ASEAN is the acronym for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. ASEAN has 10 member states, including Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam, Brunei, Singapore, the Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia. Since China and the ASEAN countries are adjacent by sea and connected by rivers, their natural conditions, resources, fishery technology and market demand constitute an extensive foundation for fisherybased cooperation.
Zhang Shi hai, Chen Wan ling., Framework and mechanism of fishery cooperation between China and ASEAN [J]. Marine development and management Ocean Development and Management, 2006, (01): 29–33.
ASEAN countries are located in tropical regions with a warm and humid climate, which leads to rich biodiversity. The interior of ASEAN is the home to many rivers and lakes. Among the Southeast Asian countries, Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam, Malaysia and Thailand have long coastlines and rich marine fishery resources. Indonesia is the world's largest archipelagic country, consisting of 17,504 islands with a total coastline of 99,093 km.Wu Ruo Nan, Research on fishery development of ASEAN countries and their cooperation with China [D]. Xiamen University, 2019.
Among the ASEAN countries, Indonesia has a much higher gross domestic product (GDP) and the strongest overall economy, followed by Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia and the Philippines; Brunei, Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar have a weaker overall economy. Since 2008, only Brunei's GDP growth has been chronically lower than that of the world average, and it has had negative growth rate for many years. Among the ASEAN countries, seven – Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam – have had GDP growth rates well above the world average level. This shows that the overall economic strength of ASEAN countries has been increasing in the past decade.
The ASEAN–China Free Trade Area (ACFTA) is the largest FTA that China has participated in constructing and operating. On 4 November 2002, the two sides passed the Framework Agreement on Comprehensive Economic Cooperation between China and ASEAN (hereinafter referred to as the Framework Agreement), which was put into effect on 1 July 2003, marking the formation of the ACFTA. The ACFTA was formally established in January 2010. It is a huge economy with a population of 1.9 billion and a GDP of 6 trillion US dollars, covering 11 countries. At present, ASEAN has 10 member states, including Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.
The main objectives of the ACFTA are to minimise barriers and deepen economic ties between China and the ASEAN countries. The liberalisation arrangement of trade in goods between China and ASEAN is composed of the “Early Harvest” plan, the Agreement on Trade in Goods under the Framework Agreement about Comprehensive Economic Cooperation between China and ASEAN (hereinafter referred to as Agreement on Trade in Goods), as well as relevant clauses and annexes, which mainly include the following aspects.
Framework Agreement on Comprehensive Economic CoOperation Between the Association of South East Asian Nations and The People's Republic Of China:
In 2004, the “Early Harvest” programme of the ACFTA was formally implemented. In order to actively promote the FTA construction plan, the two sides reduce tariffs on the importing and exporting of agricultural products under the Harmonised System (HS) codes HS01–08 in advance according to the original schedule. Among them, the product tax reduction arrangement between China and the original ASEAN members (Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and the Philippines) under the “Early Harvest” programme started from 1 January 2004, with zero tariff achieved on 1 January 2006. China and the newly added ASEAN members (including Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar and Cambodia) finally reached their goals of tax reduction arrangements on 1 January 2010. The trade liberalisation approach of the “Early Harvest” programme has been very successful in accelerating its overall development. Although each member state's level of economic development varies, which has somehow hindered the liberalisation of trade, the programme has adopted a discriminatory manner in the “Early Harvest” programme to promote free trade. A substantial tariff reduction arrangement could be achieved in a relatively short period of time and also in a way that countries could avoid the economic losses that might result from uniform tax reduction.
The rules of origin signed by China and ASEAN are based on the “valueadded standards”. The core of these rules is to determine the standards for the origin of products. According to the Agreement on Trade in Goods, if the Regional Value Content (RVC) of a product is no < 40% of its total value, the product will be regarded as originating from the free trade zone, and the product will satisfy the preferential tax rate of the free trade zone in China and ASEAN member states. When China and ASEAN implemented the “Early Harvest” programme, the vast majority of import and export products were agricultural products, which fit the “full access” standard; a small number of special products, such as wool and textiles, meet the tariff change standard and selectivity standard, respectively. The rules of origin of ACFTA are more feasible; moreover, the relevant provisions are relatively loose and convenient. The “valueadded standard” is conducive to promoting and expanding bilateral free trade, making each member state economically complementary. In 2020, in the face of the full impact of the coronavirus disease2019 (COVID19) pandemic, the trade in goods between China and the ASEAN countries continued to rise in the first 6 months; meanwhile, the ASEAN countries surpassed the European Union and became China's largest trade partner in goods for the first time.
The articles related to fishrelated products and production activities in ACFTA are embodied in the investment agreement of the China–ASEAN Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement (referred to as “Investment Agreement”),
Agreement on Investment of the Framework Agreement on Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Between the People's Republic of China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations:
The national treatment clause of Article 4 stipulates that, each Party shall, accord to investors of another party and their investments treatment no less favourable than it accords in its territory, in like circumstances, to its own fellow investors and their investments with respect to management, conduct, operation, maintenance, application, sale, liquidation, or other forms of disposal of such investments. Similarly, in Article 5 of the MostFavouredNation clause, Each Party shall accord to investors of another Party and their investments treatment no less favourable than it accords, in like circumstances, to fellow investors of any other Party or third country and/or their respective investments with respect to admission, establishment, acquisition, expansion, management, conduct, operation, maintenance, use, liquidation, sale, and other forms of disposal of investments. These two clauses are the core clauses of the agreement and play a key role in ensuring the convenience, transparency and fairness of the investment liberalisation of ACFTA.
According to Article 7 of the framework agreement on other areas of economic cooperation, the two sides also agreed to strengthen cooperation in five limited areas, including agriculture, information and communication technology, human resources opening, investment and the development of the Mekong River Basin, through approaches such as regional development cooperation in fishery resources.
The differenceindifferences (DID) model, input–output table, Kaplinsky index and gravity model have been used for analysis. The sources of data and properties of the series are as described below.
The dependent variable
The input–output analysis model was proposed by Leontief, based on data from the World Input–Output Database (WIOD) from 2000 to 2014.
The signing of the ACFTA has produced differences before and after its establishment. On the other hand, there are differences between signed and unsigned agreements at the same time point. Based on this double difference, we can identify the effects brought by the establishment of the ACFTA. Meyer (1995) discussed this method in detail.
Meyer B., “Natural and QuasiExperiments in Economics”, Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, 1995, 13(2): 151–161.
Feld Stein (1995) used this method to explore the impact of tax rates and tax reform.Feldstein, M., “The effect of Marginal Tax Rates on Taxable Income: A panel study of the 1986 Tax Reform Act”, Journal of Political Economy, 1995, 103: 551–572.
Tan Z., Zhou L., Zhao Y., “County Adminstrated by Province” Reform, Fiscal Decentralization and People's Welfare: A DifferenceinDifferences Estimation”, China Economics Quarterly, 2015, 14.
The samples were divided into the following groups: (1) the treatment group before the regional trade agreement (RTA) came into effect; (2) the treatment group after the RTA took effect; (3) the control group before the RTA came into effect; (4) the control group after the RTA came into effect. To describe the above samples, we constructed two binary dummy variables,
Description of main variables.
Dependent variable  The domestic added value of agriculture, forestry and fishing goods exported by country 
OECD TiVA Database (2018)  
GVC position index  Calculated based on OECD TiVA Database (2018)  
Domestic supply quantity, fish, seafood  FAO Food Balance Sheets (old methodology and population)  
Control variable  The logarithm of GDP of country 
World Bank Database  
The logarithm of the population in country 
World Bank Database  
The logarithm of geographical distance between country 
World Bank Database  
The logarithm of the index of intraindustry trade in aquatic products trade between the country 
Calculated based on UN Comtrade 
DVA, Domestic value added; FAO, food and agriculture organization of the United Nations; GDP, gross domestic product; GVC, global value chain; OECD, organisation for economic cooperation and development; TiVA, trade in value added.
This paper uses the inputoutput analysis model proposed by Leontief. The intermediate input rate is the share of raw materials required by one industrial sector from other industries of the entire economy to produce a unit of output, calculated using the following formula:
The intermediate demand rate is the ratio of the total intermediate demand for an industry to the total demand for that industry sector for each industry sector in the economy as a whole, calculated as follows:
According to the definition of Kaplinsky and Readman (2005), changes in relative price and market share should be considered simultaneously when judging whether an industry or a product is upgraded.
Kaplinsky R, Readman J. “Globalization and upgrading: What can (and cannot) be learnt from international trade statistics in the wood furniture sector?” [J]. Industrial & Corporate Change, 2005, 14(14): 679–703.
Li Chen and Chi Ping (2017) used this method to calculate China's aquatic product export upgrading index and trade status index from 2008 to 2014; they made a comparative analysis with the world's major aquatic product exporters.Li Chen, Chi Ping., “The study on the upgrading trend and trade positing of China's aquatic product exports: based on the perspective of global value chain” [J]. World Agriculture, 2017, (01): 121–126.
where
DID estimation of domestic added value of exports of aquatic products.
0.718^{***} (3.82)  0.505^{**} (2.29)  0.537^{*} (1.71)  0.550^{*} (1.87)  
0.38^{***} (3.42)  −0.231 (−1.56)  −0.259^{*} (−1.81)  
0.494^{***} (4.07)  0.48^{***} (3.70)  
2.208^{***} (28.24)  2.155^{***} (22.21)  
0.128 (1.16)  
_cons  8.614 (32.91)  −2.349 (−0.77)  −12.891^{***} (−5.20)  −11.318 (−4.60) 
N  99  99  99  99 
11.57  8.08  182.48  159.57  
0.08  0.18  0.81  0.82 
DID, Differencein differences.
DID estimation results for export of aquatic products in terms of
0.893 (0.97)  −0.046 (−0.76)  
0.190^{***} (3.79)  0.212^{***} (4.39)  
−0.068 (−1.56)  −0.083^{**} (−2.03)  
0.003 (0.15)  0.001 (0.07)  
−0.000 (−0.01)  −0.005 (−0.16)  
_cons  −3.477 (−4.52)  −2.349 (−0.77) 
N  99  99 
15.57  15.28  
0.38  0.38 
DID, Differenceindifferences; GVC, global value chain.
Zhou et al. (2014) also focussed on the level of China's manufacturing industry in the GVC, based on the TIVA database.
Zhou Sheng qi, Lan Zhen Xian, Fu Hua., “Division Status of China's Manufacturing Industry in Global Value Chains: A Study Based on Koopman's GVC Position Indices” [J]. Journal of International Trade, 2014, (02): 3–12.
In this paper, we studied the data from TiVA 2018.The partner countries that have signed the RTA with China are regarded as the treatment group, while the countries that have not signed the RTA with China are regarded as the control group. Five main ASEAN countries (the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam and Indonesia) were set as the treatment group, while Norway, Canada, the United States and Japan were set as the control group. The reason for choosing these countries as the control group is that there is data showing that they are preference countries that are keen on aquatic product consumption. Moreover, they have a largescale import and export trade volume of aquatic products with China, and they are distributed in different geographic regions such as Europe, America and Asia.
From the perspective of the domestic added value from the domestic export of aquatic products, the coefficient of
DID estimation results of aquatic products consumption in ASEAN countries.
0.014 (0.24)  −0.013 (−0.16)  
0.427^{***} (7.05)  0.432^{***} (7.26)  
0.159^{***} (−1.56)  0.155^{***} (−2.80)  
−0.470^{***} (−10.02)  −0.471^{***} (−10.01)  
−0.153^{***} (−0.01)  −0.153^{**} (−2.59)  
_cons  −2.912^{***} (−2.86)  −2.988^{***} (−3.00) 
N  126  126 
279.05  269.39  
0.81  0.81 
ASEAN, Association of Southeast Asian Nations; DID, differenceindifferences.
After the input–output table was developed in the WIOD database, Koopman (2010) constructed a valueadded trade decomposition framework based on the intercountry input–output table. Wei Long and Wang Lei (2015) redefined the upgrading direction of the manufacturing industry based on the WIOD database.
Wei Long, Wang Lei., A study of Chinese Manufacturing Industry Transformation and Upgrading in Global Value Chains System [J]. The Journal of Quantitative & Technical Economics, 2015, (6): 71–86.
Based on the WIOD from 2000 to 2014, the indicators such as the upstream degree and the technical complexity of the manufacturing industry in 43 economies around the world were measured, and the direction of upgrading of the manufacturing industry was redefined.Song Pei, Chen Zhe, Song Dian., Can Green Technology Innovation Promote GVC of China's Manufacturing Industry? [J]. Collected Essays on Finance and Economics, 2021, (1): 1–14.
Figure 1 shows the input–output analysis model proposed by Leontief, based on the WIOD from 2000 to 2014.
The WIOD database contains 43 economies, of which only Indonesia, as an ASEAN country, has relevant data. From the above graph, it can be seen that the intermediate input rate of Indonesia's fisheries and aquaculture industry has been decreasing since 2000 and has stabilised at around 15% since 2010. Among them, the share of raw materials supplied by other domestic industries is gradually decreasing, indicating that the productivity of Indonesia's domestic fisheries and aquaculture industry is increasing. As the intermediate input rate decreases, it brings an increase in the valueadded rate.
As can be seen from Figure 2, since 2006, the share of fishery and aquaculture products used as raw materials for production in other industries, produced domestically in Indonesia, stabilised between 0.35 and 0.38.
Koopman (2012) decomposed the export structure of various countries and proposed the indicators “GVC status index” and “GVC participation degree” based on the valueadded measurement method to analyse a country's status in the value chain.
Koopman R, Wang Zhi and Wei S., “Estimating Domestic Content in Exports When Processing Trade is Pervasive” [J]. Journal of Development Economics, 2012, (99): 178–189.
Baldwin (2013) explains that the position in the value chain is determined by the added value of intermediate products. This section adopts the method proposed by Koopman.Baldwin, R. and Harrigan, J., 2011, “Zeros, Quality, and Space: Trade Theory and Trade Evidence”, American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics [J]. 2011, (3): 60–88.
GVC position index is derived as follows:
Gereffi G, Korzeniewicz M., Commodity Chains and Global Capitalism [M]. Greenwood Pub Group, 1994.
The policy impact point of (1) was in 2006 and 2008 in Vietnam, and (2) was in 2010. From the GVCs of the aquatic products, the coefficient of
The dependent variable data originated from FAO Food Balance Sheets. The policy impact point of (1) was in 2006 and 2008 in Vietnam, and (2) was in 2010. From the perspective of the domestic food supply of aquatic products, the coefficient of
From the perspective of the domestic food supply of aquatic products, the coefficient of
By calculation based on UN Comtrade of the aquatic products with HS fourdigit code, the following points can be concluded: (1) for “0301” (including live fish), both the product price and market share in the Chinese market continue to rise at the same time, indicating that the product has been upgraded; (2) for “0302” (fresh or chilled fish), in China, Malaysia, the Philippines and other countries, the product has a trend of upgrading; (3) for “0303” (frozen fish), the tendency of continuous upgrade is not seen; (4) for “0304” (fish fillets and other fish meat – fresh, chilled or frozen), the product has been continuously upgraded in recent years in countries such as Indonesia and the Philippines; (5) for “0305” (dried fish, salted fish or fish in brine, and smoked fish, fish meat fit for human consumption), the current trend of continuous upgrading is not seen; (6) for “0306” (crustaceans, in shell or not, live, fresh, chilled, frozen, dried, salted or in brine), China achieved product upgrades in 2014 and 2016; (7) for “0307” (molluscs, whether in shell or not, live, fresh, chilled, frozen, dried, salted in brine; aquatic invertebrates [not crustaceans and molluscs] live, fresh, chilled, frozen, dried, salted or in brine), no continuous escalation trend is found.
We found that countries could be both large exporters and importers of fish, as is the case in Thailand, China and Vietnam. However, developing countries mainly export highvalue products and import lowvalue ones. Thus, in some instances, the proceeds from exporting moreexpensive fish can be used to import lessexpensive, but equally or more nutritious, fish.
FAO, Value chain dynamics and the smallscale sector Policy recommendations for smallscale fisheries and aquaculture trade, 2014, P7.
Therefore, from the trade data, such as import and export data, we might find that the economic effect of ACFTA is quite limited, but the nutritious value of ACFTA should never be underestimated.Freshness is the priority of seafood. How to transport seafood from one place to another fresh and clear is crucially important. The advances in transportation, especially the cold chain logistics system, add value to the fisheries products across nations. Consolidation technology can save space in container ships. As long as the technical problems related to inspection and quarantine exist, fish and fishery product consolidation is highly suggested. Consolidation of fish and fishery products might be another incentive for the development of international trade of seafood.
Continuing to promote the solid development of the major China–ASEAN trade markets: As aquatic products have corrosive qualities, the possibility of trade friction is high. We need to further expand the trade volume of China–ASEAN aquatic products and enrich the variety of aquatic products trade. We also need to explore potential opportunities of aquatic product trade in various countries in the free trade zone.
Establishing a new pattern of industrial division of labor within the framework of ACFTA: The high intraindustry trade index between China and major ASEAN countries such as the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia indicates a complementary trade demand for aquatic products. However, for “0305”, “0306”, “0307” and other deeply processed products, China and the major ASEAN countries have not yet formed a competitive edge. In order to avoid the problem of uncoordinated development and losses caused by low cooperation efficiency, a unified guiding policy should be formulated within the framework of ACFTA to promote the cooperation efficiency of trade division. It is also necessary to avoid the decline of labour resources and product competitiveness, in addition to making the intraregional trade of aquatic products develop towards higher level of intraindustry trade.
Further expand and strengthen fisheries and aquaculturerelated industrial chains: From the previous analysis, it can be seen that, in Indonesia, for instance, the proportion of fishery and aquaculture used as intermediate products in other industries is not high and there are not many types of intermediate products. This indicates that there are not many upstream and downstream industries associated with fishery and aquaculture, and further development of hightech farming technology and deep processing should be carried out.
Further strengthen international cooperation in bilateral industrial chains: From the previous analysis, it can be seen that, in Indonesia, for instance, most of the other industries invested into fisheries and aquaculture are still relatively low in terms of intermediate input rates from their own countries. Bilateral economic and trade cooperation should be deeply strengthened to encourage enterprises related to fisheries and aquaculture to invest in the regions of member states, so that relevant resources can seek their best allocation in the market in a more reasonable manner.
Affected by the COVID19 pandemic, the process of aquatic product movement into and out of the enterprises is more hindered. On the one hand, as closely related to the food industry, fisheries and industrial farming industry must pay close attention to the safety of aquatic products in the ACFTA. Meanwhile, the inspection and quarantine of imported and exported aquatic products from China and ASEAN need to be greatly strengthened to prevent noninspected aquatic products from entering the market. In addition, learning from the lessons of the pandemic, it is necessary to accelerate the construction of an ACFTA fishery product information platform, as well as a quality and safety traceability system, to ensure the quality and safety of products in all aspects of the supply chain, including production, processing and sales.
At the same time, along with the successful signing of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), the ACFTA has an extremely important role in promoting the economic recovery of countries after the global pandemic and in promoting longterm prosperity and development. Further acceleration of the trade liberalisation process will bring a greater boost to regional economic and trade prosperity. The preferential results of the agreement directly benefit consumers as well as fishery and aquaculturerelated enterprises, which will play a critical role in enriching consumer's market choices and reducing trade costs for enterprises.
DID estimation of domestic added value of exports of aquatic products.
0.718 
0.505 
0.537 
0.550 

0.38 
−0.231 (−1.56)  −0.259 

0.494 
0.48 

2.208 
2.155 

0.128 (1.16)  
_cons  8.614 (32.91)  −2.349 (−0.77)  −12.891 
−11.318 (−4.60) 
N  99  99  99  99 
11.57  8.08  182.48  159.57  
0.08  0.18  0.81  0.82 
DID estimation results of aquatic products consumption in ASEAN countries.
0.014 (0.24)  −0.013 (−0.16)  
0.427 
0.432 

0.159 
0.155 

−0.470 
−0.471 

−0.153 
−0.153 

_cons  −2.912 
−2.988 
N  126  126 
279.05  269.39  
0.81  0.81 
DID estimation results for export of aquatic products in terms of GVCpositionit.
0.893 (0.97)  −0.046 (−0.76)  
0.190 
0.212 

−0.068 (−1.56)  −0.083 

0.003 (0.15)  0.001 (0.07)  
−0.000 (−0.01)  −0.005 (−0.16)  
_cons  −3.477 (−4.52)  −2.349 (−0.77) 
N  99  99 
15.57  15.28  
0.38  0.38 
Description of main variables.
Dependent variable  The domestic added value of agriculture, forestry and fishing goods exported by country 
OECD TiVA Database (2018)  
GVC position index  Calculated based on OECD TiVA Database (2018)  
Domestic supply quantity, fish, seafood  FAO Food Balance Sheets (old methodology and population)  
Control variable  The logarithm of GDP of country 
World Bank Database  
The logarithm of the population in country 
World Bank Database  
The logarithm of geographical distance between country 
World Bank Database  
The logarithm of the index of intraindustry trade in aquatic products trade between the country 
Calculated based on UN Comtrade 
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renewal of Macao inner harbour under the background of digitisation Support design of main retracement passage in fully mechanised coal mining face based on numerical simulation Study on the crushing mechanism and parameters of the twoflow crusher Interaction design of financial insurance products under the Era of AIoT Modeling the pathway of breast cancer in the Middle East ARMA analysis of the green innovation technology of core enterprises under the ecosystem – Time series data Image design and interaction technology based on Fourier inverse transform Calculus Logic Function in Integrated Manufacturing Automation of Single Chip Microcomputer Football Offense Training Strategy Based on Fractional Differential Mathematical Modeling Research on China interregional industrial transformation slowdown and influencing factors of industrial transformation based on numerical simulation The medical health venture capital network community structure, information dissemination and the cognitive proximity The Mathematical Analysis Model of Educational System in Music Courses in Colleges and Universities Continuing Education Network Data Center Model Based on Fractional Differential Mathematical Equations A generative design method of building layout generated by path Analysis of the causes of the influence of the industrial economy on the social economy based on multiple linear regression equation Research of neural network for weld penetration control Computer Art Design Model Based on Nonlinear Fractional Differential Equations The Optimization Model of Public Space Design Teaching Reform Based on Fractional Differential Equations The Approximate Solution of Nonlinear Vibration of Tennis Based on Nonlinear Vibration Differential Equation Graphical Modular Power Technology of Distribution Network Based on Machine Learning Statistical Mathematical Equation Employment and Professional Education Training System of College Graduates Based on the Law of Large Numbers Economic Research on Multiple Linear Regression in Fruit Market inspection and Management Nonlinear Differential Equations in Preventing Financial Risks Lagrange’s Mathematical Equations in the Sports Training of College Students Simulation Research of Electrostatic Precipitator Power Supply Voltage Control System Based on Finite Element Differential Equation Research on the effect of generative adversarial network based on wavelet transform hidden Markov model on face creation and classification Research on Lightweight Injection Molding (CAE) and Numerical Simulation Calculate of New Energy Vehicle Power Flow Calculation in Smart Distribution Network Based on Power Machine Learning Based on Fractional Differential Equations Demonstration of application program of logistics public information management platform based on fuzzy constrained programming mathematical model Basketball Shooting Rate Based on Multiple Regression LogicalMathematical Algorithm The Optimal Application of Lagrangian Mathematical Equations in Computer Data Analysis Similarity Solutions of the Surface Waves Equation in (2+1) Dimensions and Bifurcation Research on predictive control of students’ performance in PE classes based on the mathematical model of multiple linear regression equation Beam control method for multiarray antennas based on improved genetic algorithm The influence of X fuzzy mathematical method on basketball tactics scoring Optimal decisions and channel coordination of a green supply chain with marketing effort and fairness concerns Application of regression function model based on panel data in bank resource allocation financial risk management Game theoretic model for low carbon supply chain under carbon emissions reduction sensitive random demand Research on aerobics training posture motion capture based on mathematical similarity matching statistical analysis Limit cycles of a generalised Mathieu differential system Application of SobolevVolterra projection and finite element numerical analysis of integral differential equations in modern art design Influence of displacement ventilation on the distribution of pollutant concentrations in livestock housing Research on motion capture of dance training pose based on statistical analysis of mathematical similarity matching Application of data mining in basketball statistics Application of Btheory for numerical method of functional differential equations in the analysis of fair value in financial accounting Research on the influence of fuzzy mathematics simulation model in the development of Wushu market Study on audiovisual family restoration of children with mental disorders based on the mathematical model of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of differential equation Differenceindifferences test for micro effect of technological finance cooperation pilot in China Application of multiattribute decisionmaking methods based on normal random variables in supply chain risk management Exploration on the collaborative relationship between government, industry, and university from the perspective of collaborative innovation The impact of financial repression on manufacturing upgrade based on fractional Fourier transform and probability AtanKA New SVM Kernel for Classification Validity and reliability analysis of the Chinese version of planned happenstance career inventory based on mathematical statistics Visual positioning system for marine industrial robot assembly based on complex variable function Mechanical behaviour of continuous girder bridge with corrugated steel webs constructed by RW Study of a linearphysicalprogrammingbased approach for web service selection under uncertain service quality The Relationship Between College Students’ Taekwondo Courses and College Health Based on Mathematical Statistics Equations A mathematical model of plasmidcarried antibiotic resistance transmission in two types of cells Fractional Differential Equations in the Exploration of Geological and Mineral Construction AdaBoost Algorithm in Trustworthy Network for Anomaly Intrusion Detection Burnout of frontline city administrative lawenforcing personnel in new urban development areas: An empirical research in China Enterprise Financial Risk Early Warning System Based on Structural Equation Model A Study on the Application of Quantile Regression Equation in Forecasting Financial Value at Risk in Financial Markets Fractional Differential Equations in the Model of Vocational Education and Teaching Practice Environment Information transmission simulation of Internet of things communication nodes under collision free probability equation Image denoising model based on improved fractional calculus mathematical equation Random Fourier Approximation of the Kernel Function in Programmable Networks The Complexity of Virtual Reality Technology in the Simulation and Modeling of Civil Mathematical Models University Library Lending System Model Based on Fractional Differential Equations Calculation and Performance Evaluation of Text Similarity Based on Strong Classification Features Intelligent Matching System of Clauses in International Investment Arbitration Cases Based on Big Data Statistical Model Evaluation and Verification of Patent Value Based on Combination Forecasting Model Financial Institution Prevention Financial Risk Monitoring System Under the Fusion of Partial Differential Equations Prediction and Analysis of ChiNext Stock Price Based on Linear and Nonlinear Composite Model Calculus Logic Function in Tax Risk Avoidance in Different Stages of Enterprises The Psychological Memory Forgetting Model Based on the Analysis of Linear Differential Equations Optimization Simulation System of University Science Education Based on Finite Differential Equations The Law of Large Numbers in Children's Education Optimization System of Strength and Flexibility Training in Aerobics Course Based on Lagrangian Mathematical Equation Data structure simulation for the reform of the teaching process of university computer courses Calculating university education model based on finite element fractional differential equations and macrocontrol analysis Educational research on mathematics differential equation to simulate the model of children's mental health prevention and control system Analysis of enterprise management technology and innovation based on multilinear regression model Verifying the validity of the whole person model of mental health education activities in colleges based on differential equation RETRACTION NOTE Research on the mining of ideological and political knowledge elements in college courses based on the combination of LDA model and Apriori algorithm Research on nonlinear visual matching model under inherent constraints of images Good congruences on weakly Uabundant semigroups Research on the processing method of multisource heterogeneous data in the intelligent agriculture cloud platform Internal control index and enterprise growth: An empirical study of Chinese listedcompanies in the automobile manufacturing industry Determination of the minimum distance between vibration source and fibre under existing optical vibration signals: a study Nonlinear differential equations based on the BSM model in the pricing of derivatives in financial markets FedUserPro: A user profile construction method based on federated learning A multifactor Regression Equationbased Test of Fitness Maximal Aerobic Capacity in Athletes Garment Image Retrieval based on Grab Cut Auto Segmentation and Dominate Color Method Financial Risk Prediction and Analysis Based on Nonlinear Differential Equations Constructivist Learning Method of Ordinary Differential Equations in College Mathematics Teaching Multiple Effects Analysis of Hangzhou Issuing Digital Consumer Coupons Based on Simultaneous Equations of CDM Model Response Model of Teachers’ Psychological Education in Colleges and Universities Based on Nonlinear Finite Element Equations A Hybrid Computational Intelligence Method of Newton's Method and Genetic Algorithm for Solving Compatible Nonlinear Equations Pressure Image Recognition of Lying Positions Based on Multifeature value Regularized Extreme Learning Algorithm English Intelligent Question Answering System Based on elliptic fitting equation Precision Machining Technology of Jewelry on CNC Machine Tool Based on Mathematical Modeling Application Research of Mathematica Software in Calculus Teaching Computer Vision Communication Technology in Mathematical Modeling Skills of Music Creation Based on Homogeneous FirstOrder Linear Partial Differential Equations Mathematical Statistics Technology in the Educational Grading System of Preschool Students Music Recommendation Index Evaluation Based on Logistic Distribution Fitting Transition Probability Function Children's Educational Curriculum Evaluation Management System in Mathematical Equation Model Query Translation Optimization and Mathematical Modeling for EnglishChinese CrossLanguage Information Retrieval The Effect of Children’s Innovative Education Courses Based on Fractional Differential Equations Fractional Differential Equations in the Standard Construction Model of the Educational Application of the Internet of Things Optimization research on prefabricated concrete frame buildings based on the dynamic equation of eccentric structure and horizontaltorsional coupling Optimization in Mathematics Modeling and Processing of New Type Silicate Glass Ceramics Green building considering image processing technology combined with CFD numerical simulation MCM of Student’s Physical Health Based on Mathematical Cone Sports health quantification method and system implementation based on multiple thermal physiology simulation Research on visual optimization design of machine–machine interface for mechanical industrial equipment based on nonlinear partial equations Research on identifying psychological health problems of college students by logistic regression model based on data mining Abnormal Behavior of Fractional Differential Equations in Processing Computer Big Data Mathematical Modeling Thoughts and Methods Based on Fractional Differential Equations in Teaching A mathematical model of PCNN for image fusion with nonsampled contourlet transform Nonlinear Differential Equations in ComputerAided Modeling of Big Data Technology The Uniqueness of Solutions of Fractional Differential Equations in University Mathematics Teaching Based on the Principle of Compression Mapping Financial customer classification by combined model Influence of displacement ventilation on the distribution of pollutant concentrations in livestock housing Recognition of Electrical Control System of Flexible Manipulator Based on Transfer Function Estimation Method Automatic Knowledge Integration Method of English Translation Corpus Based on Kmeans Algorithm Real Estate Economic Development Based on Logarithmic Growth Function Model Design of Tennis Mobile Teaching Assistant System Based on Ordinary Differential Equations Financial Crisis Early Warning Model of Listed Companies Based on Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis High Simulation Reconstruction of Crowd Animation Based on Optical Flow Constraint Equation Construction of Intelligent Search Engine for Big Data Multimedia Resource Subjects Based on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation 3D Animation Simulation of Computer Fractal and Fractal Technology Combined with DiamondSquare Algorithm Analysis of the Teaching Quality of Physical Education Class by Using the Method of Gradient Difference The Summation of Series Based on the Laplace Transformation Method in Mathematics Teaching Optimal Solution of the Fractional Differential Equation to Solve the Bending Performance Test of Corroded Reinforced Concrete Beams under Prestressed Fatigue Load Animation VR scene mosaic modeling based on generalized Laplacian equation Radial Basis Function Neural Network in Vibration Control of Civil Engineering Structure Optimal Model Combination of Crossborder Ecommerce Platform Operation Based on Fractional Differential Equations The influence of accounting computer information processing technology on enterprise internal control under panel data simultaneous equation Research on Stability of Timedelay Force Feedback Teleoperation System Based on Scattering Matrix BIM Building HVAC Energy Saving Technology Based on Fractional Differential Equation Construction of comprehensive evaluation index system of watersaving irrigation project integrating penman Montei the quation Human Resource Management Model of Large Companies Based on Mathematical Statistics Equations Data Forecasting of AirConditioning Load in Large Shopping Malls Based on Multiple Nonlinear Regression Analysis of technical statistical indexes of college tennis players under the winlose regression function equation Automatic extraction and discrimination of vocal main melody based on quadratic wave equation Analysis of wireless English multimedia communication based on spatial state model equation Optimization of Linear Algebra Core Function Framework on Multicore Processors Optimisation of Modelling of Finite Element Differential Equations with Modern Art Design Theory Mathematical function data model analysis and synthesis system based on shortterm human movement Human gait modelling and tracking based on motion functionalisation The Control Relationship Between the Enterprise's Electrical Equipment and Mechanical Equipment Based on Graph Theory Financial Accounting Measurement Model Based on Numerical Analysis of Rigid Normal Differential Equation and Rigid Functional Equation Mathematical Modeling and Forecasting of Economic Variables Based on Linear Regression Statistics Nonlinear Differential Equations in Crossborder Ecommerce Controlling Return Rate Differential equation model of financial market stability based on Internet big data 3D Mathematical Modeling Technology in Visualized Aerobics Dance Rehearsal System Children’s cognitive function and mental health based on finite element nonlinear mathematical model Fractional Differential Equations in Electronic Information Models BIM Engineering Management Oriented to Curve Equation Model Leakage control of urban water supply network and mathematical analysis and location of leakage points based on machine learning Analysis of higher education management strategy based on entropy and dissipative structure theory Prediction of corporate financial distress based on digital signal processing and multiple regression analysis Mathematical Method to Construct the Linear Programming of Football Training Multimedia sensor image detection based on constrained underdetermined equation The Size of Children's Strollers of Different Ages Based on Ergonomic Mathematics Design Application of Numerical Computation of Partial Differential Equations in Interactive Design of Virtual Reality Media Stiffness Calculation of Gear Hydraulic System Based on the Modeling of Nonlinear Dynamics Differential Equations in the Progressive Method Knowledge Analysis of Charged Particle Motion in Uniform Electromagnetic Field Based on Maxwell Equation Relationship Between Enterprise Talent Management and Performance Based on the Structural Equation Model Method Term structure of economic management rate based on parameter analysis of estimation model of ordinary differential equation Influence analysis of piano music immersion virtual reality cooperation based on mapping equation Chinese painting and calligraphy image recognition technology based on pseudo linear directional diffusion equation Label big data compression in Internet of things based on piecewise linear regression Animation character recognition and character intelligence analysis based on semantic ontology and Poisson equation Design of language assisted learning model and online learning system under the background of artificial intelligence Application of machine learning in stock selection Comparative analysis of CR of ideological and political education in different regions based on improved fuzzy clustering Action of Aut( G ) on the set of maximal subgroups ofp groupsThe internal mechanism of corporate social responsibility fulfillment affecting debt risk in China: analysis of intermediary transmission effect based on degree of debt concentration and product market competitive advantage Study on transmission characteristics in three kinds of deformed finlines based on edgebased finite element method Asymptotic stability problem of predator–prey system with linear diffusion Research on loyalty prediction of ecommerce customer based on data mining Algebraic Equations in Educational Model of College Physical Education Course Education Professional English Translation Corpus Under the Binomial Theorem Coefficient Geometric Tolerance Control Method for Precision Machinery Based on Image Modeling and Novel Saturation Function Retrieval and Characteristic Analysis of Multimedia Tester Based on Bragg Equation Semiparametric Spatial Econometric Analysis of Household Consumption Based on Ordinary Linear Regression Model Video adaptive watermark embedding and detection algorithm based on phase function equation English Learning Motivation of College Students Based on probability Distribution Scientific Model of Vocational Education Teaching Method in Differential Nonlinearity Research on mobile Awareness service and data privacy Protection based on Linear Equations computing protocol Vocal Music Teaching Model Based on Finite Element Differential Mathematical Equations Research on threat assessment problems of island air defence system based on the leaderfollower model Studying a matching method combining distance proximity and buffer constraints The trend and influence of media information Propagation based on nonlinear Differential equation Research on the construction of early warning model of customer churn on ecommerce platform Study on inefficient land use determination method for cities and towns from a city examination perspective A sentiment analysis method based on bidirectional long shortterm memory networks Evaluation of ecosystem health in Futian mangrove wetland based on the PSRAHP model A study of local smoothnessinformed convolutional neural network models for image inpainting Towards more efficient control of the ironmaking blast furnace: modelling gaseous reduction of iron ores in H_{2}N_{2} atmosphere Algorithm of overfitting avoidance in CNN based on maximum pooled and weight decay Mathematical Calculus Modeling in Improving the Teaching Performance of Shot Put Application of Nonlinear Differential Equation in Electric Automation Control System Higher Mathematics Teaching Curriculum Model Based on Lagrangian Mathematical Model Decisions of competing supply chain with altruistic retailer under risk aversion Optimization of Color Matching Technology in Cultural Industry by Fractional Differential Equations The Marketing of Crossborder Ecommerce Enterprises in Foreign Trade Based on the Statistics of Mathematical Probability Theory Application of Linear Partial Differential Equation Theory in Guiding Football Scientific Training The Evolution Model of Regional Tourism Economic Development Difference Based on Spatial Variation Function System Model of Shipping Enterprise Safety Culture Based on Dynamic Calculation Matrix Model The Inner Relationship between Students' Psychological Factors and Physical Exercise Based on Structural Equation Model (SEM) Analysis and Research on Influencing Factors of Ideological and Political Education Teaching Effectiveness Based on Linear Equation Fractional Differential Equations in Sports Training in Universities Examination and Countermeasures of Network Education in Colleges and Universities Based on Ordinary Differential Equation Model Higher Education Agglomeration Promoting Innovation and Entrepreneurship Based on Spatial Dubin Model ChineseEnglish Contrastive Translation System Based on Lagrangian Search Mathematical Algorithm Model