1. bookVolumen 29 (2021): Edición 2 (December 2021)
Detalles de la revista
License
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2061-9588
Primera edición
08 Oct 2013
Calendario de la edición
2 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés
Acceso abierto

Human activities can hinder the breeding of a top avian predator: preliminary results

Publicado en línea: 29 Nov 2021
Volumen & Edición: Volumen 29 (2021) - Edición 2 (December 2021)
Páginas: 71 - 80
Recibido: 19 May 2021
Aceptado: 12 Oct 2021
Detalles de la revista
License
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2061-9588
Primera edición
08 Oct 2013
Calendario de la edición
2 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés
Abstract

The Eastern Imperial Eagle (EIE) is a large-sized, globally threatened species with a wide distribution. The species is extremely vulnerable and sensitive to human disturbance and activities in the vicinities of its nests. We analyzed the effect of human disturbance in two territories of Eastern Imperial Eagles from Bulgaria in 2008–2009. We recorded 375 cases of different types of human activity in the vicinities of the two surveyed nests – 60 cases in nest A and 315 in nest B. The most common activity around the studied nests was the passing of light motor vehicles (n=100 cases). Our results highlight that the probability of EIE’s reaction is dependent on the type of activity, distance from the nest and the duration of the activity. However, eagles’ reaction is independent from the number of intruders. We found that with the decrease of the distance to the nest, the reaction progresses and is more acute. We found statistical differences between the distance belts and the majority of alert and flight reactions that were recorded at distances up to 300 m from the nests. We reported that humans walking around nests (mainly hunters, fishermen, tourists, people illegally extracting sand in the close vicinities of the nests) result in a large number of reactions of flight off by the eagles thus, leaving the nest unattended. More research on a large scale on this topic is needed including more accurate measures to address human disturbance in EIE territories. The findings will be applied to ensure higher breeding rates and species conservation.

Keywords

Bautista, L. M., García, J. T., Calmaestra, R. G., Palacin, C., Martín, C. A., Morales, M. B., Bonal, R. & Viñuela, J. 2004. Effect of weekend road traffic on the use of space by raptors. – Conservation Biology 18(3): 1–7. DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2004.00499.x10.1111/j.1523-1739.2004.00499.x Search in Google Scholar

Bibby, C., Jones, M. & Marsden, S. 1999. Expedition Field Techniques. – Bird Surveys. Royal Geographical Society, London Search in Google Scholar

Bijleveld, M. 1974. Birds of Prey in Europe. – The MacMillan Press Ltd., London10.1007/978-1-349-02393-6 Search in Google Scholar

BirdLife International 2021. Species factsheet: Aquila heliaca. – http://www.birdlife.org on 06/03/2021. Search in Google Scholar

Bisson, I. A., Ferrer, M. & Bird, D. M. 2002. Factors influencing nest-site selection by Spanish Imperial Eagles. – Journal of Field Ornithology 73(3): 298–302. DOI: 10.1648/0273-8570-73.3.29810.1648/0273-8570-73.3.298 Search in Google Scholar

Bondev, Z. 1991. Flora in Bulgaria. – Publishing House “Kliment Ohridsky”, Sofia (in Bulgarian) Search in Google Scholar

Castano, J. P. & Guzman, J. A. 1995. Reproductive aspects of Aquila adalberti and Aquila chrysaetos in eastern Sierra Morena. – Ardeola 42(1): 83–89. Search in Google Scholar

Demerdzhiev, D., Horváth, M., Kovács, A., Stoychev, S. & Karyakin, I. 2011a Status and population trend of the Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) in Europe in the period 2000–2010. – Acta Zoologica Bulgarica Suppl. 3: 5–14. Search in Google Scholar

Demerdzhiev, D., Dobrev, D., Popgeorgiev, G., Stoychev, S. in press. Landscape alteration affecting the demography of an endangered avian predator by reducing the habitat quality. – Journal of Avian Research Search in Google Scholar

Demerdzhiev, D. A., Gradev, G. Zh., Stoychev, S. A., Ivanov, I., Petrov, Tz. & Marin, S. A. 2011b Increase of the population of the Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) in Bulgaria. – Acta Zoologica Bulgarica Suppl. 3: 41–54. Search in Google Scholar

Demerdzhiev, D., Stoychev, S., Dobrev, D., Spasov, S. & Terziev, N. 2014. Conservation measures undertaken to improve the population status of Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) in Bulgaria. – Slovak Raptor Journal 8(1): 27–39. DOI: 10.2478/srj-2014-000710.2478/srj-2014-0007 Search in Google Scholar

Dobrev, D. 2009. Some aspects of nest etology of the Eastern Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca) (Aves: Accipitridae) in Sakar mountain. – Ecologia Balkanica 1: 60–66. Search in Google Scholar

Fernandez, C. & Azkona, P. 1993. Human disturbance affects parental care of Marsh Harriers and nutritional status of nestlings. – Journal of Wildlife Management 57(3): 602–608. DOI: 10.2307/380928910.2307/3809289 Search in Google Scholar

Fernandez-Juricic, E. 2002. Can human disturbance promote nestedness? A case study with breeding birds in urban habitat fragments. – Oecologia 131(2): 269–278. DOI: 10.1007/s00442-002-0883-y10.1007/s00442-002-0883-y28547695 Search in Google Scholar

Ferrer, M. & Harte, M. 1997. Habitat selection by immature Spanish Imperial Eagles during the dispersal period. – Journal of Applied Ecology 34(6): 1359–1364. DOI: 10.2307/240525310.2307/2405253 Search in Google Scholar

Ferrer, M., Negro, J., Casado, E., Muriel, R. & Madero, A. 2007. Human disturbance and the conservation of the Spanish Imperial Eagle: A response to Gonzalez et al. 2006. – Animal Conservation 10(3): 293–294. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-1795.2006.00090.x10.1111/j.1469-1795.2006.00090.x Search in Google Scholar

Forsman, D. 2005. Eastern Imperial Eagle plumages. – Alula 4: 147–152. Search in Google Scholar

Fraser, J. D., Frenzel, L. & Mathisen, J. E. 1985. The impact of human activities on breeding Bald Eagles in north-central Minnesota. – Journal of Wildlife Management 49: 585–592. DOI: 10.2307/380167610.2307/3801676 Search in Google Scholar

Gonzalez, L. M., Arroyo, B., Margalida, A., Sanchez, R. & Oria, J. 2006. Effect of human activities on the behaviour of breeding Spanish Imperial Eagle (Аquila adalberti): management implications for the conservation of a threatened species. – Animal Conservation 9(1): 85–93. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-1795.2005.00016.x10.1111/j.1469-1795.2005.00016.x Search in Google Scholar

Gonzalez, L. M., Bustamante, J. & Hiraldo, F. 1990. Factors influencing the present distribution of the Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila adalberti). – Biological Conservation 51(4): 311–319. DOI: 10.1016/0006-3207(90)90116-710.1016/0006-3207(90)90116-7 Search in Google Scholar

Gonzalez, L. M., Bustamante, J. & Hiraldo, F. 1992. Nesting habitat selection by the Spanish Imperial Eagles Aquila adalberti. – Biological Conservation 59(1): 45–50. DOI: 10.1016/0006-3207(92)90712-V10.1016/0006-3207(92)90712-V Search in Google Scholar

Grier, J. W. & Fyfe, R. W. 1987. Preventing research and management disturbance. – In: Pendleton, B. A. G., Millsap, B. A., Cline, K. W. & Bird, O. M. (eds.) Raptor Management Techniques Manual. – Scientific Technical Ser. No. 10, National Wildlife Federation, pp. 173–182. Search in Google Scholar

Grubb, T. G. Bowerman, W. W., Giesy, J. P. & Dawson, G. A. 1992. Responses of breeding Bald Eagles Haliaetus leucocephalus to human activities in northcentral Michigan. – Canadian Field-Naturalists 106(4): 443–453. Search in Google Scholar

Grubb, T. G. & King, R. M. 1991. Assessing human disturbance of breeding Bald Eagles with classification tree models. – Journal of Wildlife Management 55(3): 500–511. DOI: 10.2307/380898210.2307/3808982 Search in Google Scholar

Heath, M. F. & Evans, M. I. (eds.) 2000. Important Bird Areas in Europe: Priority Sites for Conservation. – BirdLife Conservation Series No. 8., BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK Search in Google Scholar

Holmes, T. L., Knight, R. L., Stegall, L. & Craig, G. R. 1993. Responses of wintering grassland raptors to human disturbance. – Wildlife Society Bulletin 21: 461–468. Search in Google Scholar

Horváth, M., Fehérvári, P., Szitta, T., Harnos, A., Kabai, P. & Moskát, Cs. 2009. Effects of infrastructural network on the distribution of Imperial Eagles in the Hungarian Plain. – In: Horváth, M. Habitat and prey selection in Imperial Eagles (Aquila heliaca). – PhD thesis chapter, Faculty of Science, Biological Institute, Eötvös Loránd University Search in Google Scholar

Jenny, D. 1992. Bruterfolg und Bestandsregulatione iner alpinen Population des Steinadlers Aquila chrysaetos [Breeding success and population regulation in the alpine population of the Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos]. – Der Ornithologische Beobachter 89: 1–43. (in German) Search in Google Scholar

Martínez-Abraín, A., Oro, D., Jiménez, D., Stewart, J. & Pullin, A. 2010. A systematic review of the effect of recreational activities on nesting birds of prey. – Basic and Applied Ecology 11(4): 312–319. DOI: 10.1016/j. baae.2009.12.011. Search in Google Scholar

McClure, Ch. J. W., Westrip, J. R. S., Johnson, J. A., Schulwitz, S. E., Virani, M. Z., Davies, R., Symes, A., Wheatley, H., Thorstrom, R., Amar, A., Buij, R., Jones, V. R., Williams, N. P., Buechley, E. R. & Butchart, S. H. M. 2018. State of the world’s raptors: Distributions, threats, and conservation recommendations. – Biological Conservation 227: 390–402. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2018.08.01210.1016/j.biocon.2018.08.012 Search in Google Scholar

McGarigal, K., Anthony, R. G. & Isaacs, F. B. 1991. Interactions of human and Bald Eagles on the Columbia Riverestuary. – Wildlife Monographs 115: 3–47. Search in Google Scholar

McGrady, M. 1997. Aquila chrysaetos Golden Eagle. – BWPUpdate 1: 99–114. Search in Google Scholar

Patev, P. 1950. Birds in Bulgaria. – BAS, Sofia (in Bulgarian) Search in Google Scholar

Pauli, B., Spaul, R. & Heath, J. 2016. Forecasting disturbance effects on wildlife: Tolerance does not mitigate effects of increased recreation on wildlands. – Animal Conservation 20(3): 251–260. DOI: 10.1111/acv.1230810.1111/acv.12308 Search in Google Scholar

Perona, A., Urios, V. & López-López, P. 2019. Holidays? Not for all. Eagles have larger home ranges on holidays as a consequence of human disturbance. – Biological Conservation 231: 59–66. DOI: 10.1016/j. biocon.2019.01.010 Search in Google Scholar

Richardson, C. T. & Miller, C. K. 1997. Recommendations for protecting raptors from human disturbance: a review. – Wildlife Society Bulletin 25: 634–638. Search in Google Scholar

Ruddock, M. & Whitfield, D. 2007. A review of disturbance distances in selected bird species. – A report from Natural Research (Projects) Ltd. to Scottish Natural Heritage Search in Google Scholar

Ruhlen, T. D., Abbott, S., Stenzel, L. E. & Page, G. W. 2003. Evidence that human disturbance reduces Snowy Plover chick survival. – Journal of Field Ornithology 74(3): 300–304. DOI: 10.1648/0273-8570-74.3.30010.1648/0273-8570-74.3.300 Search in Google Scholar

Stalmaster, M. V. & Newman, J. R. 1978. Behavioral responses of wintering Bald Eagles to human intrusion. – Journal of Wildlife Management 42(3): 506–513. DOI: 10.2307/380081110.2307/3800811 Search in Google Scholar

Statsoft 2011. STATISTICA (data analysis software system), version 10. – www.statsoft.com. Search in Google Scholar

Steidl, R. J. & Anthony, R. G. 1996. Responses of Bald Eagles to human activity during the summer in interior Alaska. – Ecological Applications 6(2): 482–491. DOI: 10.2307/226938510.2307/2269385 Search in Google Scholar

Swarthout, E. C. H. & Steidl, R. J. 2001. Flush responses of Mexican Spotted Owls to recreationists. – Journal of Wildlife Management 65(2): 312–317. DOI: 10.2307/380291010.2307/3802910 Search in Google Scholar

Verhulst, S., Oosterbeek, K. & Ens, B. J. 2001. Experimental evidence of effects of human disturbance on foraging and parental care in Oystercatchers. – Biological Conservation 101(3): 375–380. DOI: 10.1016/S0006-3207(01)00084-210.1016/S0006-3207(01)00084-2 Search in Google Scholar

Watson, J. 1994. Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos. – In: Tucker, G. M. & Heath, M. F. (eds.) Birds in Europe: Their Conservation Status. – BirdLife Conservation Series No 3., Cambridge, U.K., pp. 180–181. Search in Google Scholar

White, C. & Thurow, T. L. 1985. Reproduction of Ferruginous Hawks exposed to controlled disturbance. – Condor 87: 14–22.10.2307/1367125 Search in Google Scholar

Zuberogoitia, I., Zabala, J., Martínez, J. A., Martínez, J. E. & Azkona, A. 2008. Effect of human activities on Egyptian Vulture breeding success. – Animal Conservation 11(4): 313–320. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-1795.2008.00184.x.10.1111/j.1469-1795.2008.00184.x Search in Google Scholar

Zuberogoitia, I., Zabala-Albizua, J., Martínez, J., González-Oreja, J. & López-López, P. 2014. Effective conservation measures to mitigate the impact of human disturbances on the endangered Egyptian Vulture. – Animal Conservation 17(5): 410–418. DOI: 10.1111/acv.12107.10.1111/acv.12107 Search in Google Scholar

Artículos recomendados de Trend MD

Planifique su conferencia remota con Sciendo