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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2255-8896
Publicado por primera vez
18 Mar 2008
Periodo de publicación
6 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

Volumen 53 (2016): Edición 1 (February 2016)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2255-8896
Publicado por primera vez
18 Mar 2008
Periodo de publicación
6 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

7 Artículos
Acceso abierto

The Potential of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

Publicado en línea: 17 Mar 2016
Páginas: 3 - 13

Resumen

Abstract

The article discusses some aspects of the use of renewable energy sources in the climatic conditions prevailing in most of the territory of Latvia, with relatively low wind speeds and a small number of sunny days a year. The paper gives a brief description of the measurement equipment and technology to determine the parameters of the outer air; the results of the measurements are also analysed. On the basis of the data obtained during the last two years at the meteorological station at the Botanical Garden of the University of Latvia, the energy potential of solar radiation and wind was estimated. The values of the possible and the actual amount of produced energy were determined.

Palabras clave

  • Betz-Zhukovsky criterion
  • intensity of solar radiation
  • potential
  • renewable energy resources
  • wind speed
Acceso abierto

Development of Power Supply Management Module for Radio Signal Repeaters of Automatic Metering Reading System in Variable Solar Density Conditions

Publicado en línea: 17 Mar 2016
Páginas: 14 - 23

Resumen

Abstract

In recent years, there has been significant research focus that revolves around harvesting and minimising energy consumption by wireless sensor network nodes. When a sensor node is depleted of energy, it becomes unresponsive and disconnected from the network that can significantly influence the performance of the whole network. The purpose of the present research is to create a power supply management module in order to provide stable operating voltage for autonomous operations of radio signal repeaters, sensors or gateways of WSN. The developed management module is composed of a solar panel, lithium battery and power supply management module. The novelty of the research is the management module, which ensures stable and uninterrupted operations of electronic equipment in various power supply modes in different situations, simultaneously ensuring energy protection and sustainability of the module components. The management module is able to provide power supply of 5 V for electronics scheme independently, without power interruption switching between power sources and power flows in different directions.

Palabras clave

  • power supply
  • power supply management
  • smart meters
  • wireless sensor networks
Acceso abierto

Smooth Tracking Trajectory Generation of Large Antenna

Publicado en línea: 17 Mar 2016
Páginas: 24 - 33

Resumen

Abstract

The current paper presents an engineering approach for studies of the control algorithm designed for a mechanically robust large antenna. Feed-forward control methods with the 3rd-order polynomial tracking algorithm are supplemented to the original feed-back PID control system. Dynamical model of the existing servo system of 32m radio telescope has been developed to widen a case analysis of observation sessions and efficiency of the control algorithms due to limited access to an antenna. Algorithms along with the results from the system implemented on a real antenna as well as model results are presented.

Palabras clave

  • dynamical model
  • path planning
  • PID controller
  • tracking algorithm
Acceso abierto

Researching and Designing Photovoltaic Microsystems

Publicado en línea: 17 Mar 2016
Páginas: 34 - 41

Resumen

Abstract

Research on the photovoltaic module efficiency in the south of Poland was conducted in 2009 in Stryszawa and afterwards in 2012 in Zabrze and Stryszawa. The research involved taking measurements of electric energy produced by systems of various power and technical solutions. The efficiency of PV modules was compared to the intensity of solar radiation in the locations under consideration and, thus, the efficiency of converting solar energy into electricity was determined. The research results facilitated designing and mounting of forty PV microsystems in Zabrze in 2014 (power from 2000 Wp to 3000 Wp). To the satisfaction of their users, they operate without failure.

Palabras clave

  • converting solar energy into electricity
  • photovoltaic
  • PV modules and systems
  • solar radiation
Acceso abierto

The Issue of Calculating the Final Temperature of the Products of Rapid Exothermic Chemical Reactions with Significant Energy Release in a Closed Volume

Publicado en línea: 17 Mar 2016
Páginas: 42 - 52

Resumen

Abstract

The theoretical problem solved in this article is the calculation of thermodynamic parameters such as final temperature, distribution of the liquid and dry saturated vapour phases of the substance that are considered to be in thermodynamic equilibrium, and pressure of the system of several reaction products after adding to the system a certain amount of heat or the thermal effect released during rapid exothermic reaction in a closed volume that occurs so fast that it can be considered to be adiabatic, and when the volume of liquid reagents is several orders of magnitude less than the volume of the reactor. The general multi-substance problem is reduced to a theoretical problem for one substance of calculation thermodynamic parameters of system after adding a certain amount of heat that gives theoretically rigorous isochoric calculation. In this article, we substantiate our view that isochoric pass of calculation is more robust compared to seemingly more natural isobaric pass of calculation, if the later involves quite not trivial calculation of the adiabatic compression of a two-phase system (liquid – dry saturated vapour) that can pass itself into another kind of state (liquid – wet saturated vapour), which requires, apparently, more complex descriptions compared with isochoric calculation because the specific heat capacity of wet saturated vapour can be negative.

The solved theoretical problem relates to a practical problem that has been a driver for our research as part of a design of the reactor of the titanium reduction from magnesium and titanium tetrachloride supplied into atmosphere of the reactor at high temperatures when both reagents are in gaseous state. The reaction is known to be exothermic with a high thermal effect, and estimate of the final temperature and pressure of the products of reaction, for instance, designing the reactor allows eliminating the possibility of the reaction products to penetrate backwards into supply tracts of the reagents. Using a rigid theoretical approach and heuristics of thermodynamic parameters of reaction products available in the literature, we have presented a graphical dependence of final temperature, pressure ratio of the liquid and vapour state of titanium after the reaction on the initial temperature of the reactor and magnesium in the range of 1200–1800 °K while titanium tetrachloride is injected into reactor at its critical temperature.

Palabras clave

  • final temperature of the reaction products
  • isochoric calculation
  • rapid exothermic chemical reaction
Acceso abierto

Synthesis of Graphenic Carbon Materials on Nickel Particles with Controlled Quantity of Carbon

Publicado en línea: 17 Mar 2016
Páginas: 53 - 65

Resumen

Abstract

A cheap, comparatively simple and effective method is proposed for the large quantity production of the sheets of graphenic carbon materials (GCM) by annealing the mixture of nickel powder with a suitable carbon amount at the temperatures close to 1000 ºC. The number of graphene layers in the sheets of GCM may be varied by altering the amount of carbon in the mixture and parameters of annealing and drying of the obtained products. Samples of GCM were prepared in the form of heat-dried GCM paper and in the form of graphene sponge with freeze-drying. The appearance of GCM on the surface of Ni particles was identified using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) at a low accelerating voltage of 5 kV. The thickness and properties of the layers were investigated by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The fabrication processes were carried out at the concentrations of added carbon from 0 to 1 at%. The results obtained are fully consistent with the well-known solid phase reactions of carbon dissolution in Ni at 1000 °C and graphene or graphite precipitation on the surface with cooling down to the room temperatures.

Palabras clave

  • graphene structures
  • few layers graphene sheets
  • carbon
Acceso abierto

Tribological Properties of PVD Carbon-Copper Composite Films Reinforced by Titanium

Publicado en línea: 17 Mar 2016
Páginas: 66 - 74

Resumen

Abstract

Carbon-copper composite coatings reinforced with titanium were deposited using high power magnetron sputtering technique. Tribological and metrological tests were performed using Taylor Hobson Talysurf Intra 50 measuring equipment and CSM Instruments ball-on-disk type tribometer. Friction coefficient and wear rate were determined at 2N, 4N, 6N loads. It was revealed that friction coefficient decreased at a higher Ti concentration, which was particularly expressed at bigger applied loads. However, wear volume values tended to increase in the beginning, till Ti concentration reached about 11 %, but then decreased, thus providing better nanocoating wear resistance.

Palabras clave

  • 3D roughness
  • carbon-copper composite
  • magnetron sputtering
  • nanocoatings
  • solid lubricant
  • wear
7 Artículos
Acceso abierto

The Potential of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

Publicado en línea: 17 Mar 2016
Páginas: 3 - 13

Resumen

Abstract

The article discusses some aspects of the use of renewable energy sources in the climatic conditions prevailing in most of the territory of Latvia, with relatively low wind speeds and a small number of sunny days a year. The paper gives a brief description of the measurement equipment and technology to determine the parameters of the outer air; the results of the measurements are also analysed. On the basis of the data obtained during the last two years at the meteorological station at the Botanical Garden of the University of Latvia, the energy potential of solar radiation and wind was estimated. The values of the possible and the actual amount of produced energy were determined.

Palabras clave

  • Betz-Zhukovsky criterion
  • intensity of solar radiation
  • potential
  • renewable energy resources
  • wind speed
Acceso abierto

Development of Power Supply Management Module for Radio Signal Repeaters of Automatic Metering Reading System in Variable Solar Density Conditions

Publicado en línea: 17 Mar 2016
Páginas: 14 - 23

Resumen

Abstract

In recent years, there has been significant research focus that revolves around harvesting and minimising energy consumption by wireless sensor network nodes. When a sensor node is depleted of energy, it becomes unresponsive and disconnected from the network that can significantly influence the performance of the whole network. The purpose of the present research is to create a power supply management module in order to provide stable operating voltage for autonomous operations of radio signal repeaters, sensors or gateways of WSN. The developed management module is composed of a solar panel, lithium battery and power supply management module. The novelty of the research is the management module, which ensures stable and uninterrupted operations of electronic equipment in various power supply modes in different situations, simultaneously ensuring energy protection and sustainability of the module components. The management module is able to provide power supply of 5 V for electronics scheme independently, without power interruption switching between power sources and power flows in different directions.

Palabras clave

  • power supply
  • power supply management
  • smart meters
  • wireless sensor networks
Acceso abierto

Smooth Tracking Trajectory Generation of Large Antenna

Publicado en línea: 17 Mar 2016
Páginas: 24 - 33

Resumen

Abstract

The current paper presents an engineering approach for studies of the control algorithm designed for a mechanically robust large antenna. Feed-forward control methods with the 3rd-order polynomial tracking algorithm are supplemented to the original feed-back PID control system. Dynamical model of the existing servo system of 32m radio telescope has been developed to widen a case analysis of observation sessions and efficiency of the control algorithms due to limited access to an antenna. Algorithms along with the results from the system implemented on a real antenna as well as model results are presented.

Palabras clave

  • dynamical model
  • path planning
  • PID controller
  • tracking algorithm
Acceso abierto

Researching and Designing Photovoltaic Microsystems

Publicado en línea: 17 Mar 2016
Páginas: 34 - 41

Resumen

Abstract

Research on the photovoltaic module efficiency in the south of Poland was conducted in 2009 in Stryszawa and afterwards in 2012 in Zabrze and Stryszawa. The research involved taking measurements of electric energy produced by systems of various power and technical solutions. The efficiency of PV modules was compared to the intensity of solar radiation in the locations under consideration and, thus, the efficiency of converting solar energy into electricity was determined. The research results facilitated designing and mounting of forty PV microsystems in Zabrze in 2014 (power from 2000 Wp to 3000 Wp). To the satisfaction of their users, they operate without failure.

Palabras clave

  • converting solar energy into electricity
  • photovoltaic
  • PV modules and systems
  • solar radiation
Acceso abierto

The Issue of Calculating the Final Temperature of the Products of Rapid Exothermic Chemical Reactions with Significant Energy Release in a Closed Volume

Publicado en línea: 17 Mar 2016
Páginas: 42 - 52

Resumen

Abstract

The theoretical problem solved in this article is the calculation of thermodynamic parameters such as final temperature, distribution of the liquid and dry saturated vapour phases of the substance that are considered to be in thermodynamic equilibrium, and pressure of the system of several reaction products after adding to the system a certain amount of heat or the thermal effect released during rapid exothermic reaction in a closed volume that occurs so fast that it can be considered to be adiabatic, and when the volume of liquid reagents is several orders of magnitude less than the volume of the reactor. The general multi-substance problem is reduced to a theoretical problem for one substance of calculation thermodynamic parameters of system after adding a certain amount of heat that gives theoretically rigorous isochoric calculation. In this article, we substantiate our view that isochoric pass of calculation is more robust compared to seemingly more natural isobaric pass of calculation, if the later involves quite not trivial calculation of the adiabatic compression of a two-phase system (liquid – dry saturated vapour) that can pass itself into another kind of state (liquid – wet saturated vapour), which requires, apparently, more complex descriptions compared with isochoric calculation because the specific heat capacity of wet saturated vapour can be negative.

The solved theoretical problem relates to a practical problem that has been a driver for our research as part of a design of the reactor of the titanium reduction from magnesium and titanium tetrachloride supplied into atmosphere of the reactor at high temperatures when both reagents are in gaseous state. The reaction is known to be exothermic with a high thermal effect, and estimate of the final temperature and pressure of the products of reaction, for instance, designing the reactor allows eliminating the possibility of the reaction products to penetrate backwards into supply tracts of the reagents. Using a rigid theoretical approach and heuristics of thermodynamic parameters of reaction products available in the literature, we have presented a graphical dependence of final temperature, pressure ratio of the liquid and vapour state of titanium after the reaction on the initial temperature of the reactor and magnesium in the range of 1200–1800 °K while titanium tetrachloride is injected into reactor at its critical temperature.

Palabras clave

  • final temperature of the reaction products
  • isochoric calculation
  • rapid exothermic chemical reaction
Acceso abierto

Synthesis of Graphenic Carbon Materials on Nickel Particles with Controlled Quantity of Carbon

Publicado en línea: 17 Mar 2016
Páginas: 53 - 65

Resumen

Abstract

A cheap, comparatively simple and effective method is proposed for the large quantity production of the sheets of graphenic carbon materials (GCM) by annealing the mixture of nickel powder with a suitable carbon amount at the temperatures close to 1000 ºC. The number of graphene layers in the sheets of GCM may be varied by altering the amount of carbon in the mixture and parameters of annealing and drying of the obtained products. Samples of GCM were prepared in the form of heat-dried GCM paper and in the form of graphene sponge with freeze-drying. The appearance of GCM on the surface of Ni particles was identified using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) at a low accelerating voltage of 5 kV. The thickness and properties of the layers were investigated by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The fabrication processes were carried out at the concentrations of added carbon from 0 to 1 at%. The results obtained are fully consistent with the well-known solid phase reactions of carbon dissolution in Ni at 1000 °C and graphene or graphite precipitation on the surface with cooling down to the room temperatures.

Palabras clave

  • graphene structures
  • few layers graphene sheets
  • carbon
Acceso abierto

Tribological Properties of PVD Carbon-Copper Composite Films Reinforced by Titanium

Publicado en línea: 17 Mar 2016
Páginas: 66 - 74

Resumen

Abstract

Carbon-copper composite coatings reinforced with titanium were deposited using high power magnetron sputtering technique. Tribological and metrological tests were performed using Taylor Hobson Talysurf Intra 50 measuring equipment and CSM Instruments ball-on-disk type tribometer. Friction coefficient and wear rate were determined at 2N, 4N, 6N loads. It was revealed that friction coefficient decreased at a higher Ti concentration, which was particularly expressed at bigger applied loads. However, wear volume values tended to increase in the beginning, till Ti concentration reached about 11 %, but then decreased, thus providing better nanocoating wear resistance.

Palabras clave

  • 3D roughness
  • carbon-copper composite
  • magnetron sputtering
  • nanocoatings
  • solid lubricant
  • wear

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