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Efficacy of inpatient phase II cardiac rehabilitation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting

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Introduction: Cardiac rehabilitation is a complex process that involves improving patient mobility by using endurance training and education on healthy attitudes related to diet and lifestyle. The aim of this study was to compare spirometry results to assess the efficacy of inpatient and at-home post-operative phase II cardiac rehabilitation following coronary artery bypass grafting with extra-corporeal circulation.

Materials and methods: A prospective study was carried out on 104 patients awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting at the Department of Cardiac Surgery, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin. Following surgery, the patients were randomized into study and control groups, each consisting of 52 people. The study group underwent inpatient phase II cardiac rehabilitation at the Department of Cardiac Rehabilitation for the Clinic of Cardiac Surgery. The control group performed the same exercises in the II phase cardiac rehabilitation at home, according to the program obtained at the hospital. The efficacy of both the inpatient and at-home rehabilitation were determined based on spirometry tests performed the day before the surgery, and at 5 and 25–30 days following the operation.

Results: Static analysis of spirometry results tests did not show statistically significant differences between the groups. In the dynamic analysis of data, we determined the differences between the first and second, second and third, and first and third spirometry tests. In the study group, positive statistically significant differences in FVC were found between tests 1–3 (p < 0.001), and 2–3 (p < 0.009).

Conclusions: 1. In the static analysis, both rehabilitation models gave similar results in spirometry tests performed 25–30 days post-operatively, not reaching the baseline levels of FEV and FVC. 2. Dynamic analysis indicated, however, a certain advantage of inpatient rehabilitation, as the decreases in FEV between baseline and final levels were significantly lower, and the increments between the tests performed at 5 day and 25–30 days following surgery were significantly higher in the study group than in the control group.

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Medicine, Basic Medical Science, other, Clinical Medicine, Surgery, Public Health