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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
1337-947X
Publicado por primera vez
24 Aug 2013
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

Volumen 41 (2022): Edición 2 (June 2022)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
1337-947X
Publicado por primera vez
24 Aug 2013
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

9 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Effects of Different Cropping and Land Management Practices on the Quality of Irrigated Soils of the Upper Awash Basin, Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

Publicado en línea: 04 Jul 2022
Páginas: 101 - 112

Resumen

Abstract

Irrigation is one way of utilizing the land resources to enhance agricultural production. Irrigation crop production is crucial in the present study area due to its arid and semi-arid climatic characteristics. However, little is known about the influence of different cropping and land management practices on soil quality (SQ). This study aimed to determine the effects of different cropping systems and land management practices on variability of SQ indicators in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia (CRVE). To this end, 45 disturbed surface (0‒20 cm) and 24 undisturbed (upper 7 cm) soil samples were collected from four adjacent farms: large-scale perennial farms (LSPF), large-scale annual farms (LSAF), smallholder subsistence annual farms (SHAF), and non-cultivated lands (NCL). Soil analyses were made for selected SQ indicators – particle size analysis, bulk density, soil water content, organic matter, pH, total nitrogen, available potassium and phosphorus, exchangeable bases, and cation exchange capacity. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) were computed. Key informants’ interview was conducted to substantiate the data obtained from soil laboratory analyses. As the results confirmed, different cropping and land management practices had significant effects on some SQ indicators. Soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available P, and available K declined significantly (P < 0.05) in the soils of LSAF and SHAF. This is attributed to land management-induced problems such as frequent tillage practice of mono-cropping, high level of mechanization, removal of crop residues/above-ground biomass in LSAF, and use of low external inputs and overcultivation without appropriate land management practices in SHAF. However, LSPF practice resulted in the improvement of key SQ indicators, next to NCL. Therefore, LSPF can be an alternative cropping and land management practice to achieve sustainable agricultural production and land management in semi-arid irrigated lands of CRVE and in places with similar environments.

Palabras clave

  • agricultural investment
  • annual farming
  • perennial farming
  • smallholders
  • soil quality
Acceso abierto

Influence of Plants on the Spatial Variability of Soil Penetration Resistance

Publicado en línea: 04 Jul 2022
Páginas: 113 - 125

Resumen

Abstract

Soil penetration resistance is an informative indicator to monitor soil compaction, which affects a range of ecological processes in floodplain ecosystems. The aim of the investigation was to reveal the influence of vegetation cover on the spatial variability of penetration resistance of floodplain soils. The study was carried out in the elm oak forest in the floodplain of the Dnipro River (Dniprovsko-Orilsky Nature Reserve, Ukraine). The study of the soil profile morphology was performed in accordance with the guidelines of the field description of soils FAO. The soil penetration resistance was measured in the field using the Eijkelkamp manual penetrometer to a depth of 100 cm at 5-cm intervals within the polygon consisted of 105 sampling points. Vegetation descriptions were made in a 3×3-meter surrounding from each sampling point. The soil penetration resistance was found to regularly increase with increasing depth. The changes in resistance values were insignificant until 25–30 cm depth. After that, there was a sharp increase in penetration resistance up to the depth of 70–75 cm, after which the indicators plateaued. In the three-dimensional aspect, the spatial variation of soil penetration resistance can be fractionated into broad-scale, medium-scale, and fine-scale components. Tree vegetation induces a broad-scale component of soil penetration resistance variations, which embraces the whole soil profile. The herbaceous vegetation induces a medium-scale component, which embraces the upper and middle parts of the soil profile. The fine-scale component is influenced by pedogenic factors.

Palabras clave

  • soil compaction
  • floodplain
  • distance-based Moran’s eigenvector maps
  • community ordination
  • phytoindication
Acceso abierto

Water Quality from the Sources of Non-Centralized Water Supply within the Rural Settlements of Zhytomyr Region

Publicado en línea: 04 Jul 2022
Páginas: 126 - 134

Resumen

Abstract

The research was conducted within the territories of rural settlements of Zhytomyr region. A total of 72 sources of non-centralized water supply were surveyed. Water quality was assessed by physical and chemical (pH, iron total, total water hardness) and toxicological (nitrites, nitrates, and ammonium) indicators, the content of which was compared with the norms given in the State Sanitary Regulations and Standards 2.2.4-171-10 “Hygienic Requirements for Drinking Water Intended for Human Consumption.” The assessment of drinking water quality was carried out in accordance with DSTU (National Standards of Ukraine) 4808:2007 and with the water quality index (WQI). It was found that the largest deviations from the norm among toxicological indicators were observed for nitrates – 63.9%. In terms of water quality classes according to DSTU 4808:2007, drinking water from sources of non-centralized water supply of villages showed the following distribution: 2.8% of the samples belonged to class 1 (excellent water quality), 72.2% to class 2, and 25% to class 3. According to WQI, 16.7% of the examined sources of non-centralized water supply had excellent water, 63.9% had good water, and 19.4% had poor water. Despite the fact that the water from the investigated sources of non-centralized water supply was of acceptable quality, it is impotable due to the excessive nitrate content. The results obtained show that there is a need for monitoring of drinking water quality from the sources of non-centralized water supply, especially in rural settlements that are not provided with centralized water supply.

Palabras clave

  • wells
  • nitrate content
  • limiting index
  • sanitary standards
  • water quality index (WQI)
  • degree of quality
Acceso abierto

Assessment of Naturalness: The Response of Social Behavior Types of Plants to Anthropogenic Impact

Publicado en línea: 04 Jul 2022
Páginas: 135 - 146

Resumen

Abstract

The aims of this research are to assess the relationship between the concepts of hemeroby and naturalness of plant communities and to test the hypothesis about the ordinal nature of the response of social behavior types of plants under anthropogenic influence. Study area is the recreational zone of the Botanical Garden of Dnipro National University, named after Oles Gonchar, Dnipro City, Ukraine (48.43°N 35.05°E). Four polygons (105 relevés in each) were examined. Two polygons were in the zone after park reconstruction, and two were in the zone without reconstruction. The vegetation community ordination was performed using RLQ analysis. The Q-table was represented by eight dummy variables, which indicated social behavior types. The most important predictors of naturalness were aggressive alien species and invaders and weeds (positive dependence) and disturbance tolerants (negative dependence). The most important predictors of hemeroby were aggressive alien species (negative dependence) and ruderal competitors, invaders, and disturbance tolerants (positive dependence). Naturalness and hemeroby reflect different strategies for transforming a plant community and are not completely symmetrically opposed concepts. The response of a plant community is multivariate, so the naturalness metric based on the social behavior types is only able to distinguish well between the extreme states of a plant community, but is a poor measure for a more detailed assessment of naturalness.

Palabras clave

  • vegetation
  • anthropogenic transformation
  • naturalness
  • hemeroby
  • RLQ ordination
  • plant indicator scales
Acceso abierto

Assessment of the Population Status of Allium Oschaninii O. Fedtsch. In the Mountains of Uzbekistan

Publicado en línea: 04 Jul 2022
Páginas: 147 - 154

Resumen

Abstract

Currently, the genetic resources of plants are on the verge of gradual disappearance, called genetic erosion. The erosion of genetic diversity implies the loss of diverse genes in individual plant species. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the collection and conservation of genetic resources of endangered plants for future use. The aim of this study is to research the natural coenopopulation of the ancestral species of cultivated plant, Allium oschaninii in the mountains of Uzbekistan. Field studies were conducted in nine coenopopulations in the Turkestan, Gissar, and Alai ranges. For each coenopopulation, a phytocoenotic characteristic given on the sites of 100 m2. When determining the structure of A. oschaninii and the characteristics of the coenopopulation, transects from 10 to 30 sites of 1 m2 were established. The condition of the coenopopulation was assessed by the age structure of A. oschaninii and using a demographic indicator. We found that the condition of the coenopopulation is normal, but incomplete. The condition of the coenopopulations 1, 8, 9 is under threat due to anthropogenic load (overgrazing) and unfavorable factors of the ecotype. The ontogenetic spectrum is centered with a peak on average generative individuals and does not coincide with the characteristic one. Coenopopulations with a left-sided type, with a predominance of juvenile individuals, are formed on stony-gravelly, fine-grained gravel, and soft-soil mountain plains. By biological nature, the ontogenetic spectrum of A. oschaninii is left- sided, with an absolute maximum on one of the pregenerative groups. According to the demographic indicators, in diverse communities and in low-mountain and medium-category habitats and in a static substrate with grazing, the coenopopulation is young, mature, and in a transitional state.

Palabras clave

  • biodiversity
  • coenopopulation
  • ontogenetic structure
  • mountains of Uzbekistan
  • genetic erosion
  • Allium oschaninii
Acceso abierto

The Effect of Population Pseudo-Rejuvenation in Adverse Changes in Living Conditions: A Case Study on the Highland Plant Species in the Ukrainian Carpathians

Publicado en línea: 04 Jul 2022
Páginas: 155 - 160

Resumen

Abstract

“Rejuvenation of population” is commonly considered as an increase in the proportion of young individuals in the population. In our opinion, the term “rejuvenation” has to be used in case of an increasing percentage of young individuals providing maintenance or increase of the entire population size. In return, an increasing percentage of young individuals while reducing the number of the entire population should be considered as “pseudo-rejuvenation.” A key feature of rejuvenation is the positive dynamics of the population. Instead, pseudo-rejuvenation is an indicator of negative exogenous or endogenous changes and is evidence of population degradation under adverse environment conditions. The article presents the most common examples of the processes of rejuvenation of populations in different plant species under the influence of anthropogenic and natural factors in the plant communities of the Ukrainian Carpathians. The main causes of rejuvenation and pseudo-rejuvenation of populations of the target plant species have been identified. Studies of population structure changes in situ were performed using both long-term monitoring transects laid 5–40 years ago and in new sites. Transects are located in the alpine, subalpine, and upper forest zones of the Ukrainian Carpathians in the height range of 1200–2000 m a.s.l. The study areas cover the most common alpine and chionophilic communities, some forest and subalpine phytocenoses.

Palabras clave

  • age composition
  • rejuvenation
  • demography
  • endangered species
Acceso abierto

Tree Species Biodiversity in Small Ukrainian Towns

Publicado en línea: 04 Jul 2022
Páginas: 161 - 171

Resumen

Abstract

Biodiversity is one of the important indicators of ecosystem sustainability, which is less studied in relation to urban areas, particularly Ukraine, and even more so in small towns. Taking the example of three small Ukrainian towns, the biodiversity of tree species is compared in the article. The studied small towns are located in two geographic zones, mixed forests (Polissya) and forest-steppe, and administratively, in Chernihiv and Kyiv regions. An inventory of trees in the residential area of Ukrainka, in the central streets of Novhorod-Siverskyi, as well as in the central part and all streets of Vyshhorod was conducted. Thus, the species richness of trees both between the studied towns and between its central part and the whole territory of the town was compared. The species structure of tree plantings in terms of richness, diversity, dominance, alignment, and similarity was assessed. The obtained results were subjected to cluster and correlation analysis. It was found that the greatest diversity is characteristic for the dendroflora of the whole territory of Vyshhorod, which is the fastest growing town, located closest to the capital. The dendrofloras of small towns were quite similar to each other. The values of similarity indices varied in a wide range: Jacquard’s index from 0.26 to 0.56 and Sørensen index from 0.41 to 0.66. The lowest degree of similarity was found with the dendroflora of the most distant Novgorod-Siverskyi town. Mainly the urban plantings require enrichment of the tree species composition, taking into account their resistance to anthropogenic impacts and climate change.

Palabras clave

  • tree plantings
  • species richness
  • similarity coefficient
Acceso abierto

Methodology of Wildlife Underpasses Attractiveness Assessment

Publicado en línea: 04 Jul 2022
Páginas: 172 - 182

Resumen

Abstract

The permeability of line barriers in the landscape is often a prerequisite for the survival of the wide spectrum of native species. The aim of this study is to create a methodology for assessing the attractiveness of wildlife underpasses used by animals during migrations, translocations or as a habitat. Understanding the relationship between the parameters of underpasses in the broader landscape-ecological context and their attractiveness for animals is a key aspect in spatial planning and the construction of new linear transport structures, which will significantly help mitigate the barrier effect and isolation of animal populations. The attractiveness assessment is based on the evaluation of the underpass individual parameters and its surroundings through the 8 sub-indexes (openness, substrate, anthropogenic, vegetation, landscape structure elements, ecological networks, potential and real migration/habitat).

Palabras clave

  • methodology
  • landscape
  • barrier effect
  • linear transport structures
  • attractivity index
Acceso abierto

The Value of Protected Areas Ranger Service Personnel for Biodiversity Monitoring: Case Study in Paklenica National Park (Croatia)

Publicado en línea: 04 Jul 2022
Páginas: 183 - 200

Resumen

Abstract

To preserve the long-term survival of habitats and wildlife, it is necessary to monitor their status. In protected areas, that is, biodiversity centres, rangers have excellent knowledge of specific locations and they spend a large amount of time in the field. But since rangers are not required to have a university degree, the question is whether they can be an added value in baseline survey monitoring. To investigate this issue, a case study was conducted in the Paklenica National Park (Paklenica NP), Croatia, using camera trapping survey between 2011 and 2016 at 22 camera sites. The aims of this survey were (1) to collect baseline data of mammalian diversity, (2) to analyse the regulatory effect of top predators on the trophic pyramid through top–down effects and (3) to estimate the data gathered by ranger service from the Paklenica NP. Data gathered through this study represents the first peer-reviewed list of medium- to large-sized mammals for Paklenica NP, as up till now, there is no peer-reviewed published paper of Paklenica NP mammalian diversity. Results showed that the recorded top predator–mesopredator–prey ratios were concordant with the trophic pyramid hypothesis. Also, as it was expected according to the literature, species richness indices were higher when top predators were present. On analysing the costs for conducting camera trapping survey by external and internal services, a significant difference was observed. Internal rangers’ cost was nine times lower than the external service cost. Future research run by rangers needs to be conducted in way to capture all mammalian biodiversity. Therefore, we propose camera trapping methodology for rangers in the protected areas since this may be an invaluable tool for biodiversity monitoring.

Palabras clave

  • rangers
  • camera trapping
  • trophic pyramid interactions
  • mammals
9 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Effects of Different Cropping and Land Management Practices on the Quality of Irrigated Soils of the Upper Awash Basin, Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

Publicado en línea: 04 Jul 2022
Páginas: 101 - 112

Resumen

Abstract

Irrigation is one way of utilizing the land resources to enhance agricultural production. Irrigation crop production is crucial in the present study area due to its arid and semi-arid climatic characteristics. However, little is known about the influence of different cropping and land management practices on soil quality (SQ). This study aimed to determine the effects of different cropping systems and land management practices on variability of SQ indicators in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia (CRVE). To this end, 45 disturbed surface (0‒20 cm) and 24 undisturbed (upper 7 cm) soil samples were collected from four adjacent farms: large-scale perennial farms (LSPF), large-scale annual farms (LSAF), smallholder subsistence annual farms (SHAF), and non-cultivated lands (NCL). Soil analyses were made for selected SQ indicators – particle size analysis, bulk density, soil water content, organic matter, pH, total nitrogen, available potassium and phosphorus, exchangeable bases, and cation exchange capacity. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) were computed. Key informants’ interview was conducted to substantiate the data obtained from soil laboratory analyses. As the results confirmed, different cropping and land management practices had significant effects on some SQ indicators. Soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available P, and available K declined significantly (P < 0.05) in the soils of LSAF and SHAF. This is attributed to land management-induced problems such as frequent tillage practice of mono-cropping, high level of mechanization, removal of crop residues/above-ground biomass in LSAF, and use of low external inputs and overcultivation without appropriate land management practices in SHAF. However, LSPF practice resulted in the improvement of key SQ indicators, next to NCL. Therefore, LSPF can be an alternative cropping and land management practice to achieve sustainable agricultural production and land management in semi-arid irrigated lands of CRVE and in places with similar environments.

Palabras clave

  • agricultural investment
  • annual farming
  • perennial farming
  • smallholders
  • soil quality
Acceso abierto

Influence of Plants on the Spatial Variability of Soil Penetration Resistance

Publicado en línea: 04 Jul 2022
Páginas: 113 - 125

Resumen

Abstract

Soil penetration resistance is an informative indicator to monitor soil compaction, which affects a range of ecological processes in floodplain ecosystems. The aim of the investigation was to reveal the influence of vegetation cover on the spatial variability of penetration resistance of floodplain soils. The study was carried out in the elm oak forest in the floodplain of the Dnipro River (Dniprovsko-Orilsky Nature Reserve, Ukraine). The study of the soil profile morphology was performed in accordance with the guidelines of the field description of soils FAO. The soil penetration resistance was measured in the field using the Eijkelkamp manual penetrometer to a depth of 100 cm at 5-cm intervals within the polygon consisted of 105 sampling points. Vegetation descriptions were made in a 3×3-meter surrounding from each sampling point. The soil penetration resistance was found to regularly increase with increasing depth. The changes in resistance values were insignificant until 25–30 cm depth. After that, there was a sharp increase in penetration resistance up to the depth of 70–75 cm, after which the indicators plateaued. In the three-dimensional aspect, the spatial variation of soil penetration resistance can be fractionated into broad-scale, medium-scale, and fine-scale components. Tree vegetation induces a broad-scale component of soil penetration resistance variations, which embraces the whole soil profile. The herbaceous vegetation induces a medium-scale component, which embraces the upper and middle parts of the soil profile. The fine-scale component is influenced by pedogenic factors.

Palabras clave

  • soil compaction
  • floodplain
  • distance-based Moran’s eigenvector maps
  • community ordination
  • phytoindication
Acceso abierto

Water Quality from the Sources of Non-Centralized Water Supply within the Rural Settlements of Zhytomyr Region

Publicado en línea: 04 Jul 2022
Páginas: 126 - 134

Resumen

Abstract

The research was conducted within the territories of rural settlements of Zhytomyr region. A total of 72 sources of non-centralized water supply were surveyed. Water quality was assessed by physical and chemical (pH, iron total, total water hardness) and toxicological (nitrites, nitrates, and ammonium) indicators, the content of which was compared with the norms given in the State Sanitary Regulations and Standards 2.2.4-171-10 “Hygienic Requirements for Drinking Water Intended for Human Consumption.” The assessment of drinking water quality was carried out in accordance with DSTU (National Standards of Ukraine) 4808:2007 and with the water quality index (WQI). It was found that the largest deviations from the norm among toxicological indicators were observed for nitrates – 63.9%. In terms of water quality classes according to DSTU 4808:2007, drinking water from sources of non-centralized water supply of villages showed the following distribution: 2.8% of the samples belonged to class 1 (excellent water quality), 72.2% to class 2, and 25% to class 3. According to WQI, 16.7% of the examined sources of non-centralized water supply had excellent water, 63.9% had good water, and 19.4% had poor water. Despite the fact that the water from the investigated sources of non-centralized water supply was of acceptable quality, it is impotable due to the excessive nitrate content. The results obtained show that there is a need for monitoring of drinking water quality from the sources of non-centralized water supply, especially in rural settlements that are not provided with centralized water supply.

Palabras clave

  • wells
  • nitrate content
  • limiting index
  • sanitary standards
  • water quality index (WQI)
  • degree of quality
Acceso abierto

Assessment of Naturalness: The Response of Social Behavior Types of Plants to Anthropogenic Impact

Publicado en línea: 04 Jul 2022
Páginas: 135 - 146

Resumen

Abstract

The aims of this research are to assess the relationship between the concepts of hemeroby and naturalness of plant communities and to test the hypothesis about the ordinal nature of the response of social behavior types of plants under anthropogenic influence. Study area is the recreational zone of the Botanical Garden of Dnipro National University, named after Oles Gonchar, Dnipro City, Ukraine (48.43°N 35.05°E). Four polygons (105 relevés in each) were examined. Two polygons were in the zone after park reconstruction, and two were in the zone without reconstruction. The vegetation community ordination was performed using RLQ analysis. The Q-table was represented by eight dummy variables, which indicated social behavior types. The most important predictors of naturalness were aggressive alien species and invaders and weeds (positive dependence) and disturbance tolerants (negative dependence). The most important predictors of hemeroby were aggressive alien species (negative dependence) and ruderal competitors, invaders, and disturbance tolerants (positive dependence). Naturalness and hemeroby reflect different strategies for transforming a plant community and are not completely symmetrically opposed concepts. The response of a plant community is multivariate, so the naturalness metric based on the social behavior types is only able to distinguish well between the extreme states of a plant community, but is a poor measure for a more detailed assessment of naturalness.

Palabras clave

  • vegetation
  • anthropogenic transformation
  • naturalness
  • hemeroby
  • RLQ ordination
  • plant indicator scales
Acceso abierto

Assessment of the Population Status of Allium Oschaninii O. Fedtsch. In the Mountains of Uzbekistan

Publicado en línea: 04 Jul 2022
Páginas: 147 - 154

Resumen

Abstract

Currently, the genetic resources of plants are on the verge of gradual disappearance, called genetic erosion. The erosion of genetic diversity implies the loss of diverse genes in individual plant species. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the collection and conservation of genetic resources of endangered plants for future use. The aim of this study is to research the natural coenopopulation of the ancestral species of cultivated plant, Allium oschaninii in the mountains of Uzbekistan. Field studies were conducted in nine coenopopulations in the Turkestan, Gissar, and Alai ranges. For each coenopopulation, a phytocoenotic characteristic given on the sites of 100 m2. When determining the structure of A. oschaninii and the characteristics of the coenopopulation, transects from 10 to 30 sites of 1 m2 were established. The condition of the coenopopulation was assessed by the age structure of A. oschaninii and using a demographic indicator. We found that the condition of the coenopopulation is normal, but incomplete. The condition of the coenopopulations 1, 8, 9 is under threat due to anthropogenic load (overgrazing) and unfavorable factors of the ecotype. The ontogenetic spectrum is centered with a peak on average generative individuals and does not coincide with the characteristic one. Coenopopulations with a left-sided type, with a predominance of juvenile individuals, are formed on stony-gravelly, fine-grained gravel, and soft-soil mountain plains. By biological nature, the ontogenetic spectrum of A. oschaninii is left- sided, with an absolute maximum on one of the pregenerative groups. According to the demographic indicators, in diverse communities and in low-mountain and medium-category habitats and in a static substrate with grazing, the coenopopulation is young, mature, and in a transitional state.

Palabras clave

  • biodiversity
  • coenopopulation
  • ontogenetic structure
  • mountains of Uzbekistan
  • genetic erosion
  • Allium oschaninii
Acceso abierto

The Effect of Population Pseudo-Rejuvenation in Adverse Changes in Living Conditions: A Case Study on the Highland Plant Species in the Ukrainian Carpathians

Publicado en línea: 04 Jul 2022
Páginas: 155 - 160

Resumen

Abstract

“Rejuvenation of population” is commonly considered as an increase in the proportion of young individuals in the population. In our opinion, the term “rejuvenation” has to be used in case of an increasing percentage of young individuals providing maintenance or increase of the entire population size. In return, an increasing percentage of young individuals while reducing the number of the entire population should be considered as “pseudo-rejuvenation.” A key feature of rejuvenation is the positive dynamics of the population. Instead, pseudo-rejuvenation is an indicator of negative exogenous or endogenous changes and is evidence of population degradation under adverse environment conditions. The article presents the most common examples of the processes of rejuvenation of populations in different plant species under the influence of anthropogenic and natural factors in the plant communities of the Ukrainian Carpathians. The main causes of rejuvenation and pseudo-rejuvenation of populations of the target plant species have been identified. Studies of population structure changes in situ were performed using both long-term monitoring transects laid 5–40 years ago and in new sites. Transects are located in the alpine, subalpine, and upper forest zones of the Ukrainian Carpathians in the height range of 1200–2000 m a.s.l. The study areas cover the most common alpine and chionophilic communities, some forest and subalpine phytocenoses.

Palabras clave

  • age composition
  • rejuvenation
  • demography
  • endangered species
Acceso abierto

Tree Species Biodiversity in Small Ukrainian Towns

Publicado en línea: 04 Jul 2022
Páginas: 161 - 171

Resumen

Abstract

Biodiversity is one of the important indicators of ecosystem sustainability, which is less studied in relation to urban areas, particularly Ukraine, and even more so in small towns. Taking the example of three small Ukrainian towns, the biodiversity of tree species is compared in the article. The studied small towns are located in two geographic zones, mixed forests (Polissya) and forest-steppe, and administratively, in Chernihiv and Kyiv regions. An inventory of trees in the residential area of Ukrainka, in the central streets of Novhorod-Siverskyi, as well as in the central part and all streets of Vyshhorod was conducted. Thus, the species richness of trees both between the studied towns and between its central part and the whole territory of the town was compared. The species structure of tree plantings in terms of richness, diversity, dominance, alignment, and similarity was assessed. The obtained results were subjected to cluster and correlation analysis. It was found that the greatest diversity is characteristic for the dendroflora of the whole territory of Vyshhorod, which is the fastest growing town, located closest to the capital. The dendrofloras of small towns were quite similar to each other. The values of similarity indices varied in a wide range: Jacquard’s index from 0.26 to 0.56 and Sørensen index from 0.41 to 0.66. The lowest degree of similarity was found with the dendroflora of the most distant Novgorod-Siverskyi town. Mainly the urban plantings require enrichment of the tree species composition, taking into account their resistance to anthropogenic impacts and climate change.

Palabras clave

  • tree plantings
  • species richness
  • similarity coefficient
Acceso abierto

Methodology of Wildlife Underpasses Attractiveness Assessment

Publicado en línea: 04 Jul 2022
Páginas: 172 - 182

Resumen

Abstract

The permeability of line barriers in the landscape is often a prerequisite for the survival of the wide spectrum of native species. The aim of this study is to create a methodology for assessing the attractiveness of wildlife underpasses used by animals during migrations, translocations or as a habitat. Understanding the relationship between the parameters of underpasses in the broader landscape-ecological context and their attractiveness for animals is a key aspect in spatial planning and the construction of new linear transport structures, which will significantly help mitigate the barrier effect and isolation of animal populations. The attractiveness assessment is based on the evaluation of the underpass individual parameters and its surroundings through the 8 sub-indexes (openness, substrate, anthropogenic, vegetation, landscape structure elements, ecological networks, potential and real migration/habitat).

Palabras clave

  • methodology
  • landscape
  • barrier effect
  • linear transport structures
  • attractivity index
Acceso abierto

The Value of Protected Areas Ranger Service Personnel for Biodiversity Monitoring: Case Study in Paklenica National Park (Croatia)

Publicado en línea: 04 Jul 2022
Páginas: 183 - 200

Resumen

Abstract

To preserve the long-term survival of habitats and wildlife, it is necessary to monitor their status. In protected areas, that is, biodiversity centres, rangers have excellent knowledge of specific locations and they spend a large amount of time in the field. But since rangers are not required to have a university degree, the question is whether they can be an added value in baseline survey monitoring. To investigate this issue, a case study was conducted in the Paklenica National Park (Paklenica NP), Croatia, using camera trapping survey between 2011 and 2016 at 22 camera sites. The aims of this survey were (1) to collect baseline data of mammalian diversity, (2) to analyse the regulatory effect of top predators on the trophic pyramid through top–down effects and (3) to estimate the data gathered by ranger service from the Paklenica NP. Data gathered through this study represents the first peer-reviewed list of medium- to large-sized mammals for Paklenica NP, as up till now, there is no peer-reviewed published paper of Paklenica NP mammalian diversity. Results showed that the recorded top predator–mesopredator–prey ratios were concordant with the trophic pyramid hypothesis. Also, as it was expected according to the literature, species richness indices were higher when top predators were present. On analysing the costs for conducting camera trapping survey by external and internal services, a significant difference was observed. Internal rangers’ cost was nine times lower than the external service cost. Future research run by rangers needs to be conducted in way to capture all mammalian biodiversity. Therefore, we propose camera trapping methodology for rangers in the protected areas since this may be an invaluable tool for biodiversity monitoring.

Palabras clave

  • rangers
  • camera trapping
  • trophic pyramid interactions
  • mammals

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