This study sought to determine the potential prophylactic and antioxidant effects of aminoguanidine in experimentally induced diabetes. Four groups of Wistar rats, each composed of ten rats, were used. Two groups served as control. In group 3, diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (65 mg kg-1). In group 4, diabetes was induced and treated with aminoguanidine (100 mg kg-1 daily) orally for 3 months. Levels of serum glucose, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and erythrocytes catalase were analyzed on day 90 of the experiment. Retinal and kidney specimens were examined histopathologically after sacrifice of the animals. A significant antioxidant effect of aminoguanidine and its prophylactic role in diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy were observed in experimental animals.