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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
1508-5791
Publicado por primera vez
25 Mar 2014
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

Volumen 62 (2017): Edición 1 (March 2017)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
1508-5791
Publicado por primera vez
25 Mar 2014
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

8 Artículos
Acceso abierto

COREDIV modelling of JET ILW discharges with different impurity seeding: nitrogen, neon, argon and krypton

Publicado en línea: 04 Mar 2017
Páginas: 3 - 7

Resumen

Abstract

Numerical simulations with the COREDIV code of JET H-mode discharges with 25 MW of auxiliary heating in the ITER-like wall (ILW) configuration with different impurity seedings – nitrogen (N), neon (Ne), argon (Ar) and krypton (Kr) – are presented. All simulations have been performed with the same transport model and input discharge parameters like auxiliary heating, volume average plasma density, confinement factor. Only the seeded impurity puff rate was changed in the calculations. It appears that for the considered heating power of 25 MW and relatively low volume electron average density <ne> = 6.2 × 1019 m−3, impurity seeding is necessary. It has been found that for every gas at the maximum level of the seeding rate, allowed by the code convergence, the power to the plate is reduced up to 2–4 MW, with electron temperature at the plate of about 2 eV, indicating semi-detached conditions in the divertor region. It should be noted, however, that in cases with low and medium Z impurity (N, Ne and Ar), tungsten radiation is a significant part of radiation losses and stays above 22–32% of the total energy losses, but for high Z impurity (Kr) it is reduced up to 10% of the total losses. The maximum of the Kr radiation is between the pedestal region and separatrix, showing that radiative mantle can be created, which might have a strong influence on the plasma parameters in the pedestal region.

Palabras clave

  • impurity seeding
  • integrated modelling
  • tokamak
Acceso abierto

Thermal stability of the krypton Hall effect thruster

Publicado en línea: 04 Mar 2017
Páginas: 9 - 15

Resumen

Abstract

The Krypton Large IMpulse Thruster (KLIMT) ESA/PECS project, which has been implemented in the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM) and now is approaching its final phase, was aimed at incremental development of a ~500 W class Hall effect thruster (HET). Xenon, predominantly used as a propellant in the state-of-the-art HETs, is extremely expensive. Krypton has been considered as a cheaper alternative since more than fifteen years; however, to the best knowledge of the authors, there has not been a HET model especially designed for this noble gas. To address this issue, KLIMT has been geared towards operation primarily with krypton. During the project, three subsequent prototype versions of the thruster were designed, manufactured and tested, aimed at gradual improvement of each next exemplar. In the current paper, the heat loads in new engine have been discussed. It has been shown that thermal equilibrium of the thruster is gained within the safety limits of the materials used. Extensive testing with both gases was performed to compare KLIMT’s thermal behaviour when supplied with krypton and xenon propellants.

Palabras clave

  • thermal stability
  • electric propulsion
  • Hall thruster
  • xenon and krypton propellants
Acceso abierto

A new concept of fusion neutron monitoring for PF-1000 device

Publicado en línea: 04 Mar 2017
Páginas: 17 - 22

Resumen

Abstract

The power output of plasma experiments and fusion reactors is a crucial parameter. It is determined by neutron yields that are proportional and directly related to the fusion yield. The number of emitted neutrons should be known for safety reasons and for neutron budget management. The PF-1000 is the large plasma facility based on the plasma focus phenomenon. PF-1000 is operating in the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion in Warsaw. Neutron yield changes during subsequent pulses, which is immanent part of this type device and so it must be monitored in terms of neutron emission. The reference diagnostic intended for this purpose is the silver activation counter (SAC) used for many years. Our previous studies demonstrated the applicability of radio-yttrium for neutron yield measurements during the deuterium campaign on the PF-1000 facility. The obtained results were compared with data from silver activation counter and shown linear dependence but with some protuberances in local scale. Correlation between results for both neutron monitors was maintained. But the yttrium monitor registered the fast energy neutron that reached measurement apparatus directly from the plasma pinch. Based on the preliminary experiences, the yttrium monitor was designed to automatically register neutron-induced yttrium activity. The MCNP geometrical model of PF-1000 and yttrium monitor were both used for calculation of the activation coefficient for yttrium. The yttrium monitor has been established as the permanent diagnostic for monitoring fusion reactions in the PF-1000 device.

Palabras clave

  • dense plasma focus
  • PF-1000
  • neutron diagnostic
  • activation technique
Acceso abierto

Thermal-hydraulic analysis of LTS cables for the DEMO TF coil using simplified models

Publicado en línea: 04 Mar 2017
Páginas: 23 - 28

Resumen

Abstract

The conceptual design activities for the DEMOnstration reactor (DEMO) – the prototype fusion power plant – are conducted in Europe by the EUROfusion Consortium. In 2015, three design concepts of the DEMO toroidal field (TF) coil were proposed by Swiss Plasma Center (EPFL-SPC, PSI Villigen), Italian National Agency for New Technologies (ENEA Frascati), and Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission (CEA Cadarache). The proposed conductor designs were subjected to complete mechanical, electromagnetic, and thermal-hydraulic analyses. The present study is focused on the thermal-hydraulic analysis of the candidate conductor designs using simplified models. It includes (a) hydraulic analysis, (b) heat removal analysis, and (c) assessment of the maximum temperature and the maximum pressure in each conductor during quench. The performed analysis, aimed at verification whether the proposed design concepts fulfil the established acceptance criteria, provides the information for further improvements of the coil and conductors design.

Palabras clave

  • DEMO
  • tokamak
  • low superconductors
  • toroidal field coil
  • thermal-hydraulic analysis
Acceso abierto

Measurements of doses from photon beam irradiation and scattered neutrons in an anthropomorphic phantom model of prostate cancer: a comparison between 3DCRT, IMRT and tomotherapy

Publicado en línea: 04 Mar 2017
Páginas: 29 - 35

Resumen

Abstract

Introduction. The rapid development of new radiotherapy technologies, such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or tomotherapy, has resulted in the capacity to deliver a more homogenous dose in the target. However, the higher doses associated with these techniques are a reason for concern because they may increase the dose outside the target. In the present study, we compared 3DCRT, IMRT and tomotherapy to assess the doses to organs at risk (OARs) resulting from photon beam irradiation and scattered neutrons.

Material and methods. The doses to OARs outside the target were measured in an anthropomorphic Alderson phantom using thermoluminescence detectors (TLD 100) 6Li (7.5%) and 7Li (92.5%). The neutron fluence rate [cm−2·s−1] at chosen points inside the phantom was measured with gold foils (0.5 cm diameter, mean surface density of 0.108 g/cm3).

Results. The doses [Gy] delivered to the OARs for 3DCRT, IMRT and tomotherapy respectively, were as follows: thyroid gland (0.62 ± 0.001 vs. 2.88 ± 0.004 vs. 0.58 ± 0.003); lung (0.99 ± 0.003 vs. 4.78 ± 0.006 vs. 0.67 ± 0.003); bladder (80.61 ± 0.054 vs. 53.75 ± 0.070 vs. 34.71 ± 0.059); and testes (4.38 ± 0.017 vs. 6.48 ± 0.013 vs. 4.39 ± 0.020). The neutron dose from 20 MV X-ray beam accounted for 0.5% of the therapeutic dose prescribed in the PTV. The further from the field edge the higher the contribution of this secondary radiation dose (from 8% to ~45%).

Conclusion. For tomotherapy, all OARs outside the therapeutic field are well-spared. In contrast, IMRT achieved better sparing than 3DCRT only in the bladder. The photoneutron dose from the use of high-energy X-ray beam constituted a notable portion (0.5%) of the therapeutic dose prescribed to the PTV.

Palabras clave

  • 3DCRT
  • IMRT
  • low doses
  • neutron doses
  • thermoluminescent detectors (TLD)
  • tomotherapy
Acceso abierto

Investigation of 99Mo potential production via UO2SO4 liquid target irradiation in a 5 MW nuclear research reactor

Publicado en línea: 04 Mar 2017
Páginas: 37 - 45

Resumen

Abstract

The activation method for 99Mo production in comparison to fissionable target irradiation in research reactors is less preferable. Therefore, 99Mo yield using UO2SO4 samples was theoretically investigated. Computational results revealed admirable potential of the liquid samples for 99Mo production. Low-concentrated uranyl sulphate samples could easily be handled by the irradiation box. The sample geometry optimization improves thermal hydraulic conditions and production yield. The optimized geometry including only 0.12 g 235U produced 57Ci99Mo at end-of-irradiation (EOI) with a temperature peak of 72°C during the irradiation.

Palabras clave

  • research reactor
  • Mo production
  • uranyl sulphate
  • liquid target
  • MCNPX code
Acceso abierto

Precise determination of HPGe detector efficiency for gamma spectrometry measurements of environmental samples with variable geometry and density

Publicado en línea: 04 Mar 2017
Páginas: 47 - 59

Resumen

Abstract

A methodology to determine the full energy peak efficiency (FEPE) for precise gamma spectrometry measurements of environmental samples with high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, valid when this efficiency depends on the energy of the radiation E, the height of the cylindrical sample H, and its density ρ, is introduced. The methodology consists of an initial calibration as a function of E and H and the application of a self-attenuation factor, depending on the density of the sample ρ, in order to correct for the different attenuation of the generic sample in relation to the measured standard. The obtained efficiency can be used in the whole range of interest studied, E = 120–2000 keV, H = 1–5 cm, and ρ = 0.8–1.7 g/cm3, being its uncertainty below 5%. The efficiency has been checked by the measurement of standards, resulting in a good agreement between experimental and expected activities. The described methodology can be extended to similar situations when samples show geometric and compaction differences.

Palabras clave

  • efficiency calibration
  • environmental radioactivity
  • gamma spectrometry
  • geometric dependence of the efficiency
  • self-attenuation corrections
Acceso abierto

Degradation and detoxification of 2-chlorophenol aqueous solutions using ionizing gamma radiation

Publicado en línea: 04 Mar 2017
Páginas: 61 - 68

Resumen

Abstract

Chlorophenols are compounds with high toxicity, poor biodegradability, and carcinogenic and recalcitrant properties. This work studies, for the first time, the destruction and detoxification of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) in water using 60Co gamma radiation under different conditions including varied radiation doses, addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and varied pH values. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ion chromatography (IC) confirmed a successful degradation of 2-CP to primarily yield phenol molecules and chloride anions. A radiation dose as low as 25 kGy achieved approximately 90% removal of 50–150 ppm of 2-CP in neutral water. However, the addition of a strong oxidizer such as H2O2 to 2-CP solutions reduced the required dose to achieve 90% removal to at least 1.3-fold. The reduction in radiation doses was also observed in acidic and alkaline media, reducing the required doses of 90% removal to at least 0.4-fold. It was imperative to study the toxicity levels of the oxidation by-products to provide directions for the potential applicability of this technology in water treatment. Toxicology Microtox® bioassay indicated a significant reduction in the toxicity of the degradation by-products and the detoxification was further enhanced by the addition of H2O2 and changing the pH to more acidic or alkaline conditions. These findings will contribute to the knowledge of the removal and detoxification of such challenging environmental contaminant and could be potentially applied to other biologically resistant compounds.

Palabras clave

  • 2-chlorophenol
  • degradation
  • detoxification
  • gamma irradiation
  • aqueous solution
8 Artículos
Acceso abierto

COREDIV modelling of JET ILW discharges with different impurity seeding: nitrogen, neon, argon and krypton

Publicado en línea: 04 Mar 2017
Páginas: 3 - 7

Resumen

Abstract

Numerical simulations with the COREDIV code of JET H-mode discharges with 25 MW of auxiliary heating in the ITER-like wall (ILW) configuration with different impurity seedings – nitrogen (N), neon (Ne), argon (Ar) and krypton (Kr) – are presented. All simulations have been performed with the same transport model and input discharge parameters like auxiliary heating, volume average plasma density, confinement factor. Only the seeded impurity puff rate was changed in the calculations. It appears that for the considered heating power of 25 MW and relatively low volume electron average density <ne> = 6.2 × 1019 m−3, impurity seeding is necessary. It has been found that for every gas at the maximum level of the seeding rate, allowed by the code convergence, the power to the plate is reduced up to 2–4 MW, with electron temperature at the plate of about 2 eV, indicating semi-detached conditions in the divertor region. It should be noted, however, that in cases with low and medium Z impurity (N, Ne and Ar), tungsten radiation is a significant part of radiation losses and stays above 22–32% of the total energy losses, but for high Z impurity (Kr) it is reduced up to 10% of the total losses. The maximum of the Kr radiation is between the pedestal region and separatrix, showing that radiative mantle can be created, which might have a strong influence on the plasma parameters in the pedestal region.

Palabras clave

  • impurity seeding
  • integrated modelling
  • tokamak
Acceso abierto

Thermal stability of the krypton Hall effect thruster

Publicado en línea: 04 Mar 2017
Páginas: 9 - 15

Resumen

Abstract

The Krypton Large IMpulse Thruster (KLIMT) ESA/PECS project, which has been implemented in the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM) and now is approaching its final phase, was aimed at incremental development of a ~500 W class Hall effect thruster (HET). Xenon, predominantly used as a propellant in the state-of-the-art HETs, is extremely expensive. Krypton has been considered as a cheaper alternative since more than fifteen years; however, to the best knowledge of the authors, there has not been a HET model especially designed for this noble gas. To address this issue, KLIMT has been geared towards operation primarily with krypton. During the project, three subsequent prototype versions of the thruster were designed, manufactured and tested, aimed at gradual improvement of each next exemplar. In the current paper, the heat loads in new engine have been discussed. It has been shown that thermal equilibrium of the thruster is gained within the safety limits of the materials used. Extensive testing with both gases was performed to compare KLIMT’s thermal behaviour when supplied with krypton and xenon propellants.

Palabras clave

  • thermal stability
  • electric propulsion
  • Hall thruster
  • xenon and krypton propellants
Acceso abierto

A new concept of fusion neutron monitoring for PF-1000 device

Publicado en línea: 04 Mar 2017
Páginas: 17 - 22

Resumen

Abstract

The power output of plasma experiments and fusion reactors is a crucial parameter. It is determined by neutron yields that are proportional and directly related to the fusion yield. The number of emitted neutrons should be known for safety reasons and for neutron budget management. The PF-1000 is the large plasma facility based on the plasma focus phenomenon. PF-1000 is operating in the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion in Warsaw. Neutron yield changes during subsequent pulses, which is immanent part of this type device and so it must be monitored in terms of neutron emission. The reference diagnostic intended for this purpose is the silver activation counter (SAC) used for many years. Our previous studies demonstrated the applicability of radio-yttrium for neutron yield measurements during the deuterium campaign on the PF-1000 facility. The obtained results were compared with data from silver activation counter and shown linear dependence but with some protuberances in local scale. Correlation between results for both neutron monitors was maintained. But the yttrium monitor registered the fast energy neutron that reached measurement apparatus directly from the plasma pinch. Based on the preliminary experiences, the yttrium monitor was designed to automatically register neutron-induced yttrium activity. The MCNP geometrical model of PF-1000 and yttrium monitor were both used for calculation of the activation coefficient for yttrium. The yttrium monitor has been established as the permanent diagnostic for monitoring fusion reactions in the PF-1000 device.

Palabras clave

  • dense plasma focus
  • PF-1000
  • neutron diagnostic
  • activation technique
Acceso abierto

Thermal-hydraulic analysis of LTS cables for the DEMO TF coil using simplified models

Publicado en línea: 04 Mar 2017
Páginas: 23 - 28

Resumen

Abstract

The conceptual design activities for the DEMOnstration reactor (DEMO) – the prototype fusion power plant – are conducted in Europe by the EUROfusion Consortium. In 2015, three design concepts of the DEMO toroidal field (TF) coil were proposed by Swiss Plasma Center (EPFL-SPC, PSI Villigen), Italian National Agency for New Technologies (ENEA Frascati), and Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission (CEA Cadarache). The proposed conductor designs were subjected to complete mechanical, electromagnetic, and thermal-hydraulic analyses. The present study is focused on the thermal-hydraulic analysis of the candidate conductor designs using simplified models. It includes (a) hydraulic analysis, (b) heat removal analysis, and (c) assessment of the maximum temperature and the maximum pressure in each conductor during quench. The performed analysis, aimed at verification whether the proposed design concepts fulfil the established acceptance criteria, provides the information for further improvements of the coil and conductors design.

Palabras clave

  • DEMO
  • tokamak
  • low superconductors
  • toroidal field coil
  • thermal-hydraulic analysis
Acceso abierto

Measurements of doses from photon beam irradiation and scattered neutrons in an anthropomorphic phantom model of prostate cancer: a comparison between 3DCRT, IMRT and tomotherapy

Publicado en línea: 04 Mar 2017
Páginas: 29 - 35

Resumen

Abstract

Introduction. The rapid development of new radiotherapy technologies, such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or tomotherapy, has resulted in the capacity to deliver a more homogenous dose in the target. However, the higher doses associated with these techniques are a reason for concern because they may increase the dose outside the target. In the present study, we compared 3DCRT, IMRT and tomotherapy to assess the doses to organs at risk (OARs) resulting from photon beam irradiation and scattered neutrons.

Material and methods. The doses to OARs outside the target were measured in an anthropomorphic Alderson phantom using thermoluminescence detectors (TLD 100) 6Li (7.5%) and 7Li (92.5%). The neutron fluence rate [cm−2·s−1] at chosen points inside the phantom was measured with gold foils (0.5 cm diameter, mean surface density of 0.108 g/cm3).

Results. The doses [Gy] delivered to the OARs for 3DCRT, IMRT and tomotherapy respectively, were as follows: thyroid gland (0.62 ± 0.001 vs. 2.88 ± 0.004 vs. 0.58 ± 0.003); lung (0.99 ± 0.003 vs. 4.78 ± 0.006 vs. 0.67 ± 0.003); bladder (80.61 ± 0.054 vs. 53.75 ± 0.070 vs. 34.71 ± 0.059); and testes (4.38 ± 0.017 vs. 6.48 ± 0.013 vs. 4.39 ± 0.020). The neutron dose from 20 MV X-ray beam accounted for 0.5% of the therapeutic dose prescribed in the PTV. The further from the field edge the higher the contribution of this secondary radiation dose (from 8% to ~45%).

Conclusion. For tomotherapy, all OARs outside the therapeutic field are well-spared. In contrast, IMRT achieved better sparing than 3DCRT only in the bladder. The photoneutron dose from the use of high-energy X-ray beam constituted a notable portion (0.5%) of the therapeutic dose prescribed to the PTV.

Palabras clave

  • 3DCRT
  • IMRT
  • low doses
  • neutron doses
  • thermoluminescent detectors (TLD)
  • tomotherapy
Acceso abierto

Investigation of 99Mo potential production via UO2SO4 liquid target irradiation in a 5 MW nuclear research reactor

Publicado en línea: 04 Mar 2017
Páginas: 37 - 45

Resumen

Abstract

The activation method for 99Mo production in comparison to fissionable target irradiation in research reactors is less preferable. Therefore, 99Mo yield using UO2SO4 samples was theoretically investigated. Computational results revealed admirable potential of the liquid samples for 99Mo production. Low-concentrated uranyl sulphate samples could easily be handled by the irradiation box. The sample geometry optimization improves thermal hydraulic conditions and production yield. The optimized geometry including only 0.12 g 235U produced 57Ci99Mo at end-of-irradiation (EOI) with a temperature peak of 72°C during the irradiation.

Palabras clave

  • research reactor
  • Mo production
  • uranyl sulphate
  • liquid target
  • MCNPX code
Acceso abierto

Precise determination of HPGe detector efficiency for gamma spectrometry measurements of environmental samples with variable geometry and density

Publicado en línea: 04 Mar 2017
Páginas: 47 - 59

Resumen

Abstract

A methodology to determine the full energy peak efficiency (FEPE) for precise gamma spectrometry measurements of environmental samples with high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector, valid when this efficiency depends on the energy of the radiation E, the height of the cylindrical sample H, and its density ρ, is introduced. The methodology consists of an initial calibration as a function of E and H and the application of a self-attenuation factor, depending on the density of the sample ρ, in order to correct for the different attenuation of the generic sample in relation to the measured standard. The obtained efficiency can be used in the whole range of interest studied, E = 120–2000 keV, H = 1–5 cm, and ρ = 0.8–1.7 g/cm3, being its uncertainty below 5%. The efficiency has been checked by the measurement of standards, resulting in a good agreement between experimental and expected activities. The described methodology can be extended to similar situations when samples show geometric and compaction differences.

Palabras clave

  • efficiency calibration
  • environmental radioactivity
  • gamma spectrometry
  • geometric dependence of the efficiency
  • self-attenuation corrections
Acceso abierto

Degradation and detoxification of 2-chlorophenol aqueous solutions using ionizing gamma radiation

Publicado en línea: 04 Mar 2017
Páginas: 61 - 68

Resumen

Abstract

Chlorophenols are compounds with high toxicity, poor biodegradability, and carcinogenic and recalcitrant properties. This work studies, for the first time, the destruction and detoxification of 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) in water using 60Co gamma radiation under different conditions including varied radiation doses, addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and varied pH values. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ion chromatography (IC) confirmed a successful degradation of 2-CP to primarily yield phenol molecules and chloride anions. A radiation dose as low as 25 kGy achieved approximately 90% removal of 50–150 ppm of 2-CP in neutral water. However, the addition of a strong oxidizer such as H2O2 to 2-CP solutions reduced the required dose to achieve 90% removal to at least 1.3-fold. The reduction in radiation doses was also observed in acidic and alkaline media, reducing the required doses of 90% removal to at least 0.4-fold. It was imperative to study the toxicity levels of the oxidation by-products to provide directions for the potential applicability of this technology in water treatment. Toxicology Microtox® bioassay indicated a significant reduction in the toxicity of the degradation by-products and the detoxification was further enhanced by the addition of H2O2 and changing the pH to more acidic or alkaline conditions. These findings will contribute to the knowledge of the removal and detoxification of such challenging environmental contaminant and could be potentially applied to other biologically resistant compounds.

Palabras clave

  • 2-chlorophenol
  • degradation
  • detoxification
  • gamma irradiation
  • aqueous solution

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