Students have significant differences in physical guilt, arrogant pride, genuine pride, physical self-consciousness, and emotional total average factor. The performance is that the mean scores after the experiment are significantly higher than those before. This suggests that taekwondo practice positively affects an individual's physical self-awareness emotions.

Taekwondo requires both fists and feet and coordination of the upper and lower limbs. This is an enormous challenge for college students who have just practiced. This will make college students have a particular negative evaluation of their physical condition and generate guilt. This leads to increased levels of physical guilt. College students can develop their upper and lower limbs harmoniously only after proper practice. Under the premise of improving self-body movement, the individual will gradually develop a sense of pride. There was no significant difference between overcautious and extremely high target factors, but the mean scores after the experiment were lower than those before.

Taekwondo has different effects on improving the physical self-consciousness, emotion, and negative perfectionism of college students of different genders. There were significant gender differences in body shame difference and body guilt difference. The difference in body shame was higher in women than in men, and the difference in body guilt was higher in men than women. Students may be influenced by oriental thinking such as “a man's talent and a woman's appearance.” Women pay more attention to physical appearance than men. It has higher body dissatisfaction and higher body shame. Intrinsic physiological factors and gender roles endow men with gender characteristics such as “strong physique, tall and mighty.” Men have higher requirements for their physical health than women. However, due to the current abundance of nutrients and the reduction of exercise, men's bodies tend to be obese. This may be an important reason for male physical guilt. There was no significant gender difference in arrogance pride, genuine pride, and total average score difference, but the difference in arrogance pride was higher for females than males. Males were higher than females in actual pride difference and absolute mean difference. Taekwondo's high confrontation and high physical consumption lead to significantly fewer women practicing Taekwondo than men. Female practitioners will have exaggerated pride in their physical state after participating in this activity, and their physical self-feeling will be better than that of men. Male practitioners are more likely to gain positive emotions from exercise. Therefore, men outperformed women in the total average scores of genuine pride and physical self-awareness.

Conclusion

Taekwondo has apparent positive effects in improving college students’ physical self-awareness and negative perfectionism. Practicing Taekwondo can significantly reduce college students’ body shame, hesitation, fear of failure, over-planning, and negative perfectionism. It can significantly improve the individual's self-evaluation on the emotional factors of physical guilt, arrogance, genuine pride, and physical self-awareness. Women's recognition of Taekwondo improving individual body shame is significantly higher than men's. Men's recognition of Taekwondo improving physical guilt is significantly higher than women's. There were no significant gender differences in arrogant pride, genuine pride, and absolute mean difference. However, after the taekwondo intervention experiment, women's self-perceptions of arrogance and pride are higher than men's.

Figure 1

Second-Order Inverted Pendulum Simulating Lateral Movement Front X − Z Plane)
Second-Order Inverted Pendulum Simulating Lateral Movement Front X − Z Plane)

Figure 2

The first-order inverted pendulum model simulates the frontal motion of the center of mass
The first-order inverted pendulum model simulates the frontal motion of the center of mass

Comparison of physical self-awareness emotion and negative perfectionism before and after the experimental group

Test group After the experiment T P
Body shame 8.5048±4.0824 8.4558±4.1498 5.828 0
Body guilt 8.8942±2.8806 10.0684±2.8105 −5.88 0
Arrogant pride 9.4088±4.6118 10.4802±4.4508 −5.188 0
True pride 9.8846±4.2565 10.6981±4.4808 −4.605 0
Total body score 2.2880±0.5048 2.4056±0.5954 −4.245 0.001
Hesitant 28.4606±6.5556 26.5818±5.6861 2.24 0.028
Afraid of failure 18.4241±5.9648 16.5818±5.9282 2.4 0.022
Overly cautious 29.8981±6.0241 29.8115±5.5884 0.24 0.81
Over planning 24.5962 ± 4.1861 22.6446±4.4421 4.456 0.001
Extremely high goals 19.9568±4.8082 19.5448±4.4681 1.528 0.128
Negative Perfect Overall Average 4.1088±0.4558 4.0285±0.4444 4.025 0.004

Comparison table of physical self-awareness emotion and negative perfectionism before and after the control group

The difference between males in the experimental group The difference of women in the experimental group T P
Body shame −0.5053±3.1887 −1.6803±3.4018 3.053 0.003
Body guilt 1.8311±3.3156 0.6383±3.5503 3.883 0.003
Arrogant pride 0.8633±3.8803 1.3301±3.0088 0.731 0.373
True pride 0.8363±3.5106 0.7168±3.0381 0.463 0.645
Total body score 0.1841±0.5746 0.0553±0.4811 0.18 0.058

Homogeneity test of the experimental class and the control class before the experiment

Test group Control group T value P value
Body shame 9.5049±2.0724 9.0202±2.1576 1.099 0.277
Body guilt 9.9972±2.9906 9.7272±2.4657 0.215 0.752
Arrogant pride 9.2077±2.6119 9.0000±2.5991 0.595 0.554
True pride 9.9946±2.2565 9.9091±2.9224 −0.041 0.969
Physical and emotional total score 2.2970±0.5029 2.2292±0.4255 0.622 0.524
Hesitant 27.2606±6.5559 29.9495±6.9222 −1.202 0.221
Afraid of failure 17.4221±5.9649 17.5759±5.6460 −0.129 0.991
Overly cautious 29.7991±6.0221 29.7272±5.2401 0.064 0.949
Over planning 22.5962 ± 4.1761 22.2121 ± 4.0292 0.492 0.622
Extremely high goals 19.9567±4.7092 19.7576±2.1921 0.209 0.759
Negative Perfect Overall Average 2.1099±0.4557 2.1249±0.2659 −0.212 0.756

Comparison of physical self-awareness emotion and negative perfectionism before and after the control group

Test group After the experiment T P
Body shame 8.0404±2.1566 9.4444±4.6884 −1.866 0.06
Body guilt 8.6264±2.4656 9.4848±4.4289 −1.244 0.226
Arrogant pride 9.0000±2.5981 9.1818±4.1668 −0.281 0.68
True pride 9.9091±2.8424 10.0606±4.2962 −0.204 0.841
Total body score 2.2292±0.4455 2.4688±0.6651 −1.09 0.284
Hesitant 28.8485±6.9444 28.5152±4.4482 0.466 0.61
Afraid of failure 16.5658±5.6460 19.0909±6.4414 −1.606 0.118
Overly cautious 29.6264±5.4401 29.9091±4.8446 −0.209 0.846
Over planning 24.2121±4.0294 22.2424±4.6840 1.4 0.161
Extremely high goals 19.6566±4.1921 19.4040±4.8669 0.58 0.566
Negative Perfect Overall Average 4.1448±0.4658 4.1442±0.4869 0.024 0.982

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