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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
1338-5259
Publicado por primera vez
06 Sep 2013
Periodo de publicación
2 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

Volumen 22 (2019): Edición 1 (May 2019)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
1338-5259
Publicado por primera vez
06 Sep 2013
Periodo de publicación
2 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

9 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Small Sacral Christian Architecture in the Cultural Landscapes of Europe

Publicado en línea: 26 Jun 2019
Páginas: 1 - 7

Resumen

Abstract

Though often overlooked due to its scale, small sacral Christian architecture has a significant importance in cultural landscapes in Europe and beyond. It represents a shared international cultural heritage and is significant in its diversity, distribution and abundance across cultural landscapes. The tradition of the artistic depiction of the cross in Christianity dates back to the 4th century AD. The first monuments in the form of crosses were placed in open landscapes in Scotland in the 7th century. The most important period for the spread of small sacral architecture of Catholic origin in eastern Europe was during the Baroque, thus most of the preserved small sacral monuments date back to the late 17th,18th and 19th centuries. They are often accompanied by monumental single trees or a compositionally organised group of trees and create a sacred composition of nature and culture. They have become important landmarks, indicators of place and landscape features of spatial organization, representing a significant historical legacy and cultural heritage for future generations. This article elaborates on the origin, historical development and landscape values of small sacral Christian architecture, as well as their relation to separate natural monuments or natural features that create part of the sacral composition, such as memorial trees growing around them. This article introduces the topic of sacral architecture and its contribution to the character and identity of European cultural landscapes.

Palabras clave

  • cultural heritage
  • history
  • landscape
  • sacral architecture
  • trees
Acceso abierto

Sacred Landscapes in Galicia: Small Religious Architecture and Symbolism

Publicado en línea: 26 Jun 2019
Páginas: 8 - 13

Resumen

Abstract

Cultural landscapes are multi-layered entities that constantly endure changes and transformations, especially in Europe due to its ancient history and anthropized nature, which reveals itself not only in physical elements, but also through immaterial heritage. This paper aims to analyse the connection between sacred landscapes, small religious architecture and folklore, focusing on the origin and transformations of several places in Galicia (northwest of Spain). Galicia is defined by its rich flora and fauna, a management of its land based on smallholding and the social idiosyncrasy of its people, defined by strong symbolism and the religious tradition that is reflected in a great amount of small sacred architecture. All this provide a paradigmatic territory for this research, allowing an approach to the case studies from the point of view of landscape architecture, assessing the small sacred architecture elements, their background, symbolism and associated vegetation. It is worth mentioning that, although vegetation had a very strong meaning and symbolism in the sacred history of Galicia, nowadays it only appears in 26% of the analysed case studies.

Palabras clave

  • small sacred architecture
  • cultural landscape
  • immaterial heritage
  • Galicia
  • trees
Acceso abierto

Oriental Planes Platanus orientalis L. and Other Monumental Trees in Central Squares and Churchyards in NW Greece: Sacred, Emblematic and Threatened

Publicado en línea: 26 Jun 2019
Páginas: 14 - 18

Resumen

Abstract

Trees often offer meaningful metaphors of and for society, connecting symbolically social and cultural life and creating specific bonds between nature and culture. We studied central squares and churchyard trees in the mountainous villages of Epirus, NW Greece, recording tree species and measuring their characteristics in the field, using also ethno-ecological tools for valuing their importance in the local community. The most common trees are monumental oriental plane trees (Platanus orientalis L.) which provide a focal point for community life and serve locally as symbols of community origin, reunion and inter-generational continuity. Such plane trees are also highly appreciated nationally for their aesthetic qualities and historical value. Recognition of the conservation importance of monumental trees should be a high priority, so as to secure the future of emblematic trees and the cultural landscapes they create, especially as invasive pathogens are spreading worldwide threatening their existence.

Palabras clave

  • cultural landscapes
  • sacred natural sites
  • North Pindos National Park
Acceso abierto

Marking Sacred Ground through Imported Trees and Medieval European Sculpture at the Washington National Cathedral

Publicado en línea: 26 Jun 2019
Páginas: 19 - 22

Resumen

Abstract

The landscape of the Washington National Cathedral contains a variety of sacred objects imported from Europe and Asia. They include stone sculptures and living flora. Many of the stone objects came from the collection of George Grey Barnard, an American sculptor, trained in Paris, who travelled Europe in the early 20th century purchasing medieval antiquities (Weinberger, 1941). How do we understand these displaced pieces incorporated into this new context? On the one hand, their use in the landscape brings it significance, a physical and tangible connection to the roots of Christianity. On the other hand, they remind us of the relative youth of this sacred landscape and the question of what makes places sacred. Is a place sacred because of something inherent to it or do we mark ordinary ground with significant objects to sanctify it? Largely, the Washington National Cathedral landscape seems to demonstrate the latter approach. Imported objects mark and validate the sacredness of the site from medieval stone archways to significant pairs of trees.

Palabras clave

  • Washington National Cathedral
  • sacred ground
  • George Grey Barnard
  • sacred trees
  • medieval sculpture
Acceso abierto

Small Roadside Sacral Structures in the Borzechów Commune (Lublin Region) and Their Dendroflora

Publicado en línea: 26 Jun 2019
Páginas: 23 - 28

Resumen

Abstract

Trees and shrubs significantly increase the visual value of roadside crosses and shrines. The paper presents results of the inventory of small roadside sacral structures in Borzechów Commune (Central-Eastern Poland). The species composition and the age status of dendroflora surrounding small roadside sacral structures were examined. We have inventoried 94 small roadside sacral structures in Borzechów Commune. Only 68 of them were surrounded by trees and shrubs that represent 39 species. The most common deciduous species are small leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill.) and common lilac (Syringa vulgaris L.), but the most common coniferous species is northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.). In the research area the most common small roadside sacral structures are crosses. Shrines and statues of saints are very rare.

Palabras clave

  • dendroflora
  • small roadside sacral structures
  • landscape of Borzechów
  • cross
  • shrine
Acceso abierto

Small Sacral Architecture and Its Greenery in Lower Spiš Region in Slovakia

Publicado en línea: 26 Jun 2019
Páginas: 29 - 36

Resumen

Abstract

Small sacral structures are significant elements of Spiš cultural landscapes (North-East Slovakia). This paper presents results of the field mapping of small roadside sacral objects and their greenery along a 66-kilometre long road section connecting North and South of Lower Spiš and the municipalities of Levoča, Spišská Nová Ves, Hnilčík, Mníšek nad Hnilcom, Smolník, and Úhorná. This road was an old trade route and has an important historical legacy in Lower Spiš – a traditional mining cultural landscape with a characteristic hilly topography, wide forest landscapes and rich mining history. The presented mapping was conducted within the research project VEGA 1/0371/18 “SacralArch: Preservation of the Historical Legacy and Architectural Diversity of Small Sacral Structures in Cultural Landscapes of Slovakia“, based on the methodology elaborated by Tóth (2018), which includes localisation, spatial context, technical or health condition and an overall description of the sacral element and the woody plants in its direct surroundings. In total, 13 small roadside sacral objects were mapped, while the most prevailing elements are crosses. The most common cross type is wooden cross without pedestal. The oldest and aesthetically most valuable elements are metal crosses on stone pedestals, made of travertine. The most valuable element is a registered cultural monument – a Baroque roadside chapel of St. John of Nepomuk from 1726 in Smolník. Woody plants accompany only roadside crosses in the study area. The oldest and most significant in terms of landscape value are individuals of small-leaved linden trees (Tilia cordata Mill).

Palabras clave

  • cultural landscape
  • heritage
  • monument
  • small sacral structure
  • tree
Acceso abierto

Assessment of Small Sacral Objects in the Senica Region, Slovakia

Publicado en línea: 26 Jun 2019
Páginas: 37 - 40

Resumen

Abstract

The sacral objects have great meaning in the cultural landscape in Slovakia. There are several types according to the significance, size and location, which could be identified in the countries, where the major religion is Christianity. The paper deals with the assessment of the sacral objects from architectural and urban point of view and also according to the presence of greenery accompanying the object. The surveyed area was the Senica region, located in the western part of Slovakia. The hidden symbolism and meaning of these objects could be find in their formation and precise placement. The greenery, which was planted by them – the type and number – has also significant meaning. The group of trees draws attention to a small sacral object, which could be noticed from distance, they protect it and support it. There are descriptions and explanations in stories and memories. Obviously, in the past, these objects did not have only symbolic meaning, but also a concrete spiritual significance for society. The field survey was carried out in 2017. Several criteria were evaluated: the location of the objects, the architectural background and the trees inventory.

Palabras clave

  • small sacral objects
  • cultural landscape
  • Senica
  • Slovakia
  • assessment of greenery
Acceso abierto

Objects of Small Sacral Architecture and Landscape – Case Study of the Commune of Žirany

Publicado en línea: 26 Jun 2019
Páginas: 41 - 47

Resumen

Abstract

This study aims to analyse existence, technical condition, origin and history of objects of small sacral architecture in the area of the Tribeč Mountains, specifically as a case study in the commune of Žirany. It defines different types of objects, mostly small chapels and crosses and specific phenomenon of small boxes with sculpture of saints installed on the front facades of residential houses. The study also focuses on the relation between small sacral architecture and existence of elements of greenery. As a result, the work presents a detailed description of the individual mapped elements and an overview map showing the objects in the cadastral area of Žirany.

Palabras clave

  • small sacral architecture
  • landscape
  • chapel
  • sculpture
  • cross
Acceso abierto

Reuse of Churches in Urban and Rural Dutch Landscapes

Publicado en línea: 26 Jun 2019
Páginas: 48 - 55

Resumen

Abstract

European churches are confronted with the challenge of finding new uses for their church buildings. Due to a lack of members and income, the maintenance of their buildings cannot be ensured in the future; therefore, new applications and users are to be found. This task poses a considerable challenge, especially in a to a certain extent provincial and conservative country like the Netherlands, where people, even irreligious ones, perceive the church as a building that belongs to them. Besides having to deal with the building in an architectural way, there is a wide range of possibilities for reusing it; for example, community-based or mixed uses, commercial or residential ones. The eventual solution is mainly based on the church’s building type, the influence of the neighborhood, the owner’s financial possibilities, and the location. One of the present study’s main results suggests that uses which serve the community are more likely to be found in rural areas, consequently reflecting the importance of those buildings there.

Palabras clave

  • reuse
  • adaption
  • ecclesiastical buildings
  • churches
  • the Netherlands
  • cultural landscapes
9 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Small Sacral Christian Architecture in the Cultural Landscapes of Europe

Publicado en línea: 26 Jun 2019
Páginas: 1 - 7

Resumen

Abstract

Though often overlooked due to its scale, small sacral Christian architecture has a significant importance in cultural landscapes in Europe and beyond. It represents a shared international cultural heritage and is significant in its diversity, distribution and abundance across cultural landscapes. The tradition of the artistic depiction of the cross in Christianity dates back to the 4th century AD. The first monuments in the form of crosses were placed in open landscapes in Scotland in the 7th century. The most important period for the spread of small sacral architecture of Catholic origin in eastern Europe was during the Baroque, thus most of the preserved small sacral monuments date back to the late 17th,18th and 19th centuries. They are often accompanied by monumental single trees or a compositionally organised group of trees and create a sacred composition of nature and culture. They have become important landmarks, indicators of place and landscape features of spatial organization, representing a significant historical legacy and cultural heritage for future generations. This article elaborates on the origin, historical development and landscape values of small sacral Christian architecture, as well as their relation to separate natural monuments or natural features that create part of the sacral composition, such as memorial trees growing around them. This article introduces the topic of sacral architecture and its contribution to the character and identity of European cultural landscapes.

Palabras clave

  • cultural heritage
  • history
  • landscape
  • sacral architecture
  • trees
Acceso abierto

Sacred Landscapes in Galicia: Small Religious Architecture and Symbolism

Publicado en línea: 26 Jun 2019
Páginas: 8 - 13

Resumen

Abstract

Cultural landscapes are multi-layered entities that constantly endure changes and transformations, especially in Europe due to its ancient history and anthropized nature, which reveals itself not only in physical elements, but also through immaterial heritage. This paper aims to analyse the connection between sacred landscapes, small religious architecture and folklore, focusing on the origin and transformations of several places in Galicia (northwest of Spain). Galicia is defined by its rich flora and fauna, a management of its land based on smallholding and the social idiosyncrasy of its people, defined by strong symbolism and the religious tradition that is reflected in a great amount of small sacred architecture. All this provide a paradigmatic territory for this research, allowing an approach to the case studies from the point of view of landscape architecture, assessing the small sacred architecture elements, their background, symbolism and associated vegetation. It is worth mentioning that, although vegetation had a very strong meaning and symbolism in the sacred history of Galicia, nowadays it only appears in 26% of the analysed case studies.

Palabras clave

  • small sacred architecture
  • cultural landscape
  • immaterial heritage
  • Galicia
  • trees
Acceso abierto

Oriental Planes Platanus orientalis L. and Other Monumental Trees in Central Squares and Churchyards in NW Greece: Sacred, Emblematic and Threatened

Publicado en línea: 26 Jun 2019
Páginas: 14 - 18

Resumen

Abstract

Trees often offer meaningful metaphors of and for society, connecting symbolically social and cultural life and creating specific bonds between nature and culture. We studied central squares and churchyard trees in the mountainous villages of Epirus, NW Greece, recording tree species and measuring their characteristics in the field, using also ethno-ecological tools for valuing their importance in the local community. The most common trees are monumental oriental plane trees (Platanus orientalis L.) which provide a focal point for community life and serve locally as symbols of community origin, reunion and inter-generational continuity. Such plane trees are also highly appreciated nationally for their aesthetic qualities and historical value. Recognition of the conservation importance of monumental trees should be a high priority, so as to secure the future of emblematic trees and the cultural landscapes they create, especially as invasive pathogens are spreading worldwide threatening their existence.

Palabras clave

  • cultural landscapes
  • sacred natural sites
  • North Pindos National Park
Acceso abierto

Marking Sacred Ground through Imported Trees and Medieval European Sculpture at the Washington National Cathedral

Publicado en línea: 26 Jun 2019
Páginas: 19 - 22

Resumen

Abstract

The landscape of the Washington National Cathedral contains a variety of sacred objects imported from Europe and Asia. They include stone sculptures and living flora. Many of the stone objects came from the collection of George Grey Barnard, an American sculptor, trained in Paris, who travelled Europe in the early 20th century purchasing medieval antiquities (Weinberger, 1941). How do we understand these displaced pieces incorporated into this new context? On the one hand, their use in the landscape brings it significance, a physical and tangible connection to the roots of Christianity. On the other hand, they remind us of the relative youth of this sacred landscape and the question of what makes places sacred. Is a place sacred because of something inherent to it or do we mark ordinary ground with significant objects to sanctify it? Largely, the Washington National Cathedral landscape seems to demonstrate the latter approach. Imported objects mark and validate the sacredness of the site from medieval stone archways to significant pairs of trees.

Palabras clave

  • Washington National Cathedral
  • sacred ground
  • George Grey Barnard
  • sacred trees
  • medieval sculpture
Acceso abierto

Small Roadside Sacral Structures in the Borzechów Commune (Lublin Region) and Their Dendroflora

Publicado en línea: 26 Jun 2019
Páginas: 23 - 28

Resumen

Abstract

Trees and shrubs significantly increase the visual value of roadside crosses and shrines. The paper presents results of the inventory of small roadside sacral structures in Borzechów Commune (Central-Eastern Poland). The species composition and the age status of dendroflora surrounding small roadside sacral structures were examined. We have inventoried 94 small roadside sacral structures in Borzechów Commune. Only 68 of them were surrounded by trees and shrubs that represent 39 species. The most common deciduous species are small leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill.) and common lilac (Syringa vulgaris L.), but the most common coniferous species is northern white-cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.). In the research area the most common small roadside sacral structures are crosses. Shrines and statues of saints are very rare.

Palabras clave

  • dendroflora
  • small roadside sacral structures
  • landscape of Borzechów
  • cross
  • shrine
Acceso abierto

Small Sacral Architecture and Its Greenery in Lower Spiš Region in Slovakia

Publicado en línea: 26 Jun 2019
Páginas: 29 - 36

Resumen

Abstract

Small sacral structures are significant elements of Spiš cultural landscapes (North-East Slovakia). This paper presents results of the field mapping of small roadside sacral objects and their greenery along a 66-kilometre long road section connecting North and South of Lower Spiš and the municipalities of Levoča, Spišská Nová Ves, Hnilčík, Mníšek nad Hnilcom, Smolník, and Úhorná. This road was an old trade route and has an important historical legacy in Lower Spiš – a traditional mining cultural landscape with a characteristic hilly topography, wide forest landscapes and rich mining history. The presented mapping was conducted within the research project VEGA 1/0371/18 “SacralArch: Preservation of the Historical Legacy and Architectural Diversity of Small Sacral Structures in Cultural Landscapes of Slovakia“, based on the methodology elaborated by Tóth (2018), which includes localisation, spatial context, technical or health condition and an overall description of the sacral element and the woody plants in its direct surroundings. In total, 13 small roadside sacral objects were mapped, while the most prevailing elements are crosses. The most common cross type is wooden cross without pedestal. The oldest and aesthetically most valuable elements are metal crosses on stone pedestals, made of travertine. The most valuable element is a registered cultural monument – a Baroque roadside chapel of St. John of Nepomuk from 1726 in Smolník. Woody plants accompany only roadside crosses in the study area. The oldest and most significant in terms of landscape value are individuals of small-leaved linden trees (Tilia cordata Mill).

Palabras clave

  • cultural landscape
  • heritage
  • monument
  • small sacral structure
  • tree
Acceso abierto

Assessment of Small Sacral Objects in the Senica Region, Slovakia

Publicado en línea: 26 Jun 2019
Páginas: 37 - 40

Resumen

Abstract

The sacral objects have great meaning in the cultural landscape in Slovakia. There are several types according to the significance, size and location, which could be identified in the countries, where the major religion is Christianity. The paper deals with the assessment of the sacral objects from architectural and urban point of view and also according to the presence of greenery accompanying the object. The surveyed area was the Senica region, located in the western part of Slovakia. The hidden symbolism and meaning of these objects could be find in their formation and precise placement. The greenery, which was planted by them – the type and number – has also significant meaning. The group of trees draws attention to a small sacral object, which could be noticed from distance, they protect it and support it. There are descriptions and explanations in stories and memories. Obviously, in the past, these objects did not have only symbolic meaning, but also a concrete spiritual significance for society. The field survey was carried out in 2017. Several criteria were evaluated: the location of the objects, the architectural background and the trees inventory.

Palabras clave

  • small sacral objects
  • cultural landscape
  • Senica
  • Slovakia
  • assessment of greenery
Acceso abierto

Objects of Small Sacral Architecture and Landscape – Case Study of the Commune of Žirany

Publicado en línea: 26 Jun 2019
Páginas: 41 - 47

Resumen

Abstract

This study aims to analyse existence, technical condition, origin and history of objects of small sacral architecture in the area of the Tribeč Mountains, specifically as a case study in the commune of Žirany. It defines different types of objects, mostly small chapels and crosses and specific phenomenon of small boxes with sculpture of saints installed on the front facades of residential houses. The study also focuses on the relation between small sacral architecture and existence of elements of greenery. As a result, the work presents a detailed description of the individual mapped elements and an overview map showing the objects in the cadastral area of Žirany.

Palabras clave

  • small sacral architecture
  • landscape
  • chapel
  • sculpture
  • cross
Acceso abierto

Reuse of Churches in Urban and Rural Dutch Landscapes

Publicado en línea: 26 Jun 2019
Páginas: 48 - 55

Resumen

Abstract

European churches are confronted with the challenge of finding new uses for their church buildings. Due to a lack of members and income, the maintenance of their buildings cannot be ensured in the future; therefore, new applications and users are to be found. This task poses a considerable challenge, especially in a to a certain extent provincial and conservative country like the Netherlands, where people, even irreligious ones, perceive the church as a building that belongs to them. Besides having to deal with the building in an architectural way, there is a wide range of possibilities for reusing it; for example, community-based or mixed uses, commercial or residential ones. The eventual solution is mainly based on the church’s building type, the influence of the neighborhood, the owner’s financial possibilities, and the location. One of the present study’s main results suggests that uses which serve the community are more likely to be found in rural areas, consequently reflecting the importance of those buildings there.

Palabras clave

  • reuse
  • adaption
  • ecclesiastical buildings
  • churches
  • the Netherlands
  • cultural landscapes

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