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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
1336-0329
Publicado por primera vez
30 Mar 2016
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

Volumen 51 (2017): Edición 3 (July 2017)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
1336-0329
Publicado por primera vez
30 Mar 2016
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

6 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) may be superior to C-reactive protein (CRP) for predicting the occurrence of differentiated thyroid cancer

Publicado en línea: 30 Aug 2017
Páginas: 131 - 136

Resumen

Abstract

Objectives. NLR (neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio) and PLR (platelet-lymphocyte ratio) are prognostic markers of differentiated thyroid cancers. In our study, we evaluated NLR, PLR and C-reactive protein (CRP) for predicting the occurence of differentiated thyroid cancer. This is the first study that compares NLR and PLR to C-reactive protein indifferantiated thyroid cancer not only papillary cancer but also folliculer cancer.

Methods. This study includes 51 papillary carcinoma, 42 papillary microcarcinoma and 31 folliculer carcinoma patients attending to our outpatient Endocrinology Clinic at Erzurum Region Training and Research Hospital between 2009 and 2014. The control group include 50 age, sex and body mass index matched healty subjects. Blood counts and CRP were measured at the day before surgery. Thyroglobulin was measured after 6 months of operation.

Results. There were positive correlations between tumor diameter, age, white blood cell (WBC) and thyroglobulin levels. There were also positive correlation between NLR, PLR and CRP levels.

Conclusion. In our study, we found out that higher NLR and PLR was associated with higher levels of thyroglobulin which indicates worse survival. CRP levels were also associated with poorer tumor profile but the determining rate was lower according to ROC analysis

Palabras clave

  • neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio
  • platelet-lymphocyte ratio
  • C-reactive protein
  • differentiated thyroid cancer
Acceso abierto

TLR4 polymorphisms seem not to be associated with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes but predispose to diabetic retinopathy; TLR4 polymorphisms in glucose continuum

Publicado en línea: 30 Aug 2017
Páginas: 137 - 144

Resumen

Abstract

Objectives. Compared to type 1 diabetes, the role of the immune and autoimmune pathogenetic mechanisms is much less studied in the type 2 diabetes. Toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4) have a leading role in inflammation, insulin resistance, and vascular damage. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the polymorphisms in TLR4 gene and different stages in the glucose continuum from prediabetes to the type 2 diabetes and chronic microvascular complications.

Materials and Methods. The study included 113 patients with the type 2 diabetes, 29 participants with prediabetes, and 28 controls. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for genotyping Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphism, followed by restriction analysis.

Results. The difference in the genotype frequency for both polymorphisms in patients with the type 2 diabetes or prediabetes compared to that in controls was not significant. Patients with heterozygous genotype of Asp299Gly polymorphism had a higher prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (42.9%) than participants with homozygous genotype (9.0%) (OR [95%CI]=7.61 [1.41–41.08]; p=0.018). No association was established for diabetic polyneuropathy and nephropathy. Prevalence of chronic diabetes complications was not related to Thr399Ile polymorphism.

Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms seem not to be associated with the type 2 diabetes and prediabetes but Asp299Gly may contribute to diabetic retinopathy predisposition.

Palabras clave

  • type 2 diabetes
  • prediabetes
  • diabetic complications
  • toll-like receptor 4
  • single nucleotide polymorphism
  • innate immune response
Acceso abierto

Can regular moderate exercise lead to changes in miRNA-146a and its adapter proteins in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats?

Publicado en línea: 30 Aug 2017
Páginas: 145 - 152

Resumen

Abstract

Objective. The aim of this study was to assess whether microRNA-146a and its adapter proteins TNF receptor associated factor6 (TRAF6) and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 (IRAK1) may be changed in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, following regular moderate exercise.

Methods. Forty adult male Wistar rats were allocated randomly into four groups (n=10), including sedentary control (SC), sedentary diabetic (SD), healthy sixty-day exercise (H60E), and diabetic sixty-day exercise (D60E) groups. Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin. After 48 h, blood glucose levels >250 mg/dl was included to diabetic rats. After 2 days of diabetes induction, the exercise protocol began. Animals were exposed to 5 days of consecutive treadmill exercise for 60 min/day with the 22 m/min speed for 60 days. The kidneys of the rats were removed and microRNA was extracted from them using the miRCURYTM RNA isolation kit.

Results. In diabetic rats, statistical analysis revealed a significant decrease in miR-146a expression, non-significant decrease in IRAK1 mRNA expression, and non-significant increase in TRAF6 and NF-kB mRNA expression compared to the SC group. Exercise led to a non-significant increase in the expression of miR-146a and NF-kB mRNA in the kidneys of the diabetic group as compared to the SD group, significant increase in TRAF6 and IRAK1 mRNA expression compared to the H60E group, and significant increase in TRAF6 mRNA expression compared to the SD group.

Conclusion. The present data indicate that exercise might be able to help in the prevention in the diabetic nephropathy development.

Palabras clave

  • diabetes
  • exercise
  • kidney
  • miRNA-146a
Acceso abierto

Using plasma exchange to successfully manage thyrotoxicosis in a patient with possible antithyroid drug-related thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

Publicado en línea: 30 Aug 2017
Páginas: 153 - 156

Resumen

Abstract

Objective. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare disease characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenic purpura, neurologic abnormalities, fever, and renal insufficiency. The association or co-existence of thyrotoxicosis or antithyroid drugs with TTP has not been previously reported.

Subject and Results. Herein, we present a 54-year-old female patient newly diagnosed with toxic multinodular goiter accompanying with TTP, possibly triggered by either thyrotoxicosis or antithyroid drugs.

Conclusions. The present report is the first in the literature to demonstrate the co-existence of these two diseases and the use of plasma exchange as a modality to treat both conditions.

Palabras clave

  • toxic multinodular goiter
  • methimazole
  • thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
  • thyrotoxicosis
  • plasma exchange
Acceso abierto

Bidirectional asymmetry in the neurovisceral communication for the cardiovascular control: New insights

Publicado en línea: 30 Aug 2017
Páginas: 157 - 167

Resumen

Abstract

The cardiovascular control involves a bidirectional functional connection between the brain and heart. We hypothesize that this connection could be extended to other organs using endocrine and autonomic nervous systems (ANS) as communication pathways. This implies a neuroendocrine interaction controlling particularly the cardiovascular function where the enzymatic cascade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an essential role. It acts not only through its classic endocrine connection but also the ANS. In addition, the brain is functionally, anatomically, and neurochemically asymmetric. Moreover, this asymmetry goes even beyond the brain and it includes both sides of the peripheral nervous and neuroendocrine systems. We revised the available information and analyze the asymmetrical neuroendocrine bidirectional interaction for the cardiovascular control. Negative and positive correlations involving the RAS have been observed between brain, heart, kidney, gut, and plasma in physiologic and pathologic conditions. The central role of the peptides and enzymes of the RAS within this neurovisceral communication, as well as the importance of the asymmetrical distribution of the various RAS components in the pathologies involving this connection, are particularly discussed. In conclusion, there are numerous evidences supporting the existence of a neurovisceral connection with multiorgan involvement that controls, among others, the cardiovascular function. This connection is asymmetrically organized.

Palabras clave

  • neuroendocrine interaction
  • asymmetry
  • blood pressure
  • renin-angiotensin system
  • neuropeptidases
  • angiotensinases
Acceso abierto

Pheochromocytoma, diagnosis and treatment: Review of the literature

Publicado en línea: 30 Aug 2017
Páginas: 168 - 181

Resumen

Abstract

Objective. We conducted an extensive review of the literature and tried to cite the most recent recommendations concerning the pheochromocytoma (PHEO).

Methods. Pub Med and Google Scholar databases were searched systematically for studies concerning pheochromocytomas (intra-adrenal paragangliomas) from 1980 until 2016. Bibliographies were searched to find additional articles.

Results. More than four times elevation of plasma fractionated metanephrines or elevated 24-h urinary fractionated metanephrines are keys to diagnosing pheochromocytoma. If the results are equivocal then we perform the clonidine test. If we have not done it already, we preferably do a CT scan and/or an MRI scan. The patient needs pre-treatment with α1-blockers at least 10–14 days before operation. Alternatives or sometimes adjuncts are Calcium Channels Blockers and/or β-Blockers. Several familial syndromes are associated with PHEO and genetic testing should be considered.

Conclusions. The biggest problem for pheochromocytoma is to suspect it in the first place. Elevated metanephrines establish the diagnosis. With the proper preoperative preparation the risks during operation and the postoperative period are minimal. If there is a risk of the hereditable mutation, it is strongly suggested that all the patients with pheochromocytoma need clinical genetic testing.

Palabras clave

  • pheochromocytoma
  • intra-adrenal paraganglioma
  • guidelines
  • diagnosis
  • radiology
  • treatment
6 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) may be superior to C-reactive protein (CRP) for predicting the occurrence of differentiated thyroid cancer

Publicado en línea: 30 Aug 2017
Páginas: 131 - 136

Resumen

Abstract

Objectives. NLR (neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio) and PLR (platelet-lymphocyte ratio) are prognostic markers of differentiated thyroid cancers. In our study, we evaluated NLR, PLR and C-reactive protein (CRP) for predicting the occurence of differentiated thyroid cancer. This is the first study that compares NLR and PLR to C-reactive protein indifferantiated thyroid cancer not only papillary cancer but also folliculer cancer.

Methods. This study includes 51 papillary carcinoma, 42 papillary microcarcinoma and 31 folliculer carcinoma patients attending to our outpatient Endocrinology Clinic at Erzurum Region Training and Research Hospital between 2009 and 2014. The control group include 50 age, sex and body mass index matched healty subjects. Blood counts and CRP were measured at the day before surgery. Thyroglobulin was measured after 6 months of operation.

Results. There were positive correlations between tumor diameter, age, white blood cell (WBC) and thyroglobulin levels. There were also positive correlation between NLR, PLR and CRP levels.

Conclusion. In our study, we found out that higher NLR and PLR was associated with higher levels of thyroglobulin which indicates worse survival. CRP levels were also associated with poorer tumor profile but the determining rate was lower according to ROC analysis

Palabras clave

  • neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio
  • platelet-lymphocyte ratio
  • C-reactive protein
  • differentiated thyroid cancer
Acceso abierto

TLR4 polymorphisms seem not to be associated with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes but predispose to diabetic retinopathy; TLR4 polymorphisms in glucose continuum

Publicado en línea: 30 Aug 2017
Páginas: 137 - 144

Resumen

Abstract

Objectives. Compared to type 1 diabetes, the role of the immune and autoimmune pathogenetic mechanisms is much less studied in the type 2 diabetes. Toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4) have a leading role in inflammation, insulin resistance, and vascular damage. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the polymorphisms in TLR4 gene and different stages in the glucose continuum from prediabetes to the type 2 diabetes and chronic microvascular complications.

Materials and Methods. The study included 113 patients with the type 2 diabetes, 29 participants with prediabetes, and 28 controls. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for genotyping Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphism, followed by restriction analysis.

Results. The difference in the genotype frequency for both polymorphisms in patients with the type 2 diabetes or prediabetes compared to that in controls was not significant. Patients with heterozygous genotype of Asp299Gly polymorphism had a higher prevalence of diabetic retinopathy (42.9%) than participants with homozygous genotype (9.0%) (OR [95%CI]=7.61 [1.41–41.08]; p=0.018). No association was established for diabetic polyneuropathy and nephropathy. Prevalence of chronic diabetes complications was not related to Thr399Ile polymorphism.

Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms seem not to be associated with the type 2 diabetes and prediabetes but Asp299Gly may contribute to diabetic retinopathy predisposition.

Palabras clave

  • type 2 diabetes
  • prediabetes
  • diabetic complications
  • toll-like receptor 4
  • single nucleotide polymorphism
  • innate immune response
Acceso abierto

Can regular moderate exercise lead to changes in miRNA-146a and its adapter proteins in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats?

Publicado en línea: 30 Aug 2017
Páginas: 145 - 152

Resumen

Abstract

Objective. The aim of this study was to assess whether microRNA-146a and its adapter proteins TNF receptor associated factor6 (TRAF6) and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 (IRAK1) may be changed in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, following regular moderate exercise.

Methods. Forty adult male Wistar rats were allocated randomly into four groups (n=10), including sedentary control (SC), sedentary diabetic (SD), healthy sixty-day exercise (H60E), and diabetic sixty-day exercise (D60E) groups. Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin. After 48 h, blood glucose levels >250 mg/dl was included to diabetic rats. After 2 days of diabetes induction, the exercise protocol began. Animals were exposed to 5 days of consecutive treadmill exercise for 60 min/day with the 22 m/min speed for 60 days. The kidneys of the rats were removed and microRNA was extracted from them using the miRCURYTM RNA isolation kit.

Results. In diabetic rats, statistical analysis revealed a significant decrease in miR-146a expression, non-significant decrease in IRAK1 mRNA expression, and non-significant increase in TRAF6 and NF-kB mRNA expression compared to the SC group. Exercise led to a non-significant increase in the expression of miR-146a and NF-kB mRNA in the kidneys of the diabetic group as compared to the SD group, significant increase in TRAF6 and IRAK1 mRNA expression compared to the H60E group, and significant increase in TRAF6 mRNA expression compared to the SD group.

Conclusion. The present data indicate that exercise might be able to help in the prevention in the diabetic nephropathy development.

Palabras clave

  • diabetes
  • exercise
  • kidney
  • miRNA-146a
Acceso abierto

Using plasma exchange to successfully manage thyrotoxicosis in a patient with possible antithyroid drug-related thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

Publicado en línea: 30 Aug 2017
Páginas: 153 - 156

Resumen

Abstract

Objective. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare disease characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenic purpura, neurologic abnormalities, fever, and renal insufficiency. The association or co-existence of thyrotoxicosis or antithyroid drugs with TTP has not been previously reported.

Subject and Results. Herein, we present a 54-year-old female patient newly diagnosed with toxic multinodular goiter accompanying with TTP, possibly triggered by either thyrotoxicosis or antithyroid drugs.

Conclusions. The present report is the first in the literature to demonstrate the co-existence of these two diseases and the use of plasma exchange as a modality to treat both conditions.

Palabras clave

  • toxic multinodular goiter
  • methimazole
  • thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
  • thyrotoxicosis
  • plasma exchange
Acceso abierto

Bidirectional asymmetry in the neurovisceral communication for the cardiovascular control: New insights

Publicado en línea: 30 Aug 2017
Páginas: 157 - 167

Resumen

Abstract

The cardiovascular control involves a bidirectional functional connection between the brain and heart. We hypothesize that this connection could be extended to other organs using endocrine and autonomic nervous systems (ANS) as communication pathways. This implies a neuroendocrine interaction controlling particularly the cardiovascular function where the enzymatic cascade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an essential role. It acts not only through its classic endocrine connection but also the ANS. In addition, the brain is functionally, anatomically, and neurochemically asymmetric. Moreover, this asymmetry goes even beyond the brain and it includes both sides of the peripheral nervous and neuroendocrine systems. We revised the available information and analyze the asymmetrical neuroendocrine bidirectional interaction for the cardiovascular control. Negative and positive correlations involving the RAS have been observed between brain, heart, kidney, gut, and plasma in physiologic and pathologic conditions. The central role of the peptides and enzymes of the RAS within this neurovisceral communication, as well as the importance of the asymmetrical distribution of the various RAS components in the pathologies involving this connection, are particularly discussed. In conclusion, there are numerous evidences supporting the existence of a neurovisceral connection with multiorgan involvement that controls, among others, the cardiovascular function. This connection is asymmetrically organized.

Palabras clave

  • neuroendocrine interaction
  • asymmetry
  • blood pressure
  • renin-angiotensin system
  • neuropeptidases
  • angiotensinases
Acceso abierto

Pheochromocytoma, diagnosis and treatment: Review of the literature

Publicado en línea: 30 Aug 2017
Páginas: 168 - 181

Resumen

Abstract

Objective. We conducted an extensive review of the literature and tried to cite the most recent recommendations concerning the pheochromocytoma (PHEO).

Methods. Pub Med and Google Scholar databases were searched systematically for studies concerning pheochromocytomas (intra-adrenal paragangliomas) from 1980 until 2016. Bibliographies were searched to find additional articles.

Results. More than four times elevation of plasma fractionated metanephrines or elevated 24-h urinary fractionated metanephrines are keys to diagnosing pheochromocytoma. If the results are equivocal then we perform the clonidine test. If we have not done it already, we preferably do a CT scan and/or an MRI scan. The patient needs pre-treatment with α1-blockers at least 10–14 days before operation. Alternatives or sometimes adjuncts are Calcium Channels Blockers and/or β-Blockers. Several familial syndromes are associated with PHEO and genetic testing should be considered.

Conclusions. The biggest problem for pheochromocytoma is to suspect it in the first place. Elevated metanephrines establish the diagnosis. With the proper preoperative preparation the risks during operation and the postoperative period are minimal. If there is a risk of the hereditable mutation, it is strongly suggested that all the patients with pheochromocytoma need clinical genetic testing.

Palabras clave

  • pheochromocytoma
  • intra-adrenal paraganglioma
  • guidelines
  • diagnosis
  • radiology
  • treatment

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