1. bookVolumen 35 (2014): Edición s1 (August 2014)
Detalles de la revista
License
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2001-5119
Primera edición
01 Mar 2013
Calendario de la edición
2 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés
Acceso abierto

Norwegian Media and the Cold War 1945–1991

Publicado en línea: 13 Mar 2020
Volumen & Edición: Volumen 35 (2014) - Edición s1 (August 2014)
Páginas: 155 - 170
Detalles de la revista
License
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2001-5119
Primera edición
01 Mar 2013
Calendario de la edición
2 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés
Introduction

The period from 1945 until 1991 was decisive for the development of international mass communications – the rise of television being the most important example. These years were also marked by the Cold War between the East and West – the conflict between two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union. If we wish to understand the development of the mass media during this period, we also need to investigate the relations between the media and the Cold War. It seems obvious that the Cold War influenced media content for decades. However, perhaps a more interesting question is: To what degree did the media influence the Cold War?

Scholars have already related modern mass communications to earlier conflict periods of the 20th century, such as World War I, the years of mass society in the 1920s and 30s, and World War II. In fact, the period from the late 1800s until the late 1940s saw modern technology being utilized as mass communications as never before in world history: The press became a huge industry of news and opinions, Hollywood dominated film and cinema, while radio broadcasting quickly emerged as the third mass medium. All of them had the ability to reach millions of people and thus to influence public opinion. No one really understood the consequences of mass communications on such a huge scale.

If we continue this perspective into the postwar period, we quickly enter the era of the Cold War. It became the main international conflict dominating the world after 1945. Walter Lippmann introduced the term ‘Cold War’ in 1947 in reference to the dramatic East-West tensions that were escalating at the time between the United States and the Soviet Union in Europe. Later it has been used to refer to the entire East-West conflict, which, at varying levels of tensions, lasted until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.

During this period, the Cold War dominated international news and politics. It was a struggle between two superpowers and their ideologies – capitalism and communism – with many allies on both sides. Some of them were voluntary allies, others involuntary. The tension between them was sometimes extremely high – with consequences that affected the rest of the world. The most threatening possible consequence was a nuclear war, which could end the future of mankind.

Mass Communications and the Cold War: a Neglected Topic?

Let us start with a brief discussion of the general relation between the Cold War and the field of mass media research. A great many historians have specialized in Cold War research. Three historiographical schools have emerged: the traditionalists, the revisionists and the post-revisionists. The traditionalists blamed the Soviet Union for the origin of the conflict, while the revisionists took the opposite view and blamed the US. The post-revisionist school has not been interested in assigning blame, but more interested in explaining why the different actors acted as they did. The three different schools followed each other chronologically, but their viewpoints are present both in new literature and in historical television documentaries, etc. Even today, the debate continues in recent literature on the topic.

See for instance Gaddis 2005

The first point of interest is whether Cold War scholars have included the mass media in their works. The main impression is that experts have generally neglected the importance of the media.

LaFeber 1991, Gaddis 2005, Lundestad 2004, Lundestad 2010, Hahnimäki and Westad 2003, Leffler 2004, Tjelmeland 2006, Villaume and Westad (eds.) 2010, Loth 2010

What they do is to analyze the superpowers and their actions – concentrating on events, motives, strategies, causes and effects. In doing so, they seem to have underestimated the importance of communications: how the Cold War influenced the media and how the media presented and interpreted Cold War events for their audiences. For decades the most important international news items were related to Cold War events, in Norway as elsewhere. Ordinary people were dependent on the media to keep informed about world events. That was the situation during the whole period, from the late 1940s until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. But very little has been written about this in the Cold War literature. Thus, we can conclude that Cold War historians are not media scholars. In their publications, they are normally not interested in the importance of mass communications: the media are absent from their books. Cold War historians have little to say about the impact of the press, film, radio or television during the Cold War.

But this fact does not mean that media scholars have neglected the Cold War. We find many studies about the media during the Cold War – especially in the United States. These studies show how the media treated the Cold War.

Here are some examples: Aronson (1970/1990), MacDonald (1985), Short (1985); Nelson (1997), Barnard (1999), Cummings (2009) and (2010).

The Cold War is also dealt with in textbooks by, for example, Briggs and Burke (2002), Chapman (2005) and Kovarik (2011). Media historians have generally been more interested in the Cold War than Cold War historians have been interested in the media.

For German media see Bruner 1989, Hesse 1990, Hoff 1990 and Steinmetz 2004

We need to delve a bit deeper into the field of mass communication research in order to get a better understand of the complex relations between the Cold War and this kind of research. When Paul Lazarsfeld and others developed mass communication research in postwar America, it was at the same time as tensions increased between the US and the Soviet Union and the Cold War developed. Thus, the new warlike atmosphere between East and West also came to influence communication research. During the 1950s, the new field of mass communication research developed a deep interest in propaganda and public opinion through intensive studies of media effects.

See Klapper 1960

The motivation for many of these projects can only be understood in light of the Cold War confrontations that occurred between the two superpowers. Project Revere was one of them: In the early 1950s, scholars studied leaflets as a medium of last resort, looking at the degree to which leaflets could be used to reach the population of an enemy country (read: Eastern Europe), when all other possibilities where impossible. The US Air Force sponsored the project.

Lowery and DeFleur 1995: 213–237

Another example showing how the Cold War influenced the development of mass communication research is the 1956 book Four Theories of the Press, written by Siebert, Peterson and Schramm. The authors analyzed the media by dividing them into “authoritarian” and “liberal” systems. Another pair of concepts – “the social responsible” media theory and the “Soviet media theory” – developed the contrast between the media in West and the East even further: The Western media were characterized using sympathetic terms (”responsible”), while the Soviet media were characterized in a negative way, as totalitarian and controlled by the communist party and the state. There were many good reasons for these characterizations, but most important is how that book portrayed the East-West confrontation at the time. Four Theories of the Press became a classic cited text within the field of mass communication research on how we understand the role of the media in modern societies.

Siebert, Peterson and Schramm 1956, Hallin and Mancini 2004

Thus, there are many reasons to study the complicated relations between the Cold War and the media in a country. I have chosen the Norwegian media as an example in the following discussion. We begin with an overview of the media development in Norway at the time – as the first of three steps.

PART ONE: Norwegian Media History in the Cold War Era

From the standard text book on Norwegian media history, we can summarize the periods between 1945 and 1991 and their characterizations:

Periods from the Norwegian Media History in the Cold War Era 1945–1991

Years Name of period
1945–1950 The Age of the Mass SocietyThe party press and cinema. Radio broadcasting develops NRK 1933. Use of advertising and propaganda during crises and war.
1950–1960 The Media Turn VisualThe Post-War Age. Four big mass media: newspapers, weeklies, film and radio. Competition and popularization leading to market saturation. First experiments with television 1954–60.
1960–1980 The Norwegian Media System at its PeakThe rise of television as dominant mass medium. Competition between five big mass media: all of them adapt to television. State regulations on broadcasting and cinema theaters, state subsidies to books and the press. Dissolution of the party press.
1980–1991 Transformation of the Media SystemEnd of the party press. Breakthrough for market economy: liberalization, deregulation, privatization and commercialization. End of the NRK monopoly. New radio and TV channels: TV3 (1987), TVNorge (1988) and TV2 (1991).

Note: Based on Bastiansen and Dahl 2008: 526–527.

This table provides an overview of the 47 years of Norwegian media history that coincide with the Cold War. In this table, the periods lack international aspects, especially the Cold War. To include it, we need a basic overview of the Cold War chronology.

PART TWO: The Cold War

Even today, there is no agreement among scholars on how to make a periodization of the Cold War. It was so complex that it can be categorized in many different ways. This makes the situation complicated, but it also makes it easier to develop a simple and elementary overview of the Cold War that is adapted to our needs. In a simplistic manner, we may summarize the conflict as follows:

The Cold War Chronology 1945–1991

Years Period
1945–1962 Origin and Early Years of the Cold WarTension between the US and the USSR. Atomic weapons create fear of a nuclear Armageddon, but also thaw periods. The tensions reach climax with the Cuban crisis in 1962.
1963–1979 The Era of DétenteA long thaw period after the Cuban crisis. Negotiations for peace and disarmament: SALT I in Moscow 1972, the Helsinki Final Act of 1975 and SALT II negotiations. Vietnam War. The Period ends with the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the NATO Double Track Decision, December 1979.
1980–1985 New Confrontation between East and WestNew tension between the US and the Soviet Union. Western boycott of Olympic Games in Moscow 1980. President Reagan’s “Evil Empire” speech in 1983. A new peace movement and a strong movement against new generations of nuclear missiles.
1985–1988 The Era of GlasnostMichail Gorbachev and his policy of Glasnost, Perestroika and New Thinking. Glasnost reaches its climax with Gorbachev’s speech to the UN in 1988.
1989–1991 Revolts of the Masses and the Fall of CommunismEastern Europe moves from one-party communist regimes to multiparty democracies. The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, the unification of Germany in 1990 and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 end the Cold War.

This table shows the Cold War as two main conflict periods characterized by a high level of tension (1945–1962 and 1980–1985) and separated by a period of Detènte (1963–1979).

The years 1945–1962 contain the origin of the East-West conflict, even though the experts still discuss how and when it really started. Stalin ruled the Soviet Union while Truman was the US president. In 1946, Churchill, talked about the “Iron Curtain” dividing Europe. The so-called “long telegram” from George Kennan in 1946, defining for the first time the Soviet threat, led to the development of the US containment policy. The aim was to establish barriers for Soviet influence in Europe. In 1950, this US containment policy became global with the war in Korea (formulated in the so-called NSC-50 document).

The conflict escalated when both superpowers got the atomic bomb. It was also intensified by the Stalin blockade of Berlin and the Western airlift in 1948, the origin of NATO in 1949, the war in Korea in 1950, the revolt in the DDR in 1953, Nikita Krustchev’s way to power, the Hungarian crises in 1956, the Polish protests in 1956, the U2 crises in 1960 and the US Bay of Pigs invasion on Cuba in 1961. The conflict in Europe thus developed into a global conflict. However, Germany came to be of special importance. The allies divided Germany after WWII, including the capital Berlin. The Soviet zone became the Deutsche Democratische Republik (DDR), while the western zone became the Bundesrepublik Deutschland (BRD). In no other place was the Cold War more visible than on German soil, and especially in the divided Berlin – and even more so after the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961.

Taylor 2009

However, the most dangerous episode came with the Cuban Missile Crises in 1962. Then, the world truly feared a nuclear war.

Dodds 2011, Mohn 1962

After the Cuban crisis, the East-West conflict changed character; the years 1963–1979 became an era of détente. The superpowers tried to reduce the direct tension. They established a hot line between the White House and the Kremlin, in order to prevent a nuclear war being started inadvertently. Despite events like the Tet offensive in Vietnam and the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia, both in 1968, the lower level of tension was combined with negotiations on arms reduction and other issues between the superpowers; the SALT I treaty was signed in Moscow in 1972, while the Helsinki negotiations were underway. American astronauts and Soviet cosmonauts met in space, illustrating the more friendly East-West relationship. Nevertheless, the Cold War was still there, but developed more indirectly by proxies, in Vietnam and in other third-world countries like Angola, Somalia and Ethiopia. In such countries, various political actors were supported either by the the US or by the Soviet Union. The Détente period reached its climax with the signing of the Helsinki Final Act in 1975, but was weakened in the late 1970s and ended in 1979.

Thomas 2001, Knutsen 2012

The years 1980–1985 became a new era of confrontation between East and West. It started with the Soviet SS-20 nuclear missiles in the late 1970s. It escalated with the invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979, which was followed by a partly Western boycott of the Olympic Games in Moscow 1980. In addition, the Polish crises in 1980 and the Soviets shooting down a Korean Airliner (K007) in 1983 contributed to the general tension. President Reagan held his speech about the Soviet Union being an “evil empire” the same year. The NATO Double Track Decision of December 1979 linked deployment of new nuclear missiles in Western Europe to NATO negotiations on arms reduction with the Soviet Union. A new fear of nuclear weapons and nuclear war arose in Europe, motivating a large peace movement. The death of Leonid Brezhnev in 1982 was followed by the brief periods of Jurij Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko until 1985, without reductions in tension and confrontation.

Michail Gorbachev was appointed as new party leader in March 1985. The new Soviet leader soon started to change the signals sent to the West. Gorbachev and Reagan’s East-West summit in Geneva the same year was a success. Gorbachev developed many new policies: The “Glasnost” program in 1986 and the “Perestroika” program in 1987, including the “New Thinking” about the role of the USSR in the world.

See Gorbachev 1987, 1996 and 2013

Gorbachev and Reagan had important talks on arms reductions the following years. Gorbachev declared, in an important speech to the UN on December 7th 1988, a one-sided significant Soviet reduction of armed forces in Europe. This speech became the climax of these years.

See Gorbachev 2013: 490–501

The years 1989–1991 were dramatic. The period started with unrest in Eastern Europe that soon escalated to a popular revolt, which swept across the Eastern bloc. Demonstrators demanded the end of one-party rule by the communist party and the establishment of democratic multiparty systems. The result was stunning: In country after country, the power of the ruling communist elite collapsed. This made the year 1989 as historical as the French revolution of 1789. The most famous single event was the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9th 1989.

Meyer 2009

However, this was soon followed by other sensational events: the unification of the two German states in 1990 and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. As a whole, these events implied the end of the Cold War.

Gaddis 2005, Lundestad 2010, Hahnimäki and Westad 2003 and Tjelmeland 2006

PART THREE: Norwegian Media and the Cold War

We have now presented some traits of the Norwegian media development and the Cold War chronology between 1945 and 1991, but thus far we have treated them separately. Now, let us try to connect them. In order to do this, we need to make some adaptations and re-formulate the labels of the media history periods, but the names of the Cold War periods are the same as in the former table.

Table 3 links the Norwegian media development and the Cold War chronology for the whole period 1945–1991, identifying five main periods.

Norwegian Media and the Cold War 1945–1991

Years Norwegian Media: Cold War Chronology:
1945–1962 The party press, newsreels and the golden age of the NRK radio monopoly. Early TelevisionReconstruction of the party press and the NRK radio after WWII. The newsreel Filmavisen 1945. All media turn visual because of competition. The NRK television 1960 marks the beginning of the Age of Television. Filmavisen ends 1963. Origin and the Early years of the Cold WarTension between the USA and the USSR after WWII. The Churchill talk about the “Iron Curtain” in Europe 1946. The atomic bomb. Fear for nuclear war. The communist coup in Czechoslovakia 1948. Berlin blockade and western airlift 1948. The origin of NATO 1949: Norway became member. The revolt in DDR 1953. The Hungarian crises 1956. Some brief thaw periods. The U2 affair 1960. The Berlin Wall 1961. Tension reaches climax with the Cuban missile crisis in 1962.
1963–1979 The Norwegian Media System at its PeakThe Golden age of the NRK monopoly. Television as the dominant mass medium: all other media adapt. State regulations create the ‘Peak’ of the Norwegian media model. Coverage of the Vietnam war and of the national debate on membership in EEC in 1972. The liberal press starts the dissolution of the party press. Also, debate about the NRK monopoly. The Era of DétenteLower East-West tension after the Cuban crisis. A telephonic “hot line” between the White House and the Kremlin. Negotiations for peace and disarmament. SALT I in Moscow in 1972. The Helsinki Final Act of 1975. SALT II negotiations. Space race. US engagement in Vietnam escalates under Kennedy and Johnson and continues under Nixon, until the war ends in 1975. Conflicts in the third world show the East-West conflict indirectly. After the Soviet SS-20 nuclear missiles in Europe, the Soviet invasion in Afghanistan and the NATO Dual Track Decision, the Era of Détente ends December 1979.
1980–1985 The Transformation of the Media BeginsThe end of the NRK monopoly 1981. Liberalization, privatization and commercialization of media. New radio and TV channels established. Video and satellite TV. The dissolution of the party press reaches the conservative and agrarian press. New Confrontation between East and WestNew tension between the Soviet Union and the US. Soviet war in Afghanistan. Western boycott of Olympic Games in Moscow 1980. The Polish crisis in 1980 and the rise of Solidarity. The Soviets shooting down a Korean airliner 1983. President Reagan’s “Evil Empire” speech. The death of Brezhnev in 1982. Andropov and Csernenko as Soviet leaders until 1985. Widespread fear of nuclear war. Peace demonstrations and a strong movement against nuclear weapons in Europe.
1985–1988 The Transformation ContinuesMore newspapers declare independence from political parties. Orkla Media starts its expansion in the media sector. New TV Channels: TV3 (1987) and TVNorge (1988). Free market economy ideas transforms the media; investors and stockholders. The Era of GlasnostMichail Gorbachev and his policy of glasnost (1986), perestroika and new thinking (1987). Four summit meetings between Gorbachev and Reagan. Climax of his policy in 1988 with his speech to the UN General Assembly 7 December 1988.
1989–1991 The Last Days of the Party Press and the Rise of Commercial Media GroupsShaping of big media groups: Schibsted and the A Press as an answer to Orkla Media. End of the party press. TV2 established 1991, starts broadcasts 1992. Revolts of the Masses and the Fall of CommunismHungary opens the Iron Curtain. The Fall of the Berlin Wall 1989. Communist regimes fall in Eastern Europe. Change to multiparty democracies. Unification of East and West Germany in 1990. Collapse of Soviet Union in 1991. The end of the Cold War.
The First Period: 1945–1962

At the same time as the world saw the origin of the Cold War as a fundamental geo-political and ideological confrontation between the US and the USSR, the Norwegian newspapers re-established its role from the prewar years: as a party press. The press was divided into the Labour press, the Conservative press, the Liberal press, and the Agrarian press.

Bastiansen 2009

In the years after 1945, big newspapers like Aftenposten and Arbeiderbladet started to establish their own network of foreign correspondents covering world events. Simultaneously, the public service broadcaster NRK re-established its role as the national radio broadcaster of both national and international news reports.

The Cold War made a huge impact on the cinema screens from the late 1940s and into the 1950s.

Evensmo 1955. Leab 1988

The way Hollywood engaged in the East-West struggle soon became visible also in Norwegian cinema theaters. At the same time, a weekly newsreel was launched – Filmavisen (NorskFilmrevy). It presented current affairs in sound and picture to the movie audience. It was established in the first days after the liberation, in May 1945. It became so popular that the producers made it into a permanent attraction. In 1960, it met competition from the new NRK television. At the end of 1963, it was closed down because NRK television news had made it irrelevant. From then on, it became the task of the TV news broadcast “Dagsrevyen” to cover the world news with pictures.

Totland 1992, see also Bastiansen 1996

All of this had important consequences for how the media covered Cold War news: from the late 1940s, the East-West conflicts were presented only by the party press or by NRK radio. The communist coup in Czechoslovakia in 1948 frightened not only the Labour Government, but also the Labour press and the non-socialistic party press on the Center/Right. Thus, most of the party press supported the Norwegian NATO membership in 1949.

Eriksen 1972

The NRK also reflected the official policy, while Filmavisen had a very limited international coverage.

Dahl and Bastiansen 1999: 230ff, Jacobsen 1993, see also Meyer 2008, Skre 2010, Fonn 2011

The result was very limited scope for alternative views – in fact, these years have been called an “ice age” for freedom of expression on foreign policy in Norway.

Dahl and Bastiansen 2000: Chapter 7, p. 153–195

Several important Cold War news events were undoubtedly presented in such a context: the Soviet blockade of Berlin in 1948, the revolts in the DDR in 1953 and in Hungary in 1956, and the Berlin crisis in 1961. News reporting on such events was done by newspapers and broadcasting, with close connections to the political parties and the Labour Government of the time. The US war in Vietnam was supported by the conservative newspaper Aftenposten, while the liberal Dagbladet criticized it. The main Labour newspaper, Arbeiderbladet, changed its view from support to critique.

Melle 1973

After establishment of NRK television in 1960, the Cold War news soon began to fill the television news reports. Studies have shown that NRK’s TV coverage of the Cuban missile crisis in 1962 was a breakthrough for TV coverage of international Cold War events.

Totland 1992: 75–77

The Second Period: 1963–1979

Table 3 shows a remarkable parallel between the Détente period of the Cold War and how the Norwegian media system was reaching its highest lewel of public regulation and state subsidies at exactly the same time. The era of Détente meant a lower level of tension in the East-West conflict, negotiations about SALT I and II and the signing of the Helsinki Final Act of 1975. The US and the USSR were seeking to avoid direct confrontations, although there were several wars and conflicts by proxy in the third world, motivated by the same rivalry.

For Norwegian television coverage of the Vietnam war, see Bastiansen 1997

News about the Cold War events of this period was reported by Norwegian media at their peak as a national media system: the combination of the party press and the NRK radio and television monopoly and state subsidies for newspapers and film. Nevertheless, the party loyalty of the press was changing. The Liberal press soon disappeared after an intense debate and national referendum – concerning Norwegian membership in the EEC in 1972. It was the first group of the party press that disappeared. One of the main reasons was the competition from NRK television. In its coverage of party politics, the NRK had to be balanced and fair to both supporters and opponents of Norwegian EEC membership, while the party loyal newspapers were dominated by a partisan pro-EEC viewpoint. The Liberal press was being squeezed by both sides in the issue. Television expanded rapidly after 1960 and became the dominating mass medium, nationwide from 1967. In the late 1960s, the TV news made place names like Vietnam and Biafra known to everyone. Television also provided extensive coverage of the Tet offensive in Vietnam and the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 – as well as the Apollo moon landing in July 1969.

All this meant that the NRK became even more important than before. In the 1960s it also started to establish its own foreign correspondent offices abroad; the first came in London (1964), then New York (1965), Paris (1966), Bonn (1967), Moscow (1968), Washington (1970), Hong Kong (1970) etc. This network of correspondents was established along the East-West axis of the Cold War.

Bastiansen 1996:240–245

In the 1970s, new correspondents in the Third World (Africa, Asia and Latin America) modified it.

Nakken 2007

Because the NRK covered the whole nation with radio and television every day – and did it from a privileged monopoly situation – its coverage of world events provided important common experiences for the whole population. The biggest newspapers – like Aftenposten, Dagbladet and Arbeiderbladet –continued to use their own foreign correspondents in the coverage during these years.

This had important consequences: It meant that the news of the detènte period between East and West was presented by media in quite a different position than in the late 1940s and early 1950s – the party press had begun to disappear, while the position of the NRK as a combined radio and television monopoly was stronger than ever. The NRK correspondents produced many important programs interpreting international events, wrote books and participated in public debates. Several of them became national celebrities with high credibility.

See Johansen 1976 and 1977, and Steinfeld 1982, 1984 and 1986

The Norwegian media system, with a high degree of public regulations and state subsidies, was at its peak during the era of détente.

The Third Period: 1980–1985

The third period shows a striking co-existence between the new confrontation between East and West after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and NATO’s Double Track Decision in December 1979 and the beginning of a major transformation of Norwegian media. At the same time as the Western boycott of the Olympic Games in Moscow 1980, the Polish crises and the rise of the Solidarity Movement, the Norwegian party press was riddled by conflicts caused by reduced loyalty to the political parties: They occurred within the Labour press, the Conservative press and the Agrarian press in the early 1980s. They all wanted to end partisan political journalism.

The Conservative Government ended the NRK monopoly in 1981. That decision was part of the Government’s liberalization and privatization policy for radio and television, which paved the way for many new local and private radio and television stations and the new “media age” of the 1980s. At the same time, the media reported about the new confrontation between the superpowers. A new “Ice Age” in East-West relations followed the era of Détente in the early part of the 1980s. It was a paradox, because all the new media channels in Western countries like Norway meant more communication, more news and more media content, while the new confrontation between the two superpowers at exactly the same time also meant more tension, harder talk and less information available for the media.

Steinfeld 1982

The new confrontation also increased the fear of a nuclear Armageddon. Thus, the same mass media that covered the new East-West confrontation moved into a period marked by change: newspapers moved away from the party press tradition, while the NRK expanded into the new media age with a myriad of new local radio stations and new television channels like TV3 (1987) and TVNorge (1988).

The Fourth Period: 1985–1988

The transformation of Norwegian media continued into the second half of the 1980s, but now in quite a new era of East-West relations. Soon after the appointment of Gorbachev in 1985, the USSR sent new signals to the West through international news channels. This was part of the new Glasnost policy. The Russian word “glasnost” means “openness” – and was a keyword for the new Soviet leader. In 1986, the news showed a new kind of openness within the USSR: a new desire to discuss internal problems in public. In 1987, Gorbachev launched his “Perestroika” program.

Gorbachev 1987, Gorbachev 2013

These new signals soon changed the East-West relations and reduced some of the tensions of former years. It seemed as if a new era had begun.

For Norwegian media this happened while the party press tradition in the Labour press, the Conservative press and the Agrarian press was moving quickly to its end. The NRK also began to change, in order to meet the growing competition from videocassette recorders, satellite TV and the new television channels. The media were being liberalized, privatized and commercialized away from the “Norwegian system” of the 1960s and 1970s. Thus, media coverage of the Glasnost period coincided with a time of major structural changes within the Norwegian media sector. However, the Soviet media were also changing by allowing more open and critical discussions.

See Steinfeld 1986, Røssum 1990

However important this development was, there is very little Norwegian research on it. One exception is a study on reception of the television coverage of the summit between Reagan and Gorbachev in Moscow in 1988.

Østerud 1999

The Fifth Period: 1989–1991

The fifth period, 1989–1991, came, surprisingly, to mark the end of the Cold War. No one could have guessed, in advance, that mass demonstrations would manage to press the communist parties out of power in Eastern Europe. The myriad spectacular events taking place included the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, the unification of East and West Germany in 1990 and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. It was sensational news and covered by the mass media globally.

In Norway, these events were covered by media heavily influenced by the transformations of the late 1980s. From 1987, the national economic crisis contributed to declining advertisement income for newspapers. On the other hand, most of the press had now declared its editorial independence from the political parties. The Labour press ended its formal loyalty to the Labour Party in 1991 – as the last party press to do so. Three new big media groups came out of this process: Orkla Media, Schibsted and the A-Press. In addition, from 1989 the NRK started competing in a more active and aggressive way. Now, the aim of NRK was to survive on the new media market.

A new private TV2 began its broadcasts in September 1992. It came too late to provide contemporary journalistic coverage of the fall of communism in the East and the events that followed until the end of the Soviet Union in 1991. In TV2, the Cold War was history right from the start. The only thing this new channel could do was to give retrospective coverage of selected Cold War events – and that it did.

See Bastiansen 2011: 124–132

Although the coverage was massive, studies of how the media actually covered the last part of the Cold War and the fall of communism are still lacking.

Røssum 1990, Steinfeld 1990, 1991

Cold War reporting: Network or System?

This brief discussion shows that Norwegian media changed a great deal during the Cold War. The media that covered the Glasnost period and the fall of communism in the late 1980s were quite different from the media that covered the beginning of the conflict in the late 1940s. Any study of how the Norwegian media – the press, film or broadcasting – covered Cold War events must acknowledge these changes and incorporate them into the analysis. One important aspect is the importance of foreign news correspondents abroad.

Today, we have two models explaining the postwar growth of foreign correspondents covering world events during the Cold War. Maria Nakken developed the first one. She analyses the foreign correspondents of the NRK as a network of sites and persons reporting events back to Norway. How NRK did this was deeply influenced by the East-West axis during the Cold War: The correspondents were placed in New York and Washington, the capitals of Western Europe and in the Soviet capital, Moscow. Only later was this network modified with new sites in Africa, Asia and Latin America that reflected the North-South dimension and the third world.

Nakken 2007

Rolf Werenskjold developed the second model. He identified what he calls the Norwegian foreign news system – which includes the major national newspapers and the NRK. He has identified the establishment of the Norwegian postwar system of international news coverage (1945–1964), how and why it expanded (1965–1974), when it was in its zenith with the highest number of foreign correspondents (1975–1994) as well as its later decline (1995–2011).

Werenskjold 2011: 238ff

Interesting enough, he shows that the system was at its biggest in the later part of the Cold War, as measured by correspondent sites around the world, from 1975 until 1994. He especially identified Aftenposten as the leading Norwegian foreign news medium. In this last period, foreign news journalism in Norwegian media reached its climax of coverage, especially in the number of reports from Norwegian foreign correspondents

Conclusion: The relationship between Media and Events

In this article, we have studied the Norwegian media development between 1945 and 1991 (Table 1), the Cold War chronology (Table 2) and then we have connected the two (Table 3). The following discussion sums up, in a general way, how these two may be connected. This opens up a much broader discussion about what kind of influence there was between the Cold War and the media. The discussion has shown that during most of the Cold War history, the events themselves have been the non-dependent variables influencing media coverage. We can identify this influence in the world news, which created public interest and debate, but also in film and television. Without the Cold War, a huge range of topics would not have been in the media at all. Consequently, it is easy to conclude that the East-West conflict influenced the media content in a massive way – as many previous studies have shown. Future research will undoubtedly discover new examples of this from-events-to-the-media influence. Also for the Norwegian media, we need more content analyses in this area.

But is this the only form of influence between events and media? What about the other direction: Is there any possibility that the media could have influenced public opinions, policymakers and Cold War events? If such influences are found, they will increase the relevance of mass communication research in Cold War studies. So, what can media studies say about this?

Several Western radio stations penetrated the Iron Curtain in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union during the Cold War: Voice of America, BBC External Service, Radio Free Europe, Radio Liberty, Deutsche Welle, Deutschlandfunk, Radio in the American Sector (RIAS Berlin), etc. We have many evaluations of how important they were for listeners living under communist rule. Impulses from Western radio programs reached listeners with news and comments – even if they lived under communist control behind the Iron Curtain. These radio stations undermined the authority of the Communist party and inspired dissidents, at least in some parts of the population.

See Short 1986, Nelson 1997, Heil 2003

Some of the radio stations even conducted research on their actual audience behind the Iron Curtain.

See Short 1986: 227ff

For me, the most interesting example of this is the Glasnost era that began in 1985. After the dramatic years of confrontation 1980–1985, a new period in the East-West relationship started with Michail Gorbachev as the new Soviet leader. His idea of “Glasnost” was in fact a kind of implementation of Western ideas of openness and public debate – but within a nuclear superpower with a one-party state ruled by the mighty communist party. That was unique. The summit meetings between Gorbachev and Reagan showed improved relations between the US and the USSR. This created hope for a better future in the rest of the world.

However, the main point here is this: Glasnost was in fact a media experiment in the Soviet Union. Glasnost included a more lively public debate and a freer form of Soviet journalism. The media could even be oppositional and critical of communist leaders in the Kremlin. That was a radical new situation for the Soviet media – with its history as state controlled enterprises established by Lenin and Stalin. The aim of the Soviet media had always been to support the policies of the Communist Party. In the Soviet media system, there was no place for independent media working outside the control of the party. Thus, the Glasnost policy of Gorbachev was really a new phenomenon in Soviet society. In short: Glasnost made the Soviet media much more interesting than before, also for Western foreign correspondents.

See Steinfeld 1986, 1990, 1991 and Røssum 1990

So when the Soviet media entered the Glasnost period, it also influenced the reports and images sent by foreign news correspondents based in Soviet. Their news reports changed the public image of the USSR in Western media. The Glasnost policy – together with Perestroika and “New Thinking” – explains why dissidents in Eastern Europe began to look at the Soviet Union with optimism and continued their work against the communist elite – leading to the events of 1989. In fact, it is impossible to understand 1989 without understanding the era of Glasnost. It is also impossible to understand the Glasnost phenomenon without the media dimension. Thus, in Soviet society during these years, the direction of influence undoubtedly also went from the media to the events. Or more precisely, Gorbachev’s policy of Glasnost gave the Soviet media a new and more offensive role in the news and public debate. Then, the Soviet mass media began to influence the whole situation in their own society, but also in Eastern Europe, stimulating the situation that led to 1989.

Understood in this perspective, the Soviet media in the Glasnost era must be regarded as one of the contributing forces that led to the fall of communism in 1989. Thus, influence was not only moving from events to media, but also from media coverage to new news events. This means that we have a complicated situation marked by bidirectional influence. The media were not only passive mirrors, but – at least in some parts of this history – they also influenced events.

But what about the Norwegian media in this situation? Any conclusion on this must be tentative, because we need more research. Of course, their news coverage did not change Soviet society or the communist regimes in Eastern Europe. But their reporting of these years must have been deeply influenced by changes in Soviet media and how they discussed social problems in new ways. Thus, we can say that the Glasnost era in the Soviet media also changed foreign news journalism in Norwegian media – and thus the public image of the Soviet Union at the end of the 1980s. Explaining how this happened is still open for upcoming research.

Norwegian Media and the Cold War 1945–1991

Years Norwegian Media: Cold War Chronology:
1945–1962 The party press, newsreels and the golden age of the NRK radio monopoly. Early TelevisionReconstruction of the party press and the NRK radio after WWII. The newsreel Filmavisen 1945. All media turn visual because of competition. The NRK television 1960 marks the beginning of the Age of Television. Filmavisen ends 1963. Origin and the Early years of the Cold WarTension between the USA and the USSR after WWII. The Churchill talk about the “Iron Curtain” in Europe 1946. The atomic bomb. Fear for nuclear war. The communist coup in Czechoslovakia 1948. Berlin blockade and western airlift 1948. The origin of NATO 1949: Norway became member. The revolt in DDR 1953. The Hungarian crises 1956. Some brief thaw periods. The U2 affair 1960. The Berlin Wall 1961. Tension reaches climax with the Cuban missile crisis in 1962.
1963–1979 The Norwegian Media System at its PeakThe Golden age of the NRK monopoly. Television as the dominant mass medium: all other media adapt. State regulations create the ‘Peak’ of the Norwegian media model. Coverage of the Vietnam war and of the national debate on membership in EEC in 1972. The liberal press starts the dissolution of the party press. Also, debate about the NRK monopoly. The Era of DétenteLower East-West tension after the Cuban crisis. A telephonic “hot line” between the White House and the Kremlin. Negotiations for peace and disarmament. SALT I in Moscow in 1972. The Helsinki Final Act of 1975. SALT II negotiations. Space race. US engagement in Vietnam escalates under Kennedy and Johnson and continues under Nixon, until the war ends in 1975. Conflicts in the third world show the East-West conflict indirectly. After the Soviet SS-20 nuclear missiles in Europe, the Soviet invasion in Afghanistan and the NATO Dual Track Decision, the Era of Détente ends December 1979.
1980–1985 The Transformation of the Media BeginsThe end of the NRK monopoly 1981. Liberalization, privatization and commercialization of media. New radio and TV channels established. Video and satellite TV. The dissolution of the party press reaches the conservative and agrarian press. New Confrontation between East and WestNew tension between the Soviet Union and the US. Soviet war in Afghanistan. Western boycott of Olympic Games in Moscow 1980. The Polish crisis in 1980 and the rise of Solidarity. The Soviets shooting down a Korean airliner 1983. President Reagan’s “Evil Empire” speech. The death of Brezhnev in 1982. Andropov and Csernenko as Soviet leaders until 1985. Widespread fear of nuclear war. Peace demonstrations and a strong movement against nuclear weapons in Europe.
1985–1988 The Transformation ContinuesMore newspapers declare independence from political parties. Orkla Media starts its expansion in the media sector. New TV Channels: TV3 (1987) and TVNorge (1988). Free market economy ideas transforms the media; investors and stockholders. The Era of GlasnostMichail Gorbachev and his policy of glasnost (1986), perestroika and new thinking (1987). Four summit meetings between Gorbachev and Reagan. Climax of his policy in 1988 with his speech to the UN General Assembly 7 December 1988.
1989–1991 The Last Days of the Party Press and the Rise of Commercial Media GroupsShaping of big media groups: Schibsted and the A Press as an answer to Orkla Media. End of the party press. TV2 established 1991, starts broadcasts 1992. Revolts of the Masses and the Fall of CommunismHungary opens the Iron Curtain. The Fall of the Berlin Wall 1989. Communist regimes fall in Eastern Europe. Change to multiparty democracies. Unification of East and West Germany in 1990. Collapse of Soviet Union in 1991. The end of the Cold War.

Periods from the Norwegian Media History in the Cold War Era 1945–1991

Years Name of period
1945–1950 The Age of the Mass SocietyThe party press and cinema. Radio broadcasting develops NRK 1933. Use of advertising and propaganda during crises and war.
1950–1960 The Media Turn VisualThe Post-War Age. Four big mass media: newspapers, weeklies, film and radio. Competition and popularization leading to market saturation. First experiments with television 1954–60.
1960–1980 The Norwegian Media System at its PeakThe rise of television as dominant mass medium. Competition between five big mass media: all of them adapt to television. State regulations on broadcasting and cinema theaters, state subsidies to books and the press. Dissolution of the party press.
1980–1991 Transformation of the Media SystemEnd of the party press. Breakthrough for market economy: liberalization, deregulation, privatization and commercialization. End of the NRK monopoly. New radio and TV channels: TV3 (1987), TVNorge (1988) and TV2 (1991).

The Cold War Chronology 1945–1991

Years Period
1945–1962 Origin and Early Years of the Cold WarTension between the US and the USSR. Atomic weapons create fear of a nuclear Armageddon, but also thaw periods. The tensions reach climax with the Cuban crisis in 1962.
1963–1979 The Era of DétenteA long thaw period after the Cuban crisis. Negotiations for peace and disarmament: SALT I in Moscow 1972, the Helsinki Final Act of 1975 and SALT II negotiations. Vietnam War. The Period ends with the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the NATO Double Track Decision, December 1979.
1980–1985 New Confrontation between East and WestNew tension between the US and the Soviet Union. Western boycott of Olympic Games in Moscow 1980. President Reagan’s “Evil Empire” speech in 1983. A new peace movement and a strong movement against new generations of nuclear missiles.
1985–1988 The Era of GlasnostMichail Gorbachev and his policy of Glasnost, Perestroika and New Thinking. Glasnost reaches its climax with Gorbachev’s speech to the UN in 1988.
1989–1991 Revolts of the Masses and the Fall of CommunismEastern Europe moves from one-party communist regimes to multiparty democracies. The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, the unification of Germany in 1990 and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 end the Cold War.

Aronson, J. (1970/1990) The Press and the Cold War, Monthly Review Press, New York. AronsonJ. 1970/1990 The Press and the Cold War Monthly Review Press New York Search in Google Scholar

Barnard, N.E. (1999) US Television News and Cold War Propaganda 1947–1960, Cambridge University Press. BarnardN.E. 1999 US Television News and Cold War Propaganda 1947–1960 Cambridge University Press Search in Google Scholar

Bastiansen, H.G. (1996) Fra referat til reportasje. Dagsrevyen 1960–1969, KULTs skriftserie nr. 52, Norges Forskningsråd, Oslo BastiansenH.G. 1996 Fra referat til reportasje. Dagsrevyen 1960–1969 KULTs skriftserie nr. 52, Norges Forskningsråd Oslo Search in Google Scholar

Bastiansen, H.G. (1997) “Amerikanske bombefly av typen B-52…” Vietnam i norsk fjernsyn 1963–1975, IMK-report no. 30, University of Oslo. BastiansenH.G. 1997 “Amerikanske bombefly av typen B-52…” Vietnam i norsk fjernsyn 1963–1975 IMK-report no. 30, University of Oslo Search in Google Scholar

Bastiansen, H.G. and H.F. Dahl (2008) Norsk mediehistorie, 2. utgave, Universitetsforlaget, Oslo. BastiansenH.G. DahlH.F. 2008 Norsk mediehistorie 2. utgave Universitetsforlaget Oslo Search in Google Scholar

Bastiansen, H.G. (2008) “Media History and the Study of Media Systems”, in Media History, Volume 14, Number 1, April 2008, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group. BastiansenH.G. 2008 “Media History and the Study of Media Systems” in Media History Volume 14, Number 1, April 2008, Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group 10.1080/13688800701880432 Search in Google Scholar

Bastiansen, H.G. (2009) Lojaliteten som brast. Partipressen i Norge fra senit til fall 1945–2000, Pressehistoriske skrifter nr. 11. BastiansenH.G. 2009 Lojaliteten som brast. Partipressen i Norge fra senit til fall 1945–2000 Pressehistoriske skrifter nr. 11 Search in Google Scholar

Bastiansen, H.G. (2011) Vaktbikkjefjernsynet. Kritisk journalistikk og undersøkende dokumentar i norsk TV, IJ-forlaget, Oslo. BastiansenH.G. 2011 Vaktbikkjefjernsynet. Kritisk journalistikk og undersøkende dokumentar i norsk TV IJ-forlaget Oslo Search in Google Scholar

Bruner, M.S. (1989) “Symbolic uses of the Berlin Wall”, in Communication Quarterly, Vol. 37, No. 4, Fall. BrunerM.S. 1989 “Symbolic uses of the Berlin Wall” in Communication Quarterly 37 4 Fall 10.1080/01463378909385553 Search in Google Scholar

Briggs, A. and P. Burke (2002) A Social History of the Media, Polity Press. BriggsA. BurkeP. 2002 A Social History of the Media Polity Press Search in Google Scholar

Chapman, J. (2005) Comparative Media History. 1789 to the Present, Polity Press. ChapmanJ. 2005 Comparative Media History. 1789 to the Present Polity Press Search in Google Scholar

Cummings, R.H. (2009) Cold War Radio: The Dangerous History of American Broadcasting in Europe 1950–1989, McFarland & Company, Jefferson, North Carolina and London. CummingsR.H. 2009 Cold War Radio: The Dangerous History of American Broadcasting in Europe 1950–1989 McFarland & Company, Jefferson North Carolina and London Search in Google Scholar

Cummings, R.H. (2010) Radio Free Europe’s “Crusade for Freedom”. Rallying Americans Behind Cold War Broadcasting 1950–1960, McFarland & Company, Jefferson, North Carolina and London. CummingsR.H. 2010 Radio Free Europe’s “Crusade for Freedom”. Rallying Americans Behind Cold War Broadcasting 1950–1960 McFarland & Company, Jefferson North Carolina and London Search in Google Scholar

Dahl, H.F. and H.G. Bastiansen (1999) Over til Oslo. NRK som monopol 1945–1981, Cappelen, Oslo. DahlH.F. BastiansenH.G. 1999 Over til Oslo. NRK som monopol 1945–1981 Cappelen Oslo Search in Google Scholar

Dahl, H.F. and H.G. Bastiansen (2000) Hvor fritt et land? Sensur og meningstvang i Norge i det 20. århundre, Cappelen, Oslo. DahlH.F. BastiansenH.G. 2000 Hvor fritt et land? Sensur og meningstvang i Norge i det 20. århundre Cappelen Oslo Search in Google Scholar

Dobbs, M. (2011) I tolvte time. Kennedy, Khrusjtsjov og Castro på randen av atomkrig, Schibsted forlag, Oslo. DobbsM. 2011 I tolvte time. Kennedy, Khrusjtsjov og Castro på randen av atomkrig Schibsted forlag Oslo Search in Google Scholar

Eriksen, K.E. (1972) DNA og NATO. En redegjørelse for debatten og vedtakene i Det norske Arbeiderparti 1948–49, hovedoppgave i historie, Universitetet i Oslo. EriksenK.E. 1972 DNA og NATO. En redegjørelse for debatten og vedtakene i Det norske Arbeiderparti 1948–49 hovedoppgave i historie, Universitetet i Oslo Search in Google Scholar

Evensmo, S. (1955) Trollspeilet. Streiftog i film, Gyldendal Norsk Forlag, Oslo. EvensmoS. 1955 Trollspeilet. Streiftog i film Gyldendal Norsk Forlag Oslo Search in Google Scholar

Fonn, B.K. (2011) Orientering – rebellenes avis, Pax Forlag, Oslo. FonnB.K. 2011 Orientering – rebellenes avis Pax Forlag Oslo Search in Google Scholar

Gaddis, J.L. (2005) The Cold War. A New History, Penguin Press, New York. GaddisJ.L. 2005 The Cold War. A New History Penguin Press New York Search in Google Scholar

Gorbachev, M. (1987) Perestroika. Nytenkning for vårt land og verden, Hjemmet forlag, Oslo GorbachevM. 1987 Perestroika. Nytenkning for vårt land og verden Hjemmet forlag Oslo Search in Google Scholar

Gorbachev, M. (1996) Memoirs. GorbachevM. 1996 Memoirs Search in Google Scholar

Gorbachev, M. (2013) Min egen historie, Lindhardt og Ringhof, dansk utgave, København. GorbachevM. 2013 Min egen historie Lindhardt og Ringhof dansk utgave København Search in Google Scholar

Hallin, D.C. and P.M. (2004) Comparing Media Systems. Three Models of Media and Politics, Cambridge University Press. HallinD.C. M.P. 2004 Comparing Media Systems. Three Models of Media and Politics Cambridge University Press 10.1017/CBO9780511790867 Search in Google Scholar

Hanhimäki, J.M. and O.A. Westad (eds) (2003) The Cold War. A History in Documents and Eyewitness Accounts, Oxford University Press. HanhimäkiJ.M. WestadO.A. (eds) 2003 The Cold War. A History in Documents and Eyewitness Accounts Oxford University Press Search in Google Scholar

Hesse, K.R. (1990) “Cross-Border Mass Communication from West to East Germany”, in European Journal of Communication, Vol. 5. Sage, London. HesseK.R. 1990 “Cross-Border Mass Communication from West to East Germany” in European Journal of Communication 5 Sage London 10.1177/0267323190005002011 Search in Google Scholar

Hoff, P. (1990) “Continuity and Change”: Television in the GDR from Autumn 1989 to Summer 1990”, paper to the conference How do you see Germany” at the National Film Theatre organized by the British Film Institute, London. HoffP. 1990 “Continuity and Change”: Television in the GDR from Autumn 1989 to Summer 1990” paper to the conference How do you see Germany” at the National Film Theatre organized by the British Film Institute London 10.1177/026635549100900206 Search in Google Scholar

Jakobsen, J.Å. (1993) Norsk Filmrevy årgang 1949. En filmsosiologisk innholdsanalyse, Magisteravhandling i sosiologi, Universitetet i Oslo. JakobsenJ.Å. 1993 Norsk Filmrevy årgang 1949. En filmsosiologisk innholdsanalyse Magisteravhandling i sosiologi, Universitetet i Oslo Search in Google Scholar

Johansen, J.O. (1976) Hos oss i Moskva, Cappelen, Oslo. JohansenJ.O. 1976 Hos oss i Moskva Cappelen Oslo Search in Google Scholar

Johansen, J.O. (1977) Sovjet er ikke bare Moskva, Cappelen, Oslo. JohansenJ.O. 1977 Sovjet er ikke bare Moskva Cappelen Oslo Search in Google Scholar

Klapper, J.T. (1960) The Effects of Mass Communication, The Free Press, New York. KlapperJ.T. 1960 The Effects of Mass Communication The Free Press New York 10.1037/006189 Search in Google Scholar

Knutsen, K. (2012) The Norwegian Press and the Helsinki Summit of 1975, Faculty of Media and Journalism, Volda University College. KnutsenK. 2012 The Norwegian Press and the Helsinki Summit of 1975 Faculty of Media and Journalism, Volda University College Search in Google Scholar

Kovarik, B. (2011) Revolutions in Communication. Media History from Gutenberg to the Digital Age, Continuum Books, New York and London. KovarikB. 2011 Revolutions in Communication. Media History from Gutenberg to the Digital Age Continuum Books New York and London Search in Google Scholar

LaFeber, W. (1991) America, Russia and the Cold War 1945–1991, Sixth Edition, McGraw-Hill Inc. LaFeberW. 1991 America, Russia and the Cold War 1945–1991 Sixth Edition McGraw-Hill Inc Search in Google Scholar

Leab, D.J (1988) “The Iron Curtain” (1948): Hollywoods first Cold War movie”, in Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, Vol. 8, No. 2. LeabD.J 1988 “The Iron Curtain” (1948): Hollywoods first Cold War movie” in Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television 8 2 10.1080/01439688800260191 Search in Google Scholar

Leffler, M.P. (2004) “The Beginning and End: Time, Context and the Cold War”, in Olav Njølstad (ed.): The Last Decade of the Cold War. From Conflict Escalation to Conflict Transformation, Frank Cass, London. LefflerM.P. 2004 “The Beginning and End: Time, Context and the Cold War” in NjølstadOlav (ed.): The Last Decade of the Cold War. From Conflict Escalation to Conflict Transformation Frank Cass London Search in Google Scholar

Loth, W. (2010) “The Cold War. What it was about and why it ended”, in P. Villaume and O.A. Westad (eds.): Perforating the Iron Curtain: European Détente, Transatlantic Relations and the Cold War 1965–1985, Tusculanum Press, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. LothW. 2010 “The Cold War. What it was about and why it ended” in VillaumeP. WestadO.A. (eds.): Perforating the Iron Curtain: European Détente, Transatlantic Relations and the Cold War 1965–1985 Tusculanum Press, University of Copenhagen Copenhagen, Denmark Search in Google Scholar

Lowery, S.A. and Lelvin L. DeFleur (1995) Milestones in Mass Communication Research. Media Effects, Third Edition, Longman. LoweryS.A. DeFleurLelvin L. 1995 Milestones in Mass Communication Research. Media Effects Third Edition Longman Search in Google Scholar

Lundestad, G. (2004) “The European Role at the Beginning and Particularly the End of the Cold War”, in O. Njølstad (ed.) The Last Decade of the Cold War: From Conflict Escalation to Conflict Transformation, Frank Cass., London. LundestadG. 2004 “The European Role at the Beginning and Particularly the End of the Cold War” in NjølstadO. (ed.) The Last Decade of the Cold War: From Conflict Escalation to Conflict Transformation Frank Cass. London Search in Google Scholar

Lundestad, G. (2010) Øst, vest, nord, sør. Hovedlinjer i internasjonal politikk etter 1945, Universitetsforlaget, Oslo. LundestadG. 2010 Øst, vest, nord, sør. Hovedlinjer i internasjonal politikk etter 1945 Universitetsforlaget Oslo Search in Google Scholar

MacDonald, J.F. (1985) Television and the Red Menace: The Video Road to Vietnam, Praeger, New York. MacDonaldJ.F. 1985 Television and the Red Menace: The Video Road to Vietnam Praeger New York Search in Google Scholar

Melle, O. (1973) Frå kommunistisk aggresjon til nasjonal kamp: Vietnam-debatten i norsk politikk 1964–1968, Universitetet i Bergen. MelleO. 1973 Frå kommunistisk aggresjon til nasjonal kamp: Vietnam-debatten i norsk politikk 1964–1968 Universitetet i Bergen Search in Google Scholar

Meyer, M. (2009) Berlinmurens fall. 1989 – året som forandret verden, Versal Forlag, Oslo. MeyerM. 2009 Berlinmurens fall. 1989 – året som forandret verden Versal Forlag Oslo Search in Google Scholar

Meyer, S. (2008) “Så brøt stormen løs. Debatten om beredskapslovene i norsk presse høsten 1950”, i Pressehistoriske Skrifter nr. 10, Norsk Pressehistorisk Forening. MeyerS. 2008 “Så brøt stormen løs. Debatten om beredskapslovene i norsk presse høsten 1950” i Pressehistoriske Skrifter 10 Norsk Pressehistorisk Forening Search in Google Scholar

Mohn, A.H. (1962) Berlin, Oslo. MohnA.H. 1962 Berlin Oslo Search in Google Scholar

Nakken, M. (2007) Å bringe verden hjem. En analyse av NRKs utenrikskorrespondentnett 1964–2004, hovedoppgave i medievitenskap, Universitetet i Oslo. NakkenM. 2007 Å bringe verden hjem. En analyse av NRKs utenrikskorrespondentnett 1964–2004 hovedoppgave i medievitenskap, Universitetet i Oslo Search in Google Scholar

Nelson, M. (1997) War of the Black Heavens: The Battles of Western Broadcasting in the Cold War. NelsonM. 1997 War of the Black Heavens: The Battles of Western Broadcasting in the Cold War Search in Google Scholar

Nilsen, B. og F. Sjue (1998) Skjult dagsorden. Mediene og de hemmelige tjenestene, Universitetsforlaget, Oslo. NilsenB. SjueF. 1998 Skjult dagsorden. Mediene og de hemmelige tjenestene Universitetsforlaget Oslo Search in Google Scholar

Røssum, J. (1990) Den aust-europeiske revolusjonen, Samlaget, Oslo. RøssumJ. 1990 Den aust-europeiske revolusjonen Samlaget Oslo Search in Google Scholar

Short, K.R.M.: (1986) Western Broadcasting over the Iron Curtain, Croom Helm, London. ShortK.R.M. 1986 Western Broadcasting over the Iron Curtain Croom Helm London Search in Google Scholar

Siebert, F., T. Peterson and W. Schramm (1956) Four Theories of the Press, Urbana/Chicago/London, University of Illinois. SiebertF. PetersonT. SchrammW. 1956 Four Theories of the Press Urbana/Chicago/London University of Illinois Search in Google Scholar

Skre, A. (2010) “En kostbar og farlig tid”, Vestvendingen i norsk presse 1947–1949” i Pressehistorisk Tidsskrift nr. 14, Norsk Pressehistorisk Forening. SkreA. 2010 “En kostbar og farlig tid”, Vestvendingen i norsk presse 1947–1949” i Pressehistorisk Tidsskrift 14 Norsk Pressehistorisk Forening Search in Google Scholar

Steinfeld, H.W. (1982) Arven etter Bresjnev, Cappelen, Oslo. SteinfeldH.W. 1982 Arven etter Bresjnev Cappelen Oslo Search in Google Scholar

Steinfeld, H.W. (1984) Istid i Moskva, Cappelen, Oslo. SteinfeldH.W. 1984 Istid i Moskva Cappelen Oslo Search in Google Scholar

Steinfeld, H.W. (1986) Tøvær i øst, Cappelen, Oslo. SteinfeldH.W. 1986 Tøvær i øst Cappelen Oslo Search in Google Scholar

Steinfeld, H.W. (1990) Nærbilder av et politisk jordskjelv, Cappelen, Oslo. SteinfeldH.W. 1990 Nærbilder av et politisk jordskjelv Cappelen Oslo Search in Google Scholar

Steinfeld, H.W. (1991) Tilbake til Europa, Cappelen, Oslo. SteinfeldH.W. 1991 Tilbake til Europa Cappelen Oslo Search in Google Scholar

Steinmetz, R. (2004) “The Opening of the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989, and East-West Television Cooperation”, in Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television, Vol. 24, No.3. SteinmetzR. 2004 “The Opening of the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989, and East-West Television Cooperation” in Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television 24 3 10.1080/0143968042000277656 Search in Google Scholar

Taylor, F. (2009) Berlinmuren. 13. august 1961 – 9. november 1989, Cappelen Damm, Oslo. TaylorF. 2009 Berlinmuren. 13. august 1961 – 9. november 1989 Cappelen Damm Oslo Search in Google Scholar

Thomas, D.C. (2001) The Helsinki Effect. International Norms, Human Rights and the Demise of Communism, Princeton University Press. ThomasD.C. 2001 The Helsinki Effect. International Norms, Human Rights and the Demise of Communism Princeton University Press 10.1515/9780691187228 Search in Google Scholar

Tjelmeland, H. (2006) Den kalde krigen, Samlaget, Oslo. TjelmelandH. 2006 Den kalde krigen Samlaget Oslo Search in Google Scholar

Totland, G. (1992) Fra filmavis til dagsrevy, hovedoppgaveimedievitenskap, Universitetet i Oslo. TotlandG. 1992 Fra filmavis til dagsrevy hovedoppgaveimedievitenskap, Universitetet i Oslo Search in Google Scholar

Villaume, P. and O.A. Westad (eds.) (2010) Perforating the Iron Curtain. European Detènte, Transatlantic Relations and the Cold War 1965–1986, Tusculanum Press, Copenhagen. VillaumeP. WestadO.A. (eds.) 2010 Perforating the Iron Curtain. European Detènte, Transatlantic Relations and the Cold War 1965–1986 Tusculanum Press Copenhagen Search in Google Scholar

Werenskjold, R. (2011) That’s the Way it is? Medienes rolle i proteståret 1968, PhD Dissertation, University of Oslo. WerenskjoldR. 2011 That’s the Way it is? Medienes rolle i proteståret 1968 PhD Dissertation, University of Oslo Search in Google Scholar

Østerud, S. (1999) “Toward a Pragmatic Understanding of Television Reception: Norwegian Coverage of the Summit Meeting between Reagan and Gorbachev in Moscow. (1988), in M.S. Mander: Framing Friction. Urbana, Chicago, University of Illinois Press. ØsterudS. 1999 “Toward a Pragmatic Understanding of Television Reception: Norwegian Coverage of the Summit Meeting between Reagan and Gorbachev in Moscow. (1988) in ManderM.S. Framing Friction Urbana, Chicago University of Illinois Press Search in Google Scholar

Artículos recomendados de Trend MD

Planifique su conferencia remota con Sciendo