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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2354-0079
Publicado por primera vez
15 Apr 2013
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

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Volumen 9 (2021): Edición 2 (June 2021)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2354-0079
Publicado por primera vez
15 Apr 2013
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

7 Artículos
access type Acceso abierto

An assessment of the aviation industry’s impact on air pollution from its emissions: worldwide and the Ukraine

Publicado en línea: 30 Jun 2021
Páginas: 1 - 10

Resumen

Abstract

CO2 emissions are one of the main causes of the global problem of climate change, the solution to which requires the efforts of every country. One of the main polluters is the energy sector, which includes transport. Despite the seemingly small share of aviation in emissions, its role as a polluter and CO2 emitter cannot be underestimated due to calculated specific rate and a number of factors that were researched. The purpose of this study was to analyze the aviation share in the polluters’ structure and to study if Covid-19 restrictions influence on it, to investigate the share of CO2 emissions from air transport in Ukraine and to assess its impact, to forecast CO2 emissions in Ukraine by 2030 and to build scenarios of possible changes in the direction of decarbonization in the aviation industry. Analysis and synthesis, comparison, methods of pairwise regression and modelling scenarios were used for solving these tasks. The results show that the aviation industry could achieve the carbon reduction targets only by applying different types of carbon pricing with conducting the research and development in the sphere. The last significant improvement in aircraft design technologies and flight operations was achieved almost 60 years ago. Economic incentives at the international and local scales should be used to stimulate aviation manufacturers to invest significant money on R&D to find stable solutions to achieve decarbonization. Development of Ukrainian aviation industry should not stand aside from global trends and must meet modern challenges, including environmental issues. The created scenarios show solutions to achieve decarbonization goals that align with EU best practices.

Palabras clave

  • aviation industry
  • transport
  • decarbonization
  • CO emissions
  • air pollution
access type Acceso abierto

Monitoring the extent and impacts of watershed urban development in the Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya, using a combination of population dynamics, remote sensing and GIS techniques

Publicado en línea: 30 Jun 2021
Páginas: 11 - 25

Resumen

Abstract

Several urban centres of different sizes have developed over time, and continue to grow, within the basin of Lake Victoria. Uncontrolled urban development, especially along the lake shore, puts environmental pressure on Lake Victoria and its local ecosystem. This study sought to monitor the extent and impacts of urban development (as measured by population growth and built-up land use/land cover) in the Lake Victoria basin, Kenya, between 1978 and 2018. Remote sensing and GIS-based land use/land cover classification was conducted to extract change in built-up areas from Landsat 3, 4, 5 and 8 satellite imagery obtained for the month of January at intervals of ten years. Change in population distribution and density was analysed based on decadal census data from the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics between 1979 and 2019. A statistical regression model was then estimated to relate population growth to built-up area expansion. Results indicate that the basin’s built-up area has expanded by 97% between 1978 and 2018 while the population increased by 140% between 1979 and 2019. Urban development was attributed to the rapidly increasing population in the area as seen in a positive statistical correlation (R2=0.5744) between increase in built-up area and population growth. The resulting environmental pressure on the local ecosystem has been documented mainly in terms of degradation of lake water quality, eutrophication and aquatic biodiversity loss. The study recommends the enactment and implementation of appropriate eco-sensitive local legislation and policies for sustainable urban and rural land use planning in the area. This should aim to control and regulate urban expansion especially in the immediate shoreline areas of the lake and associated riparian zones.

Palabras clave

  • Lake Victoria
  • watershed urbanization
  • population growth
  • built-up area
  • remote sensing and GIS
access type Acceso abierto

The consequences of expropriation of agricultural land and loss of livelihoods on those households who lost land in Da Nang, Vietnam

Publicado en línea: 30 Jun 2021
Páginas: 26 - 38

Resumen

Abstract

Acquisition of large-scale agricultural land for urbanization and industrialization is a widespread phenomenon in Vietnam. This acquisition has impacted those households whose land was expropriated in many ways, such as economic, cultural, and social aspects. In this research, the author surveyed 100 households who lost their land for Da Nang Hi-Tech Park project to collect data about the change in their livelihoods and the satisfaction level with their quality of life. This study aimed to answer three questions relating to employment, compensation expenses, and life. The results show that these householders still have many difficulties adapting to a new life after nearly ten years. The unemployment rate increases, but it depends on the gender and age of the worker. Compared with the five years ago, the households’ incomes also decreased by 190 USD/household. The misuse of compensation money paid for their has also had negative impacts on their livelihoods. Some other problems such as environmental pollution and social evils have put pressure on households who lost their land. Hence, most of these households want to return to their previous agricultural life.

Palabras clave

  • land expropriation
  • ex-agricultural households
  • peri-urban households
  • quality of life
  • Vietnam
access type Acceso abierto

The current landscape fire management in Ukraine and strategy for its improvement

Publicado en línea: 30 Jun 2021
Páginas: 39 - 51

Resumen

Abstract

Recurrent wildfires in Ukraine exert severe impacts on the environment, human health and security as well as damage to private and public assets. From 2007 to 2020, the frequency of large wildfires has increased and reached a level that has not occurred previously. The period during April-October 2020 was the worst in modern Ukrainian history for the occurrence of catastrophic fires, e.g. in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (67 000 ha), Zhytomyr oblast (43 000 ha), Lugansk oblast (35 000 ha) and Kharkiv oblast (8 000 ha). In Ukraine there is the additional problem of open burning, mainly burning agriculture residues, which covers two million hectares (ha) annually. State forestry enterprises who are responsible for the management of 71% of the Ukrainian forests (7.6 million ha)and agricultural holdings are also responsible for the management of 41.3 million ha of croplands. The remaining forest users manage forest areas of 3.1 million ha within reserves and national nature parks. This article presents a brief overview of the problem of forest fires as well as of fires in other landscapes in Ukraine, and includes a critical reviews of the current wildfire management system and a description of the main features of the national wildfire management strategy. It also highlights the results of a survey of numerous stakeholders conducted on landscape fires in Ukraine. Based on the review of global and regional experiences, as well as existing fire risks in Ukraine, recommendations were developed for implementing an integrated landscape level national fire management approach.

Palabras clave

  • wildfires
  • national wildfire statistics
  • fire management organization
  • National Fire Management Policy
  • Ukraine
access type Acceso abierto

Estimating the recreational value for the sustainability of Hingol National Park in Pakistan

Publicado en línea: 30 Jun 2021
Páginas: 52 - 62

Resumen

Abstract

Hingol National Park (HNP), in Baluchistan, Pakistan, is rich in biodiversity and has a variety of eco-services and marine eco-services. It has dune and mountain habitats that provide a significant environment for wildlife, including amphibians, dolphins, green marine turtles, and migratory birds, but the number of species is declining. HNP faces many problems such as unregulated tourism and lack of a budget to protect and conserve precious wildlife. The study used a negative binomial regression model and a zero-truncated regression model to estimate the visitors’ travel demand and recreational value of the National Park by collecting a sample of 210 respondents.. The study estimated a consumer surplus of USD 270 per person per visit and thus a total annual recreational value of the park at USD 35.11 million. Since the elasticity of demand is low, the study suggests the imposition of an entrance fee of USD 0.86 (PKR 100) that would generate an annual revenue of USD 113,000. It is recommended that both provisional and federal governments should take the necessary steps to maintain and promote heritage tourism in the region by reshaping the national parks for the protection of scarce natural resources and the protection of biodiversity.

Palabras clave

  • recreational value
  • Travel Cost Method
  • negative binomial regression
  • consumer surplus, sustainability
access type Acceso abierto

Ageing in European post-communist countries – is it a threat to the welfare system?

Publicado en línea: 30 Jun 2021
Páginas: 63 - 71

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of the study was to diagnose the current and projected pace of ageing in the societies of European post-communist countries from the point of view of its being an increasing economic burden on the economically active population. The analysis covered the years 1990–2050. Ageing is already visible and, according to the forecast, the process will accelerate even more. The old-age dependency ratio (OADR) is expected to exceed 50 in half of the countries in the study by 2050. This will result in major threats to the further development of these countries and will lead to poverty and social exclusion of the elderly. In order to slow down the ageing process, the authorities of these countries should take a number of actions, the most important of which are the implementation of an effective and efficient pro-natal policy (so that the total fertility rate would increase above 2.1), and a well-thought-out migration policy.

Palabras clave

  • ageing
  • old-age dependency ratio
  • second demographic transition
  • European post-communist countries
access type Acceso abierto

The disappearance of inland dunes landscape – a case study from southern Poland

Publicado en línea: 30 Jun 2021
Páginas: 72 - 79

Resumen

Abstract

The paper presents changes in the landscape of inland dunes in one of the basins in the eastern part of Silesian Upland. Based on the analysis of archival maps and historical sources, the former dune landscape of Dąbrowa Basin was reconstructed. The current state of its preservation was determined based on contemporary cartographic materials and field research. It was established that the dunes occur on the floodplain, under-slope flattening, and cuesta escarpment (Ząbkowice Hummock)). The source of aeolian sands was fluvioglacial and alluvial deposits, which, as a result of aeolian transport, were moved to higher and higher morphological levels and stabilized on a substrate of different lithology and age. The impermeability of the bedrock – tills, clays, mudstones, siltstones had a significant influence on the dune landscape. It resulted in the presence of wetlands and peat bogs in the vicinity of most dunes. Consequently, the landscape of the valley was distinguished by a lot of contrast in terms of vegetation - dry pine forests or grassy areas on the dunes and moisture-loving vegetation in their surroundings. However, this landscape was under strong human pressure. Most of the dunes (3/4) have been destroyed in the last hundred years due to sand mining and industrial and residential construction. One of the largest dune fields in the Przemsza River basin and most floodplain and under-slope flattening dunes were utterly destroyed. In addition, an interesting dune at Triassic clays was almost fully exploited, and a rare case on the Silesian Upland where a dune entered the Triassic limestones was partially covered with concrete. There are only 25 dunes in the study area - they deserve protection both as the last fragments of the inland dunes landscape in this part of the Silesian Upland and for historical and natural reasons.

Palabras clave

  • inland dunes
  • drift sands
  • landscape
  • human impact
  • Silesian Upland
7 Artículos
access type Acceso abierto

An assessment of the aviation industry’s impact on air pollution from its emissions: worldwide and the Ukraine

Publicado en línea: 30 Jun 2021
Páginas: 1 - 10

Resumen

Abstract

CO2 emissions are one of the main causes of the global problem of climate change, the solution to which requires the efforts of every country. One of the main polluters is the energy sector, which includes transport. Despite the seemingly small share of aviation in emissions, its role as a polluter and CO2 emitter cannot be underestimated due to calculated specific rate and a number of factors that were researched. The purpose of this study was to analyze the aviation share in the polluters’ structure and to study if Covid-19 restrictions influence on it, to investigate the share of CO2 emissions from air transport in Ukraine and to assess its impact, to forecast CO2 emissions in Ukraine by 2030 and to build scenarios of possible changes in the direction of decarbonization in the aviation industry. Analysis and synthesis, comparison, methods of pairwise regression and modelling scenarios were used for solving these tasks. The results show that the aviation industry could achieve the carbon reduction targets only by applying different types of carbon pricing with conducting the research and development in the sphere. The last significant improvement in aircraft design technologies and flight operations was achieved almost 60 years ago. Economic incentives at the international and local scales should be used to stimulate aviation manufacturers to invest significant money on R&D to find stable solutions to achieve decarbonization. Development of Ukrainian aviation industry should not stand aside from global trends and must meet modern challenges, including environmental issues. The created scenarios show solutions to achieve decarbonization goals that align with EU best practices.

Palabras clave

  • aviation industry
  • transport
  • decarbonization
  • CO emissions
  • air pollution
access type Acceso abierto

Monitoring the extent and impacts of watershed urban development in the Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya, using a combination of population dynamics, remote sensing and GIS techniques

Publicado en línea: 30 Jun 2021
Páginas: 11 - 25

Resumen

Abstract

Several urban centres of different sizes have developed over time, and continue to grow, within the basin of Lake Victoria. Uncontrolled urban development, especially along the lake shore, puts environmental pressure on Lake Victoria and its local ecosystem. This study sought to monitor the extent and impacts of urban development (as measured by population growth and built-up land use/land cover) in the Lake Victoria basin, Kenya, between 1978 and 2018. Remote sensing and GIS-based land use/land cover classification was conducted to extract change in built-up areas from Landsat 3, 4, 5 and 8 satellite imagery obtained for the month of January at intervals of ten years. Change in population distribution and density was analysed based on decadal census data from the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics between 1979 and 2019. A statistical regression model was then estimated to relate population growth to built-up area expansion. Results indicate that the basin’s built-up area has expanded by 97% between 1978 and 2018 while the population increased by 140% between 1979 and 2019. Urban development was attributed to the rapidly increasing population in the area as seen in a positive statistical correlation (R2=0.5744) between increase in built-up area and population growth. The resulting environmental pressure on the local ecosystem has been documented mainly in terms of degradation of lake water quality, eutrophication and aquatic biodiversity loss. The study recommends the enactment and implementation of appropriate eco-sensitive local legislation and policies for sustainable urban and rural land use planning in the area. This should aim to control and regulate urban expansion especially in the immediate shoreline areas of the lake and associated riparian zones.

Palabras clave

  • Lake Victoria
  • watershed urbanization
  • population growth
  • built-up area
  • remote sensing and GIS
access type Acceso abierto

The consequences of expropriation of agricultural land and loss of livelihoods on those households who lost land in Da Nang, Vietnam

Publicado en línea: 30 Jun 2021
Páginas: 26 - 38

Resumen

Abstract

Acquisition of large-scale agricultural land for urbanization and industrialization is a widespread phenomenon in Vietnam. This acquisition has impacted those households whose land was expropriated in many ways, such as economic, cultural, and social aspects. In this research, the author surveyed 100 households who lost their land for Da Nang Hi-Tech Park project to collect data about the change in their livelihoods and the satisfaction level with their quality of life. This study aimed to answer three questions relating to employment, compensation expenses, and life. The results show that these householders still have many difficulties adapting to a new life after nearly ten years. The unemployment rate increases, but it depends on the gender and age of the worker. Compared with the five years ago, the households’ incomes also decreased by 190 USD/household. The misuse of compensation money paid for their has also had negative impacts on their livelihoods. Some other problems such as environmental pollution and social evils have put pressure on households who lost their land. Hence, most of these households want to return to their previous agricultural life.

Palabras clave

  • land expropriation
  • ex-agricultural households
  • peri-urban households
  • quality of life
  • Vietnam
access type Acceso abierto

The current landscape fire management in Ukraine and strategy for its improvement

Publicado en línea: 30 Jun 2021
Páginas: 39 - 51

Resumen

Abstract

Recurrent wildfires in Ukraine exert severe impacts on the environment, human health and security as well as damage to private and public assets. From 2007 to 2020, the frequency of large wildfires has increased and reached a level that has not occurred previously. The period during April-October 2020 was the worst in modern Ukrainian history for the occurrence of catastrophic fires, e.g. in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (67 000 ha), Zhytomyr oblast (43 000 ha), Lugansk oblast (35 000 ha) and Kharkiv oblast (8 000 ha). In Ukraine there is the additional problem of open burning, mainly burning agriculture residues, which covers two million hectares (ha) annually. State forestry enterprises who are responsible for the management of 71% of the Ukrainian forests (7.6 million ha)and agricultural holdings are also responsible for the management of 41.3 million ha of croplands. The remaining forest users manage forest areas of 3.1 million ha within reserves and national nature parks. This article presents a brief overview of the problem of forest fires as well as of fires in other landscapes in Ukraine, and includes a critical reviews of the current wildfire management system and a description of the main features of the national wildfire management strategy. It also highlights the results of a survey of numerous stakeholders conducted on landscape fires in Ukraine. Based on the review of global and regional experiences, as well as existing fire risks in Ukraine, recommendations were developed for implementing an integrated landscape level national fire management approach.

Palabras clave

  • wildfires
  • national wildfire statistics
  • fire management organization
  • National Fire Management Policy
  • Ukraine
access type Acceso abierto

Estimating the recreational value for the sustainability of Hingol National Park in Pakistan

Publicado en línea: 30 Jun 2021
Páginas: 52 - 62

Resumen

Abstract

Hingol National Park (HNP), in Baluchistan, Pakistan, is rich in biodiversity and has a variety of eco-services and marine eco-services. It has dune and mountain habitats that provide a significant environment for wildlife, including amphibians, dolphins, green marine turtles, and migratory birds, but the number of species is declining. HNP faces many problems such as unregulated tourism and lack of a budget to protect and conserve precious wildlife. The study used a negative binomial regression model and a zero-truncated regression model to estimate the visitors’ travel demand and recreational value of the National Park by collecting a sample of 210 respondents.. The study estimated a consumer surplus of USD 270 per person per visit and thus a total annual recreational value of the park at USD 35.11 million. Since the elasticity of demand is low, the study suggests the imposition of an entrance fee of USD 0.86 (PKR 100) that would generate an annual revenue of USD 113,000. It is recommended that both provisional and federal governments should take the necessary steps to maintain and promote heritage tourism in the region by reshaping the national parks for the protection of scarce natural resources and the protection of biodiversity.

Palabras clave

  • recreational value
  • Travel Cost Method
  • negative binomial regression
  • consumer surplus, sustainability
access type Acceso abierto

Ageing in European post-communist countries – is it a threat to the welfare system?

Publicado en línea: 30 Jun 2021
Páginas: 63 - 71

Resumen

Abstract

The aim of the study was to diagnose the current and projected pace of ageing in the societies of European post-communist countries from the point of view of its being an increasing economic burden on the economically active population. The analysis covered the years 1990–2050. Ageing is already visible and, according to the forecast, the process will accelerate even more. The old-age dependency ratio (OADR) is expected to exceed 50 in half of the countries in the study by 2050. This will result in major threats to the further development of these countries and will lead to poverty and social exclusion of the elderly. In order to slow down the ageing process, the authorities of these countries should take a number of actions, the most important of which are the implementation of an effective and efficient pro-natal policy (so that the total fertility rate would increase above 2.1), and a well-thought-out migration policy.

Palabras clave

  • ageing
  • old-age dependency ratio
  • second demographic transition
  • European post-communist countries
access type Acceso abierto

The disappearance of inland dunes landscape – a case study from southern Poland

Publicado en línea: 30 Jun 2021
Páginas: 72 - 79

Resumen

Abstract

The paper presents changes in the landscape of inland dunes in one of the basins in the eastern part of Silesian Upland. Based on the analysis of archival maps and historical sources, the former dune landscape of Dąbrowa Basin was reconstructed. The current state of its preservation was determined based on contemporary cartographic materials and field research. It was established that the dunes occur on the floodplain, under-slope flattening, and cuesta escarpment (Ząbkowice Hummock)). The source of aeolian sands was fluvioglacial and alluvial deposits, which, as a result of aeolian transport, were moved to higher and higher morphological levels and stabilized on a substrate of different lithology and age. The impermeability of the bedrock – tills, clays, mudstones, siltstones had a significant influence on the dune landscape. It resulted in the presence of wetlands and peat bogs in the vicinity of most dunes. Consequently, the landscape of the valley was distinguished by a lot of contrast in terms of vegetation - dry pine forests or grassy areas on the dunes and moisture-loving vegetation in their surroundings. However, this landscape was under strong human pressure. Most of the dunes (3/4) have been destroyed in the last hundred years due to sand mining and industrial and residential construction. One of the largest dune fields in the Przemsza River basin and most floodplain and under-slope flattening dunes were utterly destroyed. In addition, an interesting dune at Triassic clays was almost fully exploited, and a rare case on the Silesian Upland where a dune entered the Triassic limestones was partially covered with concrete. There are only 25 dunes in the study area - they deserve protection both as the last fragments of the inland dunes landscape in this part of the Silesian Upland and for historical and natural reasons.

Palabras clave

  • inland dunes
  • drift sands
  • landscape
  • human impact
  • Silesian Upland

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