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Volumen 12 (2021): Edición 3 (December 2021)

Volumen 12 (2021): Edición 2 (December 2021)
Supplementary Edición: 27th Hellenic Conference of Clinical Oncology

Volumen 12 (2021): Edición 1 (May 2021)

Volumen 11 (2020): Edición 3 (December 2020)

Volumen 11 (2020): Edición 2 (July 2020)

Volumen 11 (2020): Edición 1 (March 2020)

Volumen 10 (2019): Edición 2 (December 2019)

Volumen 10 (2019): Edición 1 (April 2019)

Volumen 9 (2018): Edición 1 (December 2018)

Volumen 8 (2017): Edición 1 (June 2017)

Volumen 7 (2016): Edición 2 (June 2016)

Volumen 7 (2016): Edición 1 (March 2016)

Volumen 6 (2015): Edición 4 (December 2015)

Volumen 6 (2015): Edición 3 (September 2015)

Volumen 6 (2015): Edición 2 (June 2015)

Volumen 6 (2015): Edición 1 (March 2015)

Volumen 5 (2014): Edición 2 (December 2014)

Volumen 5 (2014): Edición 1 (July 2014)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
1792-362X
Publicado por primera vez
14 Aug 2014
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

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Volumen 12 (2021): Edición 3 (December 2021)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
1792-362X
Publicado por primera vez
14 Aug 2014
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

11 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Epigenetics and cancer – A dependence relationship

Publicado en línea: 23 Oct 2022
Páginas: 1 - 2

Resumen

Acceso abierto

Systemic Treatment of Ewing Sarcoma: Current Options and Future Perspectives

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2022
Páginas: 3 - 27

Resumen

Abstract

Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an uncommon malignant neoplasm, mostly affecting young adults and adolescents. Surgical excision, irradiation, and combinations of multiple chemotherapeutic agents are currently used as a multimodal strategy for the treatment of local and oligometastatic disease. Although ES usually responds to the primary treatment, relapsed and primarily refractory disease remains a difficult therapeutic challenge. The growing understanding of cancer biology and the subsequent development of new therapeutic strategies have been put at the service of research in recurrent and refractory ES, generating a great number of ongoing studies with compounds that could find superior clinical outcomes in the years to come. This review gathers the current available information on the treatment and clinical investigation of ES and aims to be a point of support for future research.

Palabras clave

  • Ewing sarcoma
  • chemotherapy
  • systemic treatment
Acceso abierto

Immunotherapy-Induced Acute Hepatitis in the Elderly: The Case of a Patient with Urothelial Carcinoma and a Review of the Literature

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2022
Páginas: 28 - 33

Resumen

Abstract

Cancer immunotherapy is an emerging beneficial treatment for cancer that acts by activating the immune system to produce antitumour effects. In particular, immune checkpoint therapy has recently provided novel strategies for cancer treatments. Nevertheless, these new therapeutic approaches have introduced immune-related adverse events to clinical practice. In the elderly, checkpoint inhibitors might have limited efficacy because of immunosenescence. Limited literature data demonstrate a higher incidence of irAEs and an earlier discontinuation of immunotherapy in these patients. We report the case of an 89-year-old male patient with metastatic urothelial carcinoma, who presented with Grade 4 immune-related hepatitis after receiving pembrolizumab treatment.

Palabras clave

  • Immunotherapy-related adverse events
  • pembrolizumab
  • immunotherapy-related hepatitis
  • elderly
Acceso abierto

Survival Study in Pediatric Patients with Medulloblastoma in a General Hospital in Tehran, Iran

Publicado en línea: 04 Jul 2022
Páginas: 34 - 39

Resumen

Abstract

Brain tumours are the most common solid tumours that afflict the pediatric population. Me-dulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumour in children, constituting nearly 20% of all pediatric brain tumours. This study is an evaluation of overall survival rate of pediatric MB tumour patients after one year, three years, five years, and ten years according to case studies. From 22 June 2009 to 19 December 2019, a total of 22 patients ranging in age from 1 to 14 years old underwent tumour removal. These patients were followed to determine survival rate. Tumours were classified into three pathological subtypes: The first was classic MB, the second was desmoplastic nodular MB and MB with extensive nodularity, and the third was large cell and anaplastic MB. Patients who were 3 years old or older had a better survival rate than younger patients (log-rank test; p = 0.01). The survival probability in the older children group (55%) was significant compared to the group of younger children (29%). The Kaplan–Meier survival curves of the patients were significantly different. The ten-year survival rates in the average- and high-risk groups were 64.4% and 86.0%, respectively. After a follow-up of 120 months (median range = 60 months), recurrence or progression was observed in 22 patients and 15 patients were still alive. The estimated 10-year overall survival rates for all patients were 49.36 ± 38.33. MB patients’ survival rate was quite good in our hospital. More than half of the patients, most of whom had large cell anaplastic and classic type MB, survived the 10-year follow-up period without any problems.

Palabras clave

  • Medulloblastoma
  • pediatrics
  • survival
  • brain tumours
Acceso abierto

Sialic acids: An Avenue to Target Cancer Progression, Metastasis, and Resistance to Therapy

Publicado en línea: 19 Apr 2022
Páginas: 40 - 48

Resumen

Abstract Background

Sialic acids are alpha-keto acids with nine carbons that are commonly present in the terminal sugars of glycans on glycoproteins and glycolipids on the cell surface. Sialic acids have a role in a variety of physiological and pathological processes by interacting with carbohydrates and proteins, communicating between cells, and acting as cell surface receptors for viruses and bacteria. Several studies have shown the aberrant pattern of sialic acids on cancer cells due to change in their glycosylation status. This pattern may be attributed to various physiological and pathological changes occurring in tumour cells. Hypersialylation in tumours, its involvement in tumour growth, immune evasion and escape from the apoptotic pathway, metastasis formation, and therapeutic resistance have all been fairly well investigated.

Methods

A PubMed search was conducted and published articles in different studies from 2000 to 2020 were included and reviewed. Here, we discuss current outcomes that emphasize the unfavourable effects of hypersialylation on multiple aspects of tumour genesis, immune evasion, metastasis and resistance to therapy.

Conclusion

These recent investigations have found that aberrant sialylation is an essential process for tumour cells to evade immune surveillance and maintain their malignancy. Together, these noteworthy views provide a solid platform for designing and developing therapeutic approaches that target hypersialylation of cancer cells.

Palabras clave

  • chemoresistance
  • immune evasion
  • metastasis
  • sialic acids
  • tumorigenesis
Acceso abierto

Clinicopathological characteristics in women with breast cancer in extreme ages in Greece: A single centre experience

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2022
Páginas: 49 - 55

Resumen

Abstract Introduction

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in Greek women. The highest incidence occurs in patients aged 40–70 years. However, the emergence of the disease in women under 40 and over 80 years old is a significant problem in everyday practice, because of the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for these age groups. The objective of this study is to investigate clinicopathological characteristics of Greek women under 40 and over 80 diagnosed with breast cancer during 2019–2020 in a specialized Breast Cancer Surgical Centre, as well as the pathological characteristics of their disease and the therapeutic measures applied to these women.

Aim of the study

The aim of this study is to compare clinical and pathological characteristics of breast cancer in a group of Greek premenopausal women younger than 40 years of age with a group of elderly women older than 80 years old, who were treated in a surgical breast centre in Greece during the last two years.

Patients and Methods

During the last 2 years, 21 women under 40 and 22 women older than 80 were diagnosed with breast cancer in our Centre.

Results

Invasive ductal adenocarcinoma was the most frequent histological type for both Groups: Most younger women underwent surgery followed by chemotherapy, while the majority of older patients received hormonal therapy after surgery.

Conclusions

There were no statistically significant differences between women under 40 and women over 80 in the study sample regarding their clinicopathological characteristics. However, younger women underwent more therapeutic modalities (i.e.adjuvant treatments in addition to surgery) than older ones.

Palabras clave

  • Breast
  • cancer
  • elderly
  • young women
  • Greek
Acceso abierto

Outcomes of Port A Catheter Implantations in Cancer Patients: Experience in 102 Cases

Publicado en línea: 16 Apr 2022
Páginas: 56 - 60

Resumen

Abstract Aim

This study evaluates cancer patients undergoing port catheter implantation.

Patients and methods

The study was conducted among patients admitted to the cardiovascular department of Düzce State Hospital from June 2018 to July 2020. The inclusion criterion was the implantation of a vascular port for at during 2 years. One hundred and two patients were enrolled in the study. The most common acute outcomes such as pneumothorax, haemothorax, thoracic duct damage and cardiac tamponade and the demographic characteristics of all patients were recorded. Patients were evaluated for the late complications of port catheter, such as thrombosis, infection and kinking, catheter fracture and occlusion.

Results

Complications of port catheter occurred early (≤30 days) and delayed (>30 days) at rates of up to 8% and 15%, respectively. The most common early and late complications were pneumothorax and non-functional port (occlusion, thrombosis, kinking), respectively.

Conclusions

Thrombosis is the most common cause of dysfunction in central port catheters used in the treatment of cancer patients. Routine radiological imaging can help in early detection of catheter-related complications.

Palabras clave

  • Catheter
  • Cancer
  • Vascular Access Devices
  • Thrombosis
Acceso abierto

Cryptosporidium and colorectal cancer: a review of epidemiology and possible association

Publicado en línea: 07 May 2022
Páginas: 61 - 71

Resumen

Abstract

Cryptosporidiosis is an important protozoan disease with serious public health implications. The contribution of Cryptosporidium to colorectal cancer is still vaguely studied, but little evidence from experimental and epidemiological studies has suggested a possible association. This review discusses the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis and colorectal cancer and attempts to unravel the possible link between the two diseases using epidemiological, pathological, molecular, and immunological evidence. The review stressed the need to undertake more studies in this relatively neglected field.

Palabras clave

  • Cryptosporidium spp.
  • colon cancer
  • morbidity
  • association
  • neglected
  • public health
Acceso abierto

Concentration of circulating tumour DNA in patients with metastatic gastric cancer and its prognostic significance

Publicado en línea: 07 May 2022
Páginas: 72 - 76

Resumen

Abstract

Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The amount of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in the blood of patients with gastric cancer was found to be higher than that of healthy controls (69.1 ng/μL vs. 34.8 ng/μL). Patients with cfDNA ≤ 50 ng/μL were found to have an increased overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) than in patients with cfDNA > 50 ng/μL.

Palabras clave

  • cell-free DNA
  • gastric cancer
  • prognosis
Acceso abierto

Oncological outcomes of testicular cancer patients: 10 years of experiences resulting from a single university-based hospital

Publicado en línea: 03 May 2022
Páginas: 77 - 85

Resumen

Abstract Purpose

To explore clinical and pathological characteristics of testicular cancer and also identify factors associated with its oncological outcomes. Testicular cancer has a very good prognosis. Actually, we aim to report on 10 years of experience in the real-world practice of treating testicular cancer in a university-based hospital.

Methods

This is a retrospective cohort study of testicular cancer patients in Songklanagarind hospital; from January 2007 and December 2016, all eligible testicular cancer patients were included. Clinical characteristics (age, physical examination findings, tumour markers, histopathology, clinical stage, and initial treatment) and clinical outcomes were collected. These patients were divided into two groups: seminoma patients (seminomas) and non-seminoma patients (non-seminomas). Clinical characteristics and outcomes of treatment were analysed, and factors associated with oncological outcomes were identified.

Results

In 45 patients, median age 33 years, with diagnosis of testicular cancer, seminomas and non-seminomas were responsible for 23 (52.8%) and 22 (49%) of the cases, respectively. The median time of follow-up was 80.6 months (range: 1.8 to 120 months). The five-year OS was 94.7% and 57.1% in the seminoma and non-seminoma groups, respectively. For non-seminomas, five-year OS were 71.4%, 50%, and 42.9% in stage Ib–IIIa, IIIb, and IIIc, respectively, and for seminoma they were 92.3% and 100% in stage Ib–IIIa and IIIb, respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that non-seminoma, higher staging, and higher IGCCC risk were associated with poorer survival, significantly (p < 0.05).

Conclusions

Seminoma has a good prognosis and survival at all stages, whereas, in the non-seminoma group, higher staging and IGCCC risk were independent factors associated with a poorer prognosis.

Palabras clave

  • germ cell tumour
  • overall survival
  • testicular cancer
  • seminoma
  • non-seminoma germ cell tumour (NSGCT)
  • non-seminoma
Acceso abierto

Development of bioflavonoid containing chemotherapeutic delivery systems for UV-damaged skin and kangri cancer

Publicado en línea: 23 Oct 2022
Páginas: 86 - 98

Resumen

Abstract Background

The lower abdomen and inner thighs are most likely to become affected by kangri cancer because those areas are exposed to continuous exposure to kangri.

Objective

In this article, formulation and characterization of a water-in-oil microemulsion of 5-fluorouracil with rutin (R-5FU) for better skin penetration and inhibition of kangri cancer (skin cancer surfactant) is discussed.

Method

To produce R-5-FU microemulsions, surfactant-cosurfactant was mixed with oil. Distilled water was added dropwise with the help of a burette by gentle stirring at a constant temperature. The surfactant and co-surfactant were mixed into three particular ratios 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1. Further characterizations were performed, such as visual inspection and thermodynamic stability including a stress test and centrifugation. In visual inspection included assessment of the colour, homogeneity, and odour of the formulation of FU microemulsion.

Result

All three microemulsions, labeled RME1, RME2, and RME3, are highly stable. An oval shape of surface morphology of 5-FU was noticed by using a TEM image. The viscosity of RME3 was found to be 17.25±0.22 pa-s. The average globule size was 100–300 nm for all three RME. The results of human cadaver skin permeability are almost of the same pattern, butRME3 indicates the best skin permeability with negligible side effects on the skin.

Conclusion

The quantity of 5-FU released from all formulations at 3-hr ranged from 95.57% to 83.67%. None of the three formulations resulted in skin irritation, with irritancy score of zero (IS=0). Observation revealed no lysis, hemorrhage, or coagulation after application.

Palabras clave

  • 5-fluorouracil
  • HET-CAM assay
  • Kangri cancer
  • microemulsion
  • rutin
  • stability
11 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Epigenetics and cancer – A dependence relationship

Publicado en línea: 23 Oct 2022
Páginas: 1 - 2

Resumen

Acceso abierto

Systemic Treatment of Ewing Sarcoma: Current Options and Future Perspectives

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2022
Páginas: 3 - 27

Resumen

Abstract

Ewing sarcoma (ES) is an uncommon malignant neoplasm, mostly affecting young adults and adolescents. Surgical excision, irradiation, and combinations of multiple chemotherapeutic agents are currently used as a multimodal strategy for the treatment of local and oligometastatic disease. Although ES usually responds to the primary treatment, relapsed and primarily refractory disease remains a difficult therapeutic challenge. The growing understanding of cancer biology and the subsequent development of new therapeutic strategies have been put at the service of research in recurrent and refractory ES, generating a great number of ongoing studies with compounds that could find superior clinical outcomes in the years to come. This review gathers the current available information on the treatment and clinical investigation of ES and aims to be a point of support for future research.

Palabras clave

  • Ewing sarcoma
  • chemotherapy
  • systemic treatment
Acceso abierto

Immunotherapy-Induced Acute Hepatitis in the Elderly: The Case of a Patient with Urothelial Carcinoma and a Review of the Literature

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2022
Páginas: 28 - 33

Resumen

Abstract

Cancer immunotherapy is an emerging beneficial treatment for cancer that acts by activating the immune system to produce antitumour effects. In particular, immune checkpoint therapy has recently provided novel strategies for cancer treatments. Nevertheless, these new therapeutic approaches have introduced immune-related adverse events to clinical practice. In the elderly, checkpoint inhibitors might have limited efficacy because of immunosenescence. Limited literature data demonstrate a higher incidence of irAEs and an earlier discontinuation of immunotherapy in these patients. We report the case of an 89-year-old male patient with metastatic urothelial carcinoma, who presented with Grade 4 immune-related hepatitis after receiving pembrolizumab treatment.

Palabras clave

  • Immunotherapy-related adverse events
  • pembrolizumab
  • immunotherapy-related hepatitis
  • elderly
Acceso abierto

Survival Study in Pediatric Patients with Medulloblastoma in a General Hospital in Tehran, Iran

Publicado en línea: 04 Jul 2022
Páginas: 34 - 39

Resumen

Abstract

Brain tumours are the most common solid tumours that afflict the pediatric population. Me-dulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumour in children, constituting nearly 20% of all pediatric brain tumours. This study is an evaluation of overall survival rate of pediatric MB tumour patients after one year, three years, five years, and ten years according to case studies. From 22 June 2009 to 19 December 2019, a total of 22 patients ranging in age from 1 to 14 years old underwent tumour removal. These patients were followed to determine survival rate. Tumours were classified into three pathological subtypes: The first was classic MB, the second was desmoplastic nodular MB and MB with extensive nodularity, and the third was large cell and anaplastic MB. Patients who were 3 years old or older had a better survival rate than younger patients (log-rank test; p = 0.01). The survival probability in the older children group (55%) was significant compared to the group of younger children (29%). The Kaplan–Meier survival curves of the patients were significantly different. The ten-year survival rates in the average- and high-risk groups were 64.4% and 86.0%, respectively. After a follow-up of 120 months (median range = 60 months), recurrence or progression was observed in 22 patients and 15 patients were still alive. The estimated 10-year overall survival rates for all patients were 49.36 ± 38.33. MB patients’ survival rate was quite good in our hospital. More than half of the patients, most of whom had large cell anaplastic and classic type MB, survived the 10-year follow-up period without any problems.

Palabras clave

  • Medulloblastoma
  • pediatrics
  • survival
  • brain tumours
Acceso abierto

Sialic acids: An Avenue to Target Cancer Progression, Metastasis, and Resistance to Therapy

Publicado en línea: 19 Apr 2022
Páginas: 40 - 48

Resumen

Abstract Background

Sialic acids are alpha-keto acids with nine carbons that are commonly present in the terminal sugars of glycans on glycoproteins and glycolipids on the cell surface. Sialic acids have a role in a variety of physiological and pathological processes by interacting with carbohydrates and proteins, communicating between cells, and acting as cell surface receptors for viruses and bacteria. Several studies have shown the aberrant pattern of sialic acids on cancer cells due to change in their glycosylation status. This pattern may be attributed to various physiological and pathological changes occurring in tumour cells. Hypersialylation in tumours, its involvement in tumour growth, immune evasion and escape from the apoptotic pathway, metastasis formation, and therapeutic resistance have all been fairly well investigated.

Methods

A PubMed search was conducted and published articles in different studies from 2000 to 2020 were included and reviewed. Here, we discuss current outcomes that emphasize the unfavourable effects of hypersialylation on multiple aspects of tumour genesis, immune evasion, metastasis and resistance to therapy.

Conclusion

These recent investigations have found that aberrant sialylation is an essential process for tumour cells to evade immune surveillance and maintain their malignancy. Together, these noteworthy views provide a solid platform for designing and developing therapeutic approaches that target hypersialylation of cancer cells.

Palabras clave

  • chemoresistance
  • immune evasion
  • metastasis
  • sialic acids
  • tumorigenesis
Acceso abierto

Clinicopathological characteristics in women with breast cancer in extreme ages in Greece: A single centre experience

Publicado en línea: 01 Feb 2022
Páginas: 49 - 55

Resumen

Abstract Introduction

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in Greek women. The highest incidence occurs in patients aged 40–70 years. However, the emergence of the disease in women under 40 and over 80 years old is a significant problem in everyday practice, because of the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for these age groups. The objective of this study is to investigate clinicopathological characteristics of Greek women under 40 and over 80 diagnosed with breast cancer during 2019–2020 in a specialized Breast Cancer Surgical Centre, as well as the pathological characteristics of their disease and the therapeutic measures applied to these women.

Aim of the study

The aim of this study is to compare clinical and pathological characteristics of breast cancer in a group of Greek premenopausal women younger than 40 years of age with a group of elderly women older than 80 years old, who were treated in a surgical breast centre in Greece during the last two years.

Patients and Methods

During the last 2 years, 21 women under 40 and 22 women older than 80 were diagnosed with breast cancer in our Centre.

Results

Invasive ductal adenocarcinoma was the most frequent histological type for both Groups: Most younger women underwent surgery followed by chemotherapy, while the majority of older patients received hormonal therapy after surgery.

Conclusions

There were no statistically significant differences between women under 40 and women over 80 in the study sample regarding their clinicopathological characteristics. However, younger women underwent more therapeutic modalities (i.e.adjuvant treatments in addition to surgery) than older ones.

Palabras clave

  • Breast
  • cancer
  • elderly
  • young women
  • Greek
Acceso abierto

Outcomes of Port A Catheter Implantations in Cancer Patients: Experience in 102 Cases

Publicado en línea: 16 Apr 2022
Páginas: 56 - 60

Resumen

Abstract Aim

This study evaluates cancer patients undergoing port catheter implantation.

Patients and methods

The study was conducted among patients admitted to the cardiovascular department of Düzce State Hospital from June 2018 to July 2020. The inclusion criterion was the implantation of a vascular port for at during 2 years. One hundred and two patients were enrolled in the study. The most common acute outcomes such as pneumothorax, haemothorax, thoracic duct damage and cardiac tamponade and the demographic characteristics of all patients were recorded. Patients were evaluated for the late complications of port catheter, such as thrombosis, infection and kinking, catheter fracture and occlusion.

Results

Complications of port catheter occurred early (≤30 days) and delayed (>30 days) at rates of up to 8% and 15%, respectively. The most common early and late complications were pneumothorax and non-functional port (occlusion, thrombosis, kinking), respectively.

Conclusions

Thrombosis is the most common cause of dysfunction in central port catheters used in the treatment of cancer patients. Routine radiological imaging can help in early detection of catheter-related complications.

Palabras clave

  • Catheter
  • Cancer
  • Vascular Access Devices
  • Thrombosis
Acceso abierto

Cryptosporidium and colorectal cancer: a review of epidemiology and possible association

Publicado en línea: 07 May 2022
Páginas: 61 - 71

Resumen

Abstract

Cryptosporidiosis is an important protozoan disease with serious public health implications. The contribution of Cryptosporidium to colorectal cancer is still vaguely studied, but little evidence from experimental and epidemiological studies has suggested a possible association. This review discusses the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis and colorectal cancer and attempts to unravel the possible link between the two diseases using epidemiological, pathological, molecular, and immunological evidence. The review stressed the need to undertake more studies in this relatively neglected field.

Palabras clave

  • Cryptosporidium spp.
  • colon cancer
  • morbidity
  • association
  • neglected
  • public health
Acceso abierto

Concentration of circulating tumour DNA in patients with metastatic gastric cancer and its prognostic significance

Publicado en línea: 07 May 2022
Páginas: 72 - 76

Resumen

Abstract

Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The amount of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in the blood of patients with gastric cancer was found to be higher than that of healthy controls (69.1 ng/μL vs. 34.8 ng/μL). Patients with cfDNA ≤ 50 ng/μL were found to have an increased overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) than in patients with cfDNA > 50 ng/μL.

Palabras clave

  • cell-free DNA
  • gastric cancer
  • prognosis
Acceso abierto

Oncological outcomes of testicular cancer patients: 10 years of experiences resulting from a single university-based hospital

Publicado en línea: 03 May 2022
Páginas: 77 - 85

Resumen

Abstract Purpose

To explore clinical and pathological characteristics of testicular cancer and also identify factors associated with its oncological outcomes. Testicular cancer has a very good prognosis. Actually, we aim to report on 10 years of experience in the real-world practice of treating testicular cancer in a university-based hospital.

Methods

This is a retrospective cohort study of testicular cancer patients in Songklanagarind hospital; from January 2007 and December 2016, all eligible testicular cancer patients were included. Clinical characteristics (age, physical examination findings, tumour markers, histopathology, clinical stage, and initial treatment) and clinical outcomes were collected. These patients were divided into two groups: seminoma patients (seminomas) and non-seminoma patients (non-seminomas). Clinical characteristics and outcomes of treatment were analysed, and factors associated with oncological outcomes were identified.

Results

In 45 patients, median age 33 years, with diagnosis of testicular cancer, seminomas and non-seminomas were responsible for 23 (52.8%) and 22 (49%) of the cases, respectively. The median time of follow-up was 80.6 months (range: 1.8 to 120 months). The five-year OS was 94.7% and 57.1% in the seminoma and non-seminoma groups, respectively. For non-seminomas, five-year OS were 71.4%, 50%, and 42.9% in stage Ib–IIIa, IIIb, and IIIc, respectively, and for seminoma they were 92.3% and 100% in stage Ib–IIIa and IIIb, respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that non-seminoma, higher staging, and higher IGCCC risk were associated with poorer survival, significantly (p < 0.05).

Conclusions

Seminoma has a good prognosis and survival at all stages, whereas, in the non-seminoma group, higher staging and IGCCC risk were independent factors associated with a poorer prognosis.

Palabras clave

  • germ cell tumour
  • overall survival
  • testicular cancer
  • seminoma
  • non-seminoma germ cell tumour (NSGCT)
  • non-seminoma
Acceso abierto

Development of bioflavonoid containing chemotherapeutic delivery systems for UV-damaged skin and kangri cancer

Publicado en línea: 23 Oct 2022
Páginas: 86 - 98

Resumen

Abstract Background

The lower abdomen and inner thighs are most likely to become affected by kangri cancer because those areas are exposed to continuous exposure to kangri.

Objective

In this article, formulation and characterization of a water-in-oil microemulsion of 5-fluorouracil with rutin (R-5FU) for better skin penetration and inhibition of kangri cancer (skin cancer surfactant) is discussed.

Method

To produce R-5-FU microemulsions, surfactant-cosurfactant was mixed with oil. Distilled water was added dropwise with the help of a burette by gentle stirring at a constant temperature. The surfactant and co-surfactant were mixed into three particular ratios 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1. Further characterizations were performed, such as visual inspection and thermodynamic stability including a stress test and centrifugation. In visual inspection included assessment of the colour, homogeneity, and odour of the formulation of FU microemulsion.

Result

All three microemulsions, labeled RME1, RME2, and RME3, are highly stable. An oval shape of surface morphology of 5-FU was noticed by using a TEM image. The viscosity of RME3 was found to be 17.25±0.22 pa-s. The average globule size was 100–300 nm for all three RME. The results of human cadaver skin permeability are almost of the same pattern, butRME3 indicates the best skin permeability with negligible side effects on the skin.

Conclusion

The quantity of 5-FU released from all formulations at 3-hr ranged from 95.57% to 83.67%. None of the three formulations resulted in skin irritation, with irritancy score of zero (IS=0). Observation revealed no lysis, hemorrhage, or coagulation after application.

Palabras clave

  • 5-fluorouracil
  • HET-CAM assay
  • Kangri cancer
  • microemulsion
  • rutin
  • stability

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