The article applies mathematical calculus modeling to analyze the force of shot put. We emphatically analyzed the relationship between the angle of the shot and the initial velocity and calculated the motion trajectory equation of the shot put. The above research results are used to assist in the analysis and help improve the teaching performance of sports shot put. The study found that different forces have different effects on the horizontal displacement of the shot. Under the comprehensive force analysis, the horizontal velocity gradually decreases with time, and under the gravity analysis, the horizontal velocity of the shot is constant. The horizontal displacement of the shot put is related to the shooting angle and initial speed. Under the comprehensive force analysis, the influence of air resistance and buoyancy on the throwing distance is different due to the different combinations of shooting angle and initial speed.