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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2543-912X
Publicado por primera vez
30 Mar 2016
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

Volumen 13 (2021): Edición 4 (December 2021)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2543-912X
Publicado por primera vez
30 Mar 2016
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

12 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Achieving career satisfaction through fostering innovation: lessons from the engineering profession in the Australian public sector

Publicado en línea: 02 Feb 2022
Páginas: 7 - 21

Resumen

Abstract

This paper proposes a novel approach that integrates the capability of empirical validation of structural equation modelling (SEM) and the prediction ability of Bayesian networks (BN). The Hybrid SEM–BN approach was used as a decision support framework to examine the interplay between salient organisational constructs and their ability to influence engineers’ career satisfaction in the Australian Public Service (APS). The results emphasise that the ambidextrous culture for innovation was the most important factor that needed to be implemented in their organisation. Managerial implications are recommended for senior managers on how they can implement innovation culture to increase workplace innovation, which could, in turn, help reduce the turnover rate of engineers employed in the APS.

Palabras clave

  • structural equation modelling
  • Bayesian networks
  • career satisfaction
  • engineer
  • Australia
Acceso abierto

Barriers to implementation of business process governance mechanisms

Publicado en línea: 02 Feb 2022
Páginas: 22 - 38

Resumen

Abstract

One of the main challenges in implementing process-oriented management is establishing a governance mechanism in the organisation. It creates a coherent framework for the execution, management and perception of business processes, which is the foundation of consistent Business Process Management (BPM). Process governance (PG) refers to an organisation’s ability to manage its relationships with all process stakeholders and support the value chain for its customers. Its implementation involves establishing process regulation mechanisms and stakeholder-oriented criteria to support prioritisation, cascading, and change management within BPM initiatives. A review of the domain literature reveals that while process governance has been discussed from several but separated perspectives (strategy, business roles, performance, and maturity), only a few studies identify and synthesise the barriers to its implementation in organisations. The paper mainly aims to identify and classify the key barriers to the implementation of process governance. The author’s approach refers to the six core elements of Business Process Management capability and process governance frameworks. Research results confirm that most process governance barriers polarise around the competence gaps of the process stakeholders and the immaturity of the process-oriented culture of companies. Another significant group of constraints to process governance arises from the existing organisation’s structure. They are mainly related to the proper division of responsibilities and a weak position or the lack of BPM centres of excellence. The research contributes to the literature on management by identifying potential barriers to business process governance that constrain BPM initiatives. The identified PG challenges can provide a basis for developing a theoretical framework for Business Process Management and models for BPM success factors.

Palabras clave

  • business process management
  • process governance
  • success factors
  • barriers
Acceso abierto

Managing inter-departmental project delivery to enhance customer satisfaction

Publicado en línea: 02 Feb 2022
Páginas: 39 - 56

Resumen

Abstract

The National Department of Public Works and Infrastructure (NDPWI), an agency for infrastructure development in South Africa, provides accommodation and other infrastructure to various public service departments. Each department communicates its infrastructure requirements with the NDPWI. However, there are usually time lags between project briefing and the actual delivery of the infrastructure. Therefore, this article aims to explore the causes of delays and offer solutions to enhance customer satisfaction. The case study method of qualitative research was adopted. Data were collected from the NDPWI regional offices in Bloemfontein, Cape Town and Kimberley, and the professional service department at the head office in Pretoria, among purposively selected participants not below the deputy director level. The Delphi technique was used as an instrument for data collection and complemented during a focus group session. The findings revealed that the major factors contributing to delays included poor planning by the project execution team (PET), ineffective project monitoring and overcentralisation of the decision-making process. The findings, conclusions and recommendations of this research provide useful information for organisational restructuring, the training and continuous retraining of project personnel, especially the project managers. These steps hold the potential for ameliorating the negative effects of delay in the execution of construction projects by the NDPWI.

Palabras clave

  • customer satisfaction
  • delays
  • infrastructure
  • participants
  • project execution team
Acceso abierto

Determination of black spots by using accident equivalent number and upper control limit on rural roads of Thailand

Publicado en línea: 02 Feb 2022
Páginas: 57 - 71

Resumen

Abstract

The Department of Rural Roads (DRR) is one of the highway authorities in Thailand responsible for over 48 000 kilometres of rural roads and highway networks. One of its responsibilities is to provide better road safety management. In road safety procedures, black spots are usually identified by observing the frequency of accidents at a particular road section. This research aims to develop a model that includes levels of accident severity in the black spot identification process. The classification of severity levels includes fatalities, serious injuries, minor injuries, and damaged property only. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is employed to derive the weight of each severity level. The identification model is developed using Equivalent Accident Number (EAN) and Upper Control Limit (UCL). The data applied in the model are obtained from the road accident investigation of DRR. Five roads — Nakhon Ratchasima 3052, Chonburi 1032, Nonthaburi 3021, Samutprakarn 2001 and Chiangmai 3029 — have been selected based on the top frequency accident recorded in the last three years. Based on the results of black spots identified in the study, most accidents occurred from frontal and rear-ended impacts due to exceeded speed limits. The article discusses recommendations.

Palabras clave

  • black spot
  • equivalent accident number
  • road safety
  • rural roads
Acceso abierto

Industry 4.0 — policy-based approaches to efficient implementation in SMEs

Publicado en línea: 02 Feb 2022
Páginas: 72 - 78

Resumen

Abstract

Industry 4.0 (I4.0), driven by the need to access real-time insights and information across the manufacturing process, creates a disruptive impact on industries. Large-scale machine-to-machine communication, virtual reality (VR), the Internet of Things (IoT), simulation technologies and network management are integrated for increased automation, machine learning, self-controlled social and technical systems (Smart Factories). The uptake of advanced manufacturing solutions represents a challenge for businesses and SMEs in particular. SMEs possess neither the organisational capability nor financial resources to systematically investigate the potential and risks of introducing Industry 4.0. However, the so-called Fourth Industrial Revolution is a matter of technology and cooperation between European regions to share knowledge concerning alternative regional and national approaches to reinforcing the I4.0 uptake. Therefore, this paper primarily aims to analyse practical experience on how European policies related to the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) can unlock the full potential of Industry 4.0 and overcome the fragmentation of Industry 4.0 solutions. Case studies of successful transfer of I4.0 to SMEs in Europe and supporting regional policy instruments presented in the paper could inspire and enable the potential of digitalisation by dealing with main challenges hampering their diffusion into the business ecosystem.

Palabras clave

  • Industry 4.0
  • digital transformation
  • SMEs
  • structural funds
  • policy instruments
Acceso abierto

Towards Industry 4.0: digital transformation of traditional safety shoes manufacturer in Thailand with a development of production tracking system

Publicado en línea: 02 Feb 2022
Páginas: 79 - 94

Resumen

Abstract

There are many digital transformation challenges going forward towards Industry 4.0 in Thailand, especially for the traditional manufacturing firms that have been operating without digital technologies. The paper presents a case study of a safety shoe manufacturer, CPL Group Public Company Limited, adopting digital technologies to transform its production system of 40 years. It presents a conceptual design for production tracking based on IoT technologies for productivity improvement. This research uses inductive case study research design by interviewing executives and participating in the digital tracking development project using IoT sensors and image processing. The findings show the key success factors of digital transformation in manufacturing, strategies required for development, and the conceptual design of the production tracking system.

Palabras clave

  • digital transformation
  • manufacturing
  • IoT
  • production tracking
  • footwear industry
Acceso abierto

Competences of innovation brokers - experiences of the GoSmart BSR project

Publicado en línea: 02 Feb 2022
Páginas: 95 - 114

Resumen

Abstract

The paper attempts to create a universal model of competences for international innovation brokers combining knowledge, skills and attitudes in the context of tasks aimed at internationalisation and development of innovation in SMEs. The article reviews the relevant literature, uses a bibliometric study identifying the brokers’ attributes, innovation and competences using the VOSviewer tool, and presents qualitative research — a case study of the GoSmart BSR project. The paper resulted in a synthetic model of competences for international innovation brokers, taking a holistic approach to defining competences. The presented model is a synthesis of previous experiences with formulating competences for international innovation brokers. The elements of the model of competences and their components are equally significant for accelerating the internationalisation of SMEs and implementing innovations. This model is practical and universal, so it can be used in various organisations working towards the internationalisation and innovation of SMEs. Lessons learned from the GoSmart BSR project can be an inspiration to experiment and introduce new ideas and concepts. The identified competence elements can be considered universal and key in the work of an international innovation broker, but neither their list nor competence components are exhaustive. Therefore, the issues discussed in the article may form the basis for further research in this area.

Palabras clave

  • innovation brokers
  • internationalisation
  • GoSmart BSR project
  • competences
Acceso abierto

Challenges and barriers to connecting World Class Manufacturing and continuous improvement processes to Industry 4.0 paradigms

Publicado en línea: 02 Feb 2022
Páginas: 115 - 130

Resumen

Abstract

This paper exposes the difficulties in integrating “Industry 4.0 Practices” and “World-Class Manufacturing” due to the rapid expansion of production systems and the increasingly complex data monitoring. The applied methodology was to study multiple cases with the aid of a semi-structured questionnaire. The analysis comprised responses of 15 large companies with different expertise from five countries and three continents. The results show that when a company’s strategy is linked to Industry 4.0 practices and the World-Class Manufacturing method, they boost productivity by monitoring the shop floor, applying analytical tools, and spreading the organisational culture aimed at improving processes. The results also indicate that human resources are essential in this integration. The conclusion indicates robust barriers to the increasing progress of these procedures, such as the costs associated with the use of technologies, the lack of knowledge of the applied methods and tools, the lack of trained and qualified human resources, and the resistance of people to the use and application of the newly adopted practices. The continuous improvement practices do not keep up with the speed of development that the Industry 4.0 practices propose, requiring studies directed to “World-Class Manufacturing” and “Industry 4.0 practices”. Although there is a coexistence of improvement and innovation in world-class manufacturers, the literature has not yet provided a complete understanding of how this coexistence can be achieved at the manufacturing level. Therefore, the paper presents the main actions to overcome these barriers.

Palabras clave

  • Industry 4.0
  • World-Class Manufacturing (WCM)
  • continuous improvement
Acceso abierto

Barriers related to the implementation of intelligent transport systems in cities - the Polish local government’s perspective

Publicado en línea: 02 Feb 2022
Páginas: 131 - 147

Resumen

Abstract

Intelligent transport systems (ITS) are undoubtedly an opportunity for the sustainable development of smart cities today. ITS is based on advanced transport technologies that help minimise the emission of harmful substances to the environment. Smart mobility and ITS are related to the use of ICT. The implementation of technologically advanced ITS is associated with several benefits, barriers and difficulties. However, transport, ITS and smart mobility (as a component of a smart city) are indicated as the most desirable option for sustainable urban transport systems. The article aims to identify barriers related to the implementation of ITS in cities from the point of view of people responsible for the organisation of urban transport representing the local government of selected voivodship cities in Poland. The goal formulated in this way allowed to identify the following research question: what are the problems and barriers of implementing ITS in the city from the local government’s perspective? To achieve the paper’s aim, the author based their analysis on a qualitative technique of collecting empirical data. Ten individual in-depth interviews were conducted with representatives of local governments (vice-mayors and members of urban transport organisers) in voivodship cities, which represented six Polish macro-regions. Research results and findings indicate the main categories and subcategories of barriers related to the ITS implementation. The identified barriers are grouped into the following categories: economic, social, organisational, technological and legal. The contribution is twofold: first, in the presentation of the theoretical and practical barriers to ITS in juxtaposition; and second, in identifying the intelligent transportation impact, which affects the provision of being a smarter city. The findings can positively influence as important factors for local governments to focus on intelligent transport.

Palabras clave

  • intelligent transport systems (ITS)
  • smart city
  • smart mobility
Acceso abierto

Use of Target Costing methodology in the construction of wood-aluminium windows — case study

Publicado en línea: 02 Feb 2022
Páginas: 148 - 159

Resumen

Abstract

The paper concerns the practical application of Target Costing to a specific product of the woodworking industry with a particular emphasis on customer needs and value analysis principles concerning individual components and functions of the product — a wood-aluminium window Gemini Quadrat FB. Based on principles of value analyses, the study used the functional cost analysis, the quantified target cost index of relevant components and the target cost chart for the allowable cost of components. Two levels of the q parameter — 5 % and 10 % — were used to construct the target cost chart. The target price (EUR 513.19) was assessed. The target production cost was at the level of allowable production costs (EUR 379.31). The results were used to confirm that the ideal value of the target cost index was not achieved for any component, and a higher value of the parameter q can be marked as soft. The paper provides assumptions for the assessment of possible alternatives and potential corrections. The case study presents the description of the Target Costing methodology along with the nuanced characteristics of the approaches used by various authors and the strengths and benefits of using the method.

Palabras clave

  • allowable cost
  • price
  • profit
  • Target Costing
  • target cost index
  • wood-aluminium window
Acceso abierto

Applying blended foresight methods for revealing incentives and future strategies of key national innovation system players

Publicado en línea: 02 Feb 2022
Páginas: 160 - 173

Resumen

Abstract

The paper aims to develop and apply a methodological approach that could help to reveal incentives and future strategies of key National Innovation System (NIS) players considering the influence of global social, economic, scientific, technological and ecological trends. To fulfil this aim, a blended foresight methodology was applied, grounded on the platform of economic and classic foresight theory and considering four possible directions for using foresight methods: investigating and building a common vision; supporting evidence-based decisions; promoting communication and participation; inducing transformation and integration into the decision-making process. The main results and findings of the research include a list of 19 global trends, defined from literature analysis and the author’s expert knowledge, a short description of their influence on key NIS players, including society, business, infrastructure and institutions, science, education and government; and mapping more than 35 different foresight methods that could be used for revealing incentives and future strategies of key NIS players. The article’s theoretical contribution to economic theory consists of several parts. First, a NIS conception is examined through the prism of global trends and a dynamic aspect, whereas it is mostly investigated from statistical and static perspectives. Second, applying foresight as an instrument for researching NIS as a system is a developing academic area with some theoretical gaps, considered in this article by designing a conceptional research framework. Third, blending different foresight methods is always a craft, and the approach applied in this article contributes to it. Finally, the article presents several important trends which will appear in NIS and its key players’ transformation in the nearest 5–10 years. From practical implications, this article could be useful for proactive policymakers in the field of science, technology and innovation policy at national and regional levels for designing and providing measures for supporting innovation systems effectively. Foresight practitioners and experts are offered useful, practical ideas of different foresight methods and their possible combinations for everyday activities.

Palabras clave

  • foresight methods
  • blended foresight
  • technological change and its management
  • national innovation system
  • global trends
  • new institutional economics
  • planning models and policy
Acceso abierto

Heat transfer and pressure drop analysis of automotive HVAC condensers with two phase flows in minichannels

Publicado en línea: 02 Feb 2022
Páginas: 174 - 188

Resumen

Abstract

The air cooled automotive condensers under study are of brazed aluminium tube and center, consisting of one row array of horizontal parallel multi-port flat tubes with louver fins on air side. Each tube is with a number of smooth parallel minichannels for internal flow of refrigerant. The analysis uses decomposition of the condenser along refrigerant flow path into specific different zones as follows: two single phase zones, namely: superheated and subcooled, and a few zones of two phase flow that can appear along some specific condensation paths to be: annular/intermittent/bubble or annular/annular-wavy/intermittent/bubble or annular/wavy/stratified. The approach presented is based on experimental correlations for heat transfer and pressure drop. The heat transfer prediction is performed using ε – NTUo methodology. The results of the analysis refer to overall heat transfer rate, heat transfer in particular zones, pressure gradients heat transfer coefficients, vapour quality, condensation paths.

Palabras clave

  • air cooled condenser
  • heat transfer and pressure drop analysis
  • minichannels
12 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Achieving career satisfaction through fostering innovation: lessons from the engineering profession in the Australian public sector

Publicado en línea: 02 Feb 2022
Páginas: 7 - 21

Resumen

Abstract

This paper proposes a novel approach that integrates the capability of empirical validation of structural equation modelling (SEM) and the prediction ability of Bayesian networks (BN). The Hybrid SEM–BN approach was used as a decision support framework to examine the interplay between salient organisational constructs and their ability to influence engineers’ career satisfaction in the Australian Public Service (APS). The results emphasise that the ambidextrous culture for innovation was the most important factor that needed to be implemented in their organisation. Managerial implications are recommended for senior managers on how they can implement innovation culture to increase workplace innovation, which could, in turn, help reduce the turnover rate of engineers employed in the APS.

Palabras clave

  • structural equation modelling
  • Bayesian networks
  • career satisfaction
  • engineer
  • Australia
Acceso abierto

Barriers to implementation of business process governance mechanisms

Publicado en línea: 02 Feb 2022
Páginas: 22 - 38

Resumen

Abstract

One of the main challenges in implementing process-oriented management is establishing a governance mechanism in the organisation. It creates a coherent framework for the execution, management and perception of business processes, which is the foundation of consistent Business Process Management (BPM). Process governance (PG) refers to an organisation’s ability to manage its relationships with all process stakeholders and support the value chain for its customers. Its implementation involves establishing process regulation mechanisms and stakeholder-oriented criteria to support prioritisation, cascading, and change management within BPM initiatives. A review of the domain literature reveals that while process governance has been discussed from several but separated perspectives (strategy, business roles, performance, and maturity), only a few studies identify and synthesise the barriers to its implementation in organisations. The paper mainly aims to identify and classify the key barriers to the implementation of process governance. The author’s approach refers to the six core elements of Business Process Management capability and process governance frameworks. Research results confirm that most process governance barriers polarise around the competence gaps of the process stakeholders and the immaturity of the process-oriented culture of companies. Another significant group of constraints to process governance arises from the existing organisation’s structure. They are mainly related to the proper division of responsibilities and a weak position or the lack of BPM centres of excellence. The research contributes to the literature on management by identifying potential barriers to business process governance that constrain BPM initiatives. The identified PG challenges can provide a basis for developing a theoretical framework for Business Process Management and models for BPM success factors.

Palabras clave

  • business process management
  • process governance
  • success factors
  • barriers
Acceso abierto

Managing inter-departmental project delivery to enhance customer satisfaction

Publicado en línea: 02 Feb 2022
Páginas: 39 - 56

Resumen

Abstract

The National Department of Public Works and Infrastructure (NDPWI), an agency for infrastructure development in South Africa, provides accommodation and other infrastructure to various public service departments. Each department communicates its infrastructure requirements with the NDPWI. However, there are usually time lags between project briefing and the actual delivery of the infrastructure. Therefore, this article aims to explore the causes of delays and offer solutions to enhance customer satisfaction. The case study method of qualitative research was adopted. Data were collected from the NDPWI regional offices in Bloemfontein, Cape Town and Kimberley, and the professional service department at the head office in Pretoria, among purposively selected participants not below the deputy director level. The Delphi technique was used as an instrument for data collection and complemented during a focus group session. The findings revealed that the major factors contributing to delays included poor planning by the project execution team (PET), ineffective project monitoring and overcentralisation of the decision-making process. The findings, conclusions and recommendations of this research provide useful information for organisational restructuring, the training and continuous retraining of project personnel, especially the project managers. These steps hold the potential for ameliorating the negative effects of delay in the execution of construction projects by the NDPWI.

Palabras clave

  • customer satisfaction
  • delays
  • infrastructure
  • participants
  • project execution team
Acceso abierto

Determination of black spots by using accident equivalent number and upper control limit on rural roads of Thailand

Publicado en línea: 02 Feb 2022
Páginas: 57 - 71

Resumen

Abstract

The Department of Rural Roads (DRR) is one of the highway authorities in Thailand responsible for over 48 000 kilometres of rural roads and highway networks. One of its responsibilities is to provide better road safety management. In road safety procedures, black spots are usually identified by observing the frequency of accidents at a particular road section. This research aims to develop a model that includes levels of accident severity in the black spot identification process. The classification of severity levels includes fatalities, serious injuries, minor injuries, and damaged property only. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is employed to derive the weight of each severity level. The identification model is developed using Equivalent Accident Number (EAN) and Upper Control Limit (UCL). The data applied in the model are obtained from the road accident investigation of DRR. Five roads — Nakhon Ratchasima 3052, Chonburi 1032, Nonthaburi 3021, Samutprakarn 2001 and Chiangmai 3029 — have been selected based on the top frequency accident recorded in the last three years. Based on the results of black spots identified in the study, most accidents occurred from frontal and rear-ended impacts due to exceeded speed limits. The article discusses recommendations.

Palabras clave

  • black spot
  • equivalent accident number
  • road safety
  • rural roads
Acceso abierto

Industry 4.0 — policy-based approaches to efficient implementation in SMEs

Publicado en línea: 02 Feb 2022
Páginas: 72 - 78

Resumen

Abstract

Industry 4.0 (I4.0), driven by the need to access real-time insights and information across the manufacturing process, creates a disruptive impact on industries. Large-scale machine-to-machine communication, virtual reality (VR), the Internet of Things (IoT), simulation technologies and network management are integrated for increased automation, machine learning, self-controlled social and technical systems (Smart Factories). The uptake of advanced manufacturing solutions represents a challenge for businesses and SMEs in particular. SMEs possess neither the organisational capability nor financial resources to systematically investigate the potential and risks of introducing Industry 4.0. However, the so-called Fourth Industrial Revolution is a matter of technology and cooperation between European regions to share knowledge concerning alternative regional and national approaches to reinforcing the I4.0 uptake. Therefore, this paper primarily aims to analyse practical experience on how European policies related to the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) can unlock the full potential of Industry 4.0 and overcome the fragmentation of Industry 4.0 solutions. Case studies of successful transfer of I4.0 to SMEs in Europe and supporting regional policy instruments presented in the paper could inspire and enable the potential of digitalisation by dealing with main challenges hampering their diffusion into the business ecosystem.

Palabras clave

  • Industry 4.0
  • digital transformation
  • SMEs
  • structural funds
  • policy instruments
Acceso abierto

Towards Industry 4.0: digital transformation of traditional safety shoes manufacturer in Thailand with a development of production tracking system

Publicado en línea: 02 Feb 2022
Páginas: 79 - 94

Resumen

Abstract

There are many digital transformation challenges going forward towards Industry 4.0 in Thailand, especially for the traditional manufacturing firms that have been operating without digital technologies. The paper presents a case study of a safety shoe manufacturer, CPL Group Public Company Limited, adopting digital technologies to transform its production system of 40 years. It presents a conceptual design for production tracking based on IoT technologies for productivity improvement. This research uses inductive case study research design by interviewing executives and participating in the digital tracking development project using IoT sensors and image processing. The findings show the key success factors of digital transformation in manufacturing, strategies required for development, and the conceptual design of the production tracking system.

Palabras clave

  • digital transformation
  • manufacturing
  • IoT
  • production tracking
  • footwear industry
Acceso abierto

Competences of innovation brokers - experiences of the GoSmart BSR project

Publicado en línea: 02 Feb 2022
Páginas: 95 - 114

Resumen

Abstract

The paper attempts to create a universal model of competences for international innovation brokers combining knowledge, skills and attitudes in the context of tasks aimed at internationalisation and development of innovation in SMEs. The article reviews the relevant literature, uses a bibliometric study identifying the brokers’ attributes, innovation and competences using the VOSviewer tool, and presents qualitative research — a case study of the GoSmart BSR project. The paper resulted in a synthetic model of competences for international innovation brokers, taking a holistic approach to defining competences. The presented model is a synthesis of previous experiences with formulating competences for international innovation brokers. The elements of the model of competences and their components are equally significant for accelerating the internationalisation of SMEs and implementing innovations. This model is practical and universal, so it can be used in various organisations working towards the internationalisation and innovation of SMEs. Lessons learned from the GoSmart BSR project can be an inspiration to experiment and introduce new ideas and concepts. The identified competence elements can be considered universal and key in the work of an international innovation broker, but neither their list nor competence components are exhaustive. Therefore, the issues discussed in the article may form the basis for further research in this area.

Palabras clave

  • innovation brokers
  • internationalisation
  • GoSmart BSR project
  • competences
Acceso abierto

Challenges and barriers to connecting World Class Manufacturing and continuous improvement processes to Industry 4.0 paradigms

Publicado en línea: 02 Feb 2022
Páginas: 115 - 130

Resumen

Abstract

This paper exposes the difficulties in integrating “Industry 4.0 Practices” and “World-Class Manufacturing” due to the rapid expansion of production systems and the increasingly complex data monitoring. The applied methodology was to study multiple cases with the aid of a semi-structured questionnaire. The analysis comprised responses of 15 large companies with different expertise from five countries and three continents. The results show that when a company’s strategy is linked to Industry 4.0 practices and the World-Class Manufacturing method, they boost productivity by monitoring the shop floor, applying analytical tools, and spreading the organisational culture aimed at improving processes. The results also indicate that human resources are essential in this integration. The conclusion indicates robust barriers to the increasing progress of these procedures, such as the costs associated with the use of technologies, the lack of knowledge of the applied methods and tools, the lack of trained and qualified human resources, and the resistance of people to the use and application of the newly adopted practices. The continuous improvement practices do not keep up with the speed of development that the Industry 4.0 practices propose, requiring studies directed to “World-Class Manufacturing” and “Industry 4.0 practices”. Although there is a coexistence of improvement and innovation in world-class manufacturers, the literature has not yet provided a complete understanding of how this coexistence can be achieved at the manufacturing level. Therefore, the paper presents the main actions to overcome these barriers.

Palabras clave

  • Industry 4.0
  • World-Class Manufacturing (WCM)
  • continuous improvement
Acceso abierto

Barriers related to the implementation of intelligent transport systems in cities - the Polish local government’s perspective

Publicado en línea: 02 Feb 2022
Páginas: 131 - 147

Resumen

Abstract

Intelligent transport systems (ITS) are undoubtedly an opportunity for the sustainable development of smart cities today. ITS is based on advanced transport technologies that help minimise the emission of harmful substances to the environment. Smart mobility and ITS are related to the use of ICT. The implementation of technologically advanced ITS is associated with several benefits, barriers and difficulties. However, transport, ITS and smart mobility (as a component of a smart city) are indicated as the most desirable option for sustainable urban transport systems. The article aims to identify barriers related to the implementation of ITS in cities from the point of view of people responsible for the organisation of urban transport representing the local government of selected voivodship cities in Poland. The goal formulated in this way allowed to identify the following research question: what are the problems and barriers of implementing ITS in the city from the local government’s perspective? To achieve the paper’s aim, the author based their analysis on a qualitative technique of collecting empirical data. Ten individual in-depth interviews were conducted with representatives of local governments (vice-mayors and members of urban transport organisers) in voivodship cities, which represented six Polish macro-regions. Research results and findings indicate the main categories and subcategories of barriers related to the ITS implementation. The identified barriers are grouped into the following categories: economic, social, organisational, technological and legal. The contribution is twofold: first, in the presentation of the theoretical and practical barriers to ITS in juxtaposition; and second, in identifying the intelligent transportation impact, which affects the provision of being a smarter city. The findings can positively influence as important factors for local governments to focus on intelligent transport.

Palabras clave

  • intelligent transport systems (ITS)
  • smart city
  • smart mobility
Acceso abierto

Use of Target Costing methodology in the construction of wood-aluminium windows — case study

Publicado en línea: 02 Feb 2022
Páginas: 148 - 159

Resumen

Abstract

The paper concerns the practical application of Target Costing to a specific product of the woodworking industry with a particular emphasis on customer needs and value analysis principles concerning individual components and functions of the product — a wood-aluminium window Gemini Quadrat FB. Based on principles of value analyses, the study used the functional cost analysis, the quantified target cost index of relevant components and the target cost chart for the allowable cost of components. Two levels of the q parameter — 5 % and 10 % — were used to construct the target cost chart. The target price (EUR 513.19) was assessed. The target production cost was at the level of allowable production costs (EUR 379.31). The results were used to confirm that the ideal value of the target cost index was not achieved for any component, and a higher value of the parameter q can be marked as soft. The paper provides assumptions for the assessment of possible alternatives and potential corrections. The case study presents the description of the Target Costing methodology along with the nuanced characteristics of the approaches used by various authors and the strengths and benefits of using the method.

Palabras clave

  • allowable cost
  • price
  • profit
  • Target Costing
  • target cost index
  • wood-aluminium window
Acceso abierto

Applying blended foresight methods for revealing incentives and future strategies of key national innovation system players

Publicado en línea: 02 Feb 2022
Páginas: 160 - 173

Resumen

Abstract

The paper aims to develop and apply a methodological approach that could help to reveal incentives and future strategies of key National Innovation System (NIS) players considering the influence of global social, economic, scientific, technological and ecological trends. To fulfil this aim, a blended foresight methodology was applied, grounded on the platform of economic and classic foresight theory and considering four possible directions for using foresight methods: investigating and building a common vision; supporting evidence-based decisions; promoting communication and participation; inducing transformation and integration into the decision-making process. The main results and findings of the research include a list of 19 global trends, defined from literature analysis and the author’s expert knowledge, a short description of their influence on key NIS players, including society, business, infrastructure and institutions, science, education and government; and mapping more than 35 different foresight methods that could be used for revealing incentives and future strategies of key NIS players. The article’s theoretical contribution to economic theory consists of several parts. First, a NIS conception is examined through the prism of global trends and a dynamic aspect, whereas it is mostly investigated from statistical and static perspectives. Second, applying foresight as an instrument for researching NIS as a system is a developing academic area with some theoretical gaps, considered in this article by designing a conceptional research framework. Third, blending different foresight methods is always a craft, and the approach applied in this article contributes to it. Finally, the article presents several important trends which will appear in NIS and its key players’ transformation in the nearest 5–10 years. From practical implications, this article could be useful for proactive policymakers in the field of science, technology and innovation policy at national and regional levels for designing and providing measures for supporting innovation systems effectively. Foresight practitioners and experts are offered useful, practical ideas of different foresight methods and their possible combinations for everyday activities.

Palabras clave

  • foresight methods
  • blended foresight
  • technological change and its management
  • national innovation system
  • global trends
  • new institutional economics
  • planning models and policy
Acceso abierto

Heat transfer and pressure drop analysis of automotive HVAC condensers with two phase flows in minichannels

Publicado en línea: 02 Feb 2022
Páginas: 174 - 188

Resumen

Abstract

The air cooled automotive condensers under study are of brazed aluminium tube and center, consisting of one row array of horizontal parallel multi-port flat tubes with louver fins on air side. Each tube is with a number of smooth parallel minichannels for internal flow of refrigerant. The analysis uses decomposition of the condenser along refrigerant flow path into specific different zones as follows: two single phase zones, namely: superheated and subcooled, and a few zones of two phase flow that can appear along some specific condensation paths to be: annular/intermittent/bubble or annular/annular-wavy/intermittent/bubble or annular/wavy/stratified. The approach presented is based on experimental correlations for heat transfer and pressure drop. The heat transfer prediction is performed using ε – NTUo methodology. The results of the analysis refer to overall heat transfer rate, heat transfer in particular zones, pressure gradients heat transfer coefficients, vapour quality, condensation paths.

Palabras clave

  • air cooled condenser
  • heat transfer and pressure drop analysis
  • minichannels

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